Truth and validity are two different concepts which should not be confused, although they are usually taken as synonyms in common language. In logic, it is said that the argument is valid when the conclusion follows deductively from the premises. While of the premises and the conclusion is that they are true or false, the arguments are said to be valid or invalid. The validity or invalidity of the argument does not depend on its conclusion to be true. According to Moss (2007) “Understanding Truth aims to illuminate the notion of truth, and the role it plays in our ordinary thought, as well as in our logical, philosophical, and scientific theories. The argument is valid, when you have consistency and sense. It has coherence because the premises do not contradict each other and correspond to the conclusion” (para.12). Therefore, we must distinguish between the concept of truth and validity. Truth is something that is preached propositions or statements. Validity is predicated of the arguments. Truth makes reference to the content, and the validity to the shape or structure of the arguments.
This reading will address three scenarios in which it will evaluate each argument, using the 4-step process regarding truth and validity. The first scenario is “Power must be evil because it can corrupt people.” The first thing this paper will address is if the argument is stated fully and in a clear way. The statement has a hidden premise. The premise expressed of the statement can be view as Power is evil because it creates corruption. Therefore must powerful people are corrupt. The statement has errors affecting truth. From the statement we know that the statement is overgeneralizing its context because it is taking a valid point and it is extending it beyond the limits of reasonableness. Sometimes this statement can be true but we can’t assume all powerful people are evil. The fact that power corrupts all people is a negative statement.
All throughout history there has been many of people that had power that were not evil. For Example, Nelson Mandela was a very powerful man in South Africa. According to Vallely (2003) “His life was an inspiration not just in South Africa but throughout the world, to all who are oppressed and deprived, and to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation. He was a model of faith, hope and charity” (para.11). In the other hand, there has been people corrupted that had power. For Example, Adolf Hitler and Napoleon were very powerful and corrupt individuals. According to Napoleon and Hitler (2010) “Both were heartless and cavalier about the lives of their men (Napoleon: “A man like me cares little about losing the lives of a million men”; Hitler: “I can send the flower of German youth into the hell of war without the slightest pity”).
As for their legacies, Seward states that Napoleon “began the irreversible destruction of the old hierarchical, Christian Europe and the Fuhrer completed it” (para.12). According Kivisto (2013) “Evil is an entity, person, place or thing that does not deserve compromise or negotiation. It must be destroyed. Dictionary. Reference.com describes it as “the force in nature that governs and gives rise to wickedness and sin” (para.2) Also, not all corrupt people are evil. Mexico, for example, is full of corrupt leaders, but in the other hand, there are not evil. Another corrupt organization is the Federation International of Football Association, known as FIFA, but is not evil. How corrupt you have to be to be consider “Evil”. There are people who are corrupt, but are not in any way evil. In conclusion, it is found that this argument is so flawed that the only thing to do is to throw it out and embrace a different argument. It is found that power if used right can do so much good, and if power is in the wrong hands it can do enormous harm.
The second scenario talks about “The credit card habit promotes careless spending, particularly among young people. Therefore, credit card companies should not be permitted to issue credit cards to anyone under age 21. This reading will evaluate truth and validity and also it will talk about the four step process in evaluating an argument. Not all young people are careless spenders. The statement “The credit card habit promotes careless spending, particularly among young people. Therefore, credit card companies should not be permitted to issue credit cards to anyone under age 21. Is not truth as it is written. From past experiences people came to the conclusion that in fact people under the age of 21 get into a lot of debt from credit cards, but not all the debt is form credit cards. Also, there is a lot of people that have credit card debt and over 21.
