Significant Events of the 19th Century
The collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese,
Holy Roman and Mughal empires. Liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in technological advances of the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution began in Europe. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines.
World events (cont.)
Advances in medicine and the understanding of
human anatomy and disease thus, accelerating population growth in the western world. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world and banning slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade. Britain abolished slavery in 1834, America’s 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888.
A period of radical social and political upheaval in France where the absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. The Storming of the Bastille and the subsequent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the catalyst of the
French Revolution. As a result, A republic was proclaimed in September 1792 and King Louis XVI was executed the next year.
The Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. He was the only king of France ever to be executed.
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
1804–1814 The First French Empire by Napoléon Bonaparte. It brought order to France after the French Revolution. His reign ushered Europe the Napoleonic Wars. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe, but collapsed rapidly after France’s disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century.
Napoleon Bonaparte Le Petit Corporal
Battle of Austerlitz also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, as one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s greatest victories, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire.
French Failed Invasion of Russia December 1812
Napoleon’s Retreat from Moscow December 1812 Out of an original force of 500,000– 600,000, only 40,000 frost-bitten and half starved survivors stumbled back into France.
Battle of Waterloo 18 June 1815 The defeat at Waterloo put an end to Napoleon’s rule as the French emperor, and marked the end of Napoleon’s Hundred Days of return from exile.
The Rise of the Pax Britannica
Britain’s Imperial Century
It lasted from 1815 to 1914
Around 10,000,000 square miles
(25,899,881 km2) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire.
The British Empire
Battle of Trafalgar October 1805 The battle was the most decisive British naval victory of the war.
Nelson was shot on the quarterdeck. He died three hours later. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. He commanded the allied army which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo during the Hundred Days in 1815.
Latin-American War of Independence
Lasted from 18th and early 19th centuries.
Haiti became the first colony to rebel against
France and became independent in 1804. Soon after, Mexico, Brazil and the rest of South America gradually gained their independence. This weakened Spain and Portugal as they are depended with their Latin American colonies for raw materials.
This map shows the time
period of the different war of independence in South America beginning with Haiti.
Battle of Carabobo Venezuela
Battle of San Domingo Haiti
Independence of Brazil 1822 Battle of Boyaca Colombia
Simon Bolivar Peru Central South America
Bernardo O’Higgins Chile
Jose de San Martin Argentina
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Mexico El Grito de Dolores
François-Dominique Toussaint L’ouverture Haiti
Also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, were the
climax of trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire after China sought to restrict British opium traffickers. First Opium War – 1839-1842 Second Opium War – 1856-1860
China was defeated
in both wars leaving its government having to tolerate the opium trade.
Britain forced the Chinese
government into signing the Treaty of Nanjing and the Treaty of Tianjin, also known as the Unequal Treaties. Included provisions for the opening of additional ports to unrestricted foreign trade, for fixed tariffs; for the recognition of both countries as equal in correspondence. Secession of Hong Kong to Britain.
American Civil War
Was a civil war in the United States of America from 1861 to
1865. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). The main cause of this civil war was on the issue of slavery. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that freed of 3.1 million of the nation’s 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced in Confederate territories.
South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Virginia Arkansas Tennessee North Carolina
First Flag of the Confederate States of America Stars and Bars
Great Seal of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States of America
Battle of Fort Sumter April 12–13, 1861 This event triggered the American Civil War
Fort Sumter Flag Diamond-shaped star formation
Battle of Gettysburg July 1–3, 1863 A Major Victory of the United States against the Confederacy
Age of Enlightenment
The era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific and
cultural life, centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was
advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals, and a strong belief in rationality and science. The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. This view argues that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance, and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means.
A period when new ideas in physics, astronomy,
biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting from Ancient Greece to the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science. The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. New discoveries and inventions were established during this period such as the Spinning Jenny, Cotton gin, and steam power led to the Industrial Revolution.
progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.