This reading notice that this argument is overgeneralizing its context. This statement could be truth at times. According to Herman (2008) “Credit card companies have been pursuing teenagers and designing credit cards so they can ‘learn’ about the credit system,” says Gary Herman, President of Consolidated Credit. “And although most teenagers don’t fully understand the repercussions of using a credit card and the impact it can have on their future financial situations, more teens are working and are spending their own money. Credit card companies believe they have hit the jackpot” (para.3). In the other hand, there have been many people who are filled with credit card debt and are over the age of 21. In the following step checking for validity errors, it is found that this statement is somewhat valid. Credit card companies don’t promote careless spending. It is the parent’s responsibilities to teach their kids of proper ways to manage their finances.
The argument talks about credit cards are promoting careless spending in which is true, but there is a lot of people under the age of 21 who are responsible for owning a credit card. Not all young people under 21 are careless spenders. The final step is to validate errors, if found; the reading will revise the argument to eliminate them. The credit card habit promotes careless spending, particularly among young people. Therefore, credit card companies should run credit checks on all people applying for one. The third scenario talks about “Low grades on a college transcript are a handicap in the job market, so teachers who grade harshly are doing students a disservice. To make the expression complete, the reading will identify the premises that are hidden in this argument. Companies take into consideration a lot of factors when it comes to hiring personal, and one of those is how well they did in school to include grades.
Employers want productive employees and ones that perform well. If an applicant with good grades apply for a position and another one with bad grades apply nine out of ten the one with the good grades will get the job. Teacher’s main job is to teach coach and mentor them towards their entrance in the job market and to make sure they meet all the requirements of a desired profession. Teachers who grade harshly are doing disserve to students by many different ways. Teachers may deduct points because of lack of participation or attendance, which it doesn’t means he is a bad student but in the other hand he might have job that intervenes with him being on time. This statement contains an element of truth, yet it is not accurate. According to Belkin (2003) “The test, called the Collegiate Learning Assessment, “provides an objective, benchmarked report card for critical thinking skills,” said David Pate, dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at St. John Fisher College, a small liberal-arts school near Rochester, N.Y. “The students will be able to use it to go out and market themselves.”
The test is part of a movement to find new ways to assess the skills of graduates. Employers say grades can be misleading and that they have grown skeptical of college credentials”. (para.3). In the other hand according to McNicol (1999) “In the independent performance survey of the 25 colleges, Georgian had “impressive results,” including above-average scores for graduate placement and satisfaction, Georgian officials said. The survey was conducted as part of the accountability initiatives spearheaded by the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training. Called the key performance indicators (KPI) project, it found 90 per cent of 600 Georgian College grads surveyed found work within six months of graduation, slightly higher than the system- wide 89 per cent” (pg.2). In the final step, it will revise the argument to eliminate errors.
The statement “Low grades on a college transcript are a handicap in the job market, so teachers who grade harshly are doing students a disservice” has errors. Not all companies look into college transcripts before they hired a future employee they are several other facts that come in play before the hiring process, for example past experiences, work history, military experience, resume, etc. In conclusion, validity is a property of forms or structures of deductive arguments. It does not mean that their proposals are always true. An invalid form means that even if the premises are true, the conclusion is not necessarily true. Therefore, there are deductive arguments that may be valid, but not true, and, therefore, not solid.
Moss, P. A. (2007). Reconstructing validity. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 470-476. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/216903729?accountid=458 Vallely, P. (2013, Dec 07). Nelson Mandela. The Independent Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1465444822?accountid=458 NAPOLEON AND
HITLER. (2010). Kirkus Reviews, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/915700909?accountid=458 Kivisto, P. (2013). Evil. Choice, 50(5), 976. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1312183109?accountid=458 Herman, G. (2008). Teenagers & credit cards. Retrieved from www.consalidatedcredit.org: http://www.consolidatedcredit.org/credit-card-debt/teenagers-and-cards/#back Belkin, D. (2013, Aug 25). Are you ready for the post-college SAT?; employers say they don’t trust grade-point averages. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1427661410?accountid=458 McNichol, P. (1999, Mar 11). Good grades for georgian: Most grads, employers happy with college courses. Sun Times Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/349164482?accountid=458
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