The new century opens with Romanticism, a
movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism.
Writers of the
Alexandre Dumas, pere –
The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers Charles Dickens – Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, A Christmas Carol Victor Hugo – Les Miserables, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame Hans Christian Andersen – The Little Mermaid, Thumbelina, The Ugly Duckling
Wolfgang von Goethe – Faust Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin Émile Zola – J’accuse Arthur Conan Doyle – Sherlock Holmes Bram Stoker – Dracula
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Alexandre Dumas, pere
Arthur Conan Doyle
Hans Christian Andersen
Significant Events in Spain during the 19th Century
The Peninsular War was an opportunity for the
Spanish colonies to declare independence from Spain. Spain lost all her colonies in Latin America except Cuba and Puerto Rico. Florida was sold to the United States. The Cadiz Constitution was a defining moment of liberalism in Spain. This will also give way to tensions between the Conservatives and Liberals. The situation in Spain grow worse due to the Carlist Wars.
Was a contest between France and the allied
powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. Rey Carlos IV, along with his prime minister Manuel de Godoy, kept on switching sides during the Peninsular War resulting from his abdication in favor of his son, future Rey Fernando VII.
Peninsular Wars (cont.)
After Spain’s surrender in 1808, Napoleon installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. Joseph never had full control of Spain due to the little wars (guerilla). Juan Martín Díez was among the leading guerilla. He was named El Empecinado (The
Undaunted). In 1814, Rey Fernando VII returned to Spain and restored the Bourbon rule in Spain.
The Second of May 1808 (The Charge of the Mamelukes) Francisco Goya
Rey Carlos IV De Jure King of Spain
Joseph Bonaparte De Facto King of Spain
Juan Martín Díez El Empecinado (The Undaunted)
Manuel de Godoy Príncipe de la Paz Carlos IV’s Prime Minister
Rey Fernando VII King of Spain upon Restoration
Spanish Constitution of 1812
Also known as Cadiz Constitution, was made by
the Liberals of Spain during the Peninsular War. Liberal deputies were in the majority, and they wanted: Equality before the law A centralized government An efficient modern civil service A reform of the tax system The replacement of feudal privileges by freedom of contract The recognition of the property owner’s right to use his property as he saw fit.
Cadiz Constitution (cont.)
The Cortes of Cádiz worked feverishly, and the first written
Spanish constitution was promulgated in the city of Cádiz on March 12, 1812. The Constitution of 1812 is regarded as the first example of classic liberalism in Spain, and one of the first worldwide. During the early nineteenth century it served as a model for liberal constitutions of several Mediterranean and Latin American nations. Rey Fernando VII promised support on the new constitution. But he later repealed it, backed by Conservatives and the Roman Catholic Church, citing that the constitution made by a Cortes assembled in his absence and without his consent.
In 1819, Spain was forced to sell Florida to the United States
for 5 million dollars.
From 1833 to 1876. This splintered the country into two factions known as the Cristinos (or Isabelinos) and the
Carlists. The Cristinos were the supporters of the Queen Regent, Isabella II and her government. The Carlists were the supporters of Carlos V, a pretender to the throne and brother of the deceased Ferdinand VII.
Reina Isabella II Daugther of Fernando VII
Infante Carlos, Conde de Molina Brother of Fernando VII
The Rise of the Ilustrado Class
They are from the middle class
society. They were the children of wealthy landowners. They were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals. They were composed of nativeborn intellectuals and cut across ethno-linguistic and racial line. They sought reform through “a more equitable arrangement of both political and economic power” under Spanish tutelage.
Rapid Decline of Spanish Rule in the Philippines
Church power was at a decline in Europe and friars
began pouring more to the Philippines. This proved to be problematic as friars gained more power. More peninsulares began pouring into the colony and began occupying the various government positions traditionally held by the criollo or insulares. The criollo or insulares, now almost disenfranchised from power, demanded representation in the Spanish Cortes where they could express their grievances.