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Evaluating the Research Process Essay

Literature Review

The following paper will address the research process using the article Assessing Pregnancy Intention and Associated Risks in Pregnant Adolescents. The research process consists of nine parts that include; selecting a problem, formulating a hypothesis, reviewing the literature, listing the measures, describing the subjects, constructing a design, constructing and identifying measurement devices, analysis of the data, and generating conclusions (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). The literature review shows that adolescent pregnancy is a multifaceted problem. Adolescent pregnancy has risk factors that must be taken into account.

Ethics

Some of these risk factors would be the ethical considerations. The Nuremberg Code which was established in 1947 tried to provide regulations. These regulations were to prevent any more atrocities in human research (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). One of the ethical considerations would be informed consent. Informed consent came about after the Nuremberg Code. Informed consent is about telling the subject about the details of the research, any risks or benefits that could come about (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010) Ethical considerations must be taken into consideration when performing tests on human subjects. If anything is not disclosed in the informed consent, it would leave the researchers vulnerable to a lawsuit as well as invalidating the research study. In the article, Assessing Pregnancy Intention and Associated Risks in Pregnant Adolescents, informed consent was followed. “Informed consent was obtained from the participant and if the participant was younger than 18 years old, consent was obtained from her guardian with assent of the minor (participant)” (Phipps & Nunes, 2012). The researchers found the subjects during their first prenatal care appointment to the “Women and Infants Hospital Women’s Primary Care Center, Providence, RI between March 2002 and February 2005” (Phipps & Nunes, 2012).

Steps were taken to ensure that the participants would be considered adolescents even after their babies were born and that they would understand what was expected of them. The research study was conducted by using research assistants that interviewed the participants. They were questioned about their “demographic characteristics, life plans, social supports, peer and family relationships, financial support, behavioral risks, and medical history” (Phipps & Nunes, 2012). In example, research surveys “included validated questions where available and where not available content-relevant questions were assessed for face validity. The surveys underwent a process of review and revision that included both clinical experts and age-relevant volunteers” (). In the survey, subjects were asked about pregnancy planning, so that the assistants could assess the subjects’ level of agreement with statements. The statements were coded to assess for risk factors. The statements ranged from trying to getting pregnant and best age to get pregnant as well as overall feelings about pregnancy (Phipps & Nunes, 2012).

Statistical Analysis

All of the information that was gathered by the research assistants from the participants is used in the statistical analysis to determine the significance level. “The significance level of a statistical hypothesis test is a fixed probability of wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis, if it is in fact true. The significance level is typically set at five percent” (“The Statistics Glossary”, n.d.). So anything higher than five percent would be considered statistically insignificant. The researchers “did observe significant associations between our pregnancy intention metrics and known risk factors for poor outcomes” (Phipps & Nunes, 2012). There were two dimensions of pregnancy intention that the researchers assessed. The two significant dimensions were emotional readiness and planning. Emotional readiness was more “strongly associated with risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Pregnant teens identified as not emotionally ready were at increased risk for delayed prenatal care, inadequate prenatal care utilization, delayed use of prenatal vitamins, recent smoking, recent drinking, recent drug use and depression” (Phipps & Nunes, 2012). The findings in the research study article is statistically significant. The study showed that emotional readiness and planning are critical for having a healthy pregnancy. Before this study came out, researchers thought that being emotionally ready was not nearly as important to pregnancy as proper health care. However, if one is not emotionally ready it can affect getting proper health care.

Research Conclusions

The conclusion to this study determined that emotional readiness and planning are the main risk factors for adolescent pregnancy that has adverse outcome. This study tests the thought that emotional readiness and planning are the two most important factors against family type as the most important risk factor. If the study was looking into preventing adolescent pregnancy, then family type is the most important risk factor. Emotional readiness and planning are important so that one will have a healthy pregnancy. The results to this study are appropriate. There is enough information to determine that the article was indeed effective. The statistics provided in this study were quantitative in nature. The data was collected in an ethical manner. This can be determined by the appropriate exclusion criteria. The article further indicates that previous research was conducted on the topic adolescent pregnancy. This research enabled the creation of a scoring method to identify adolescents that are at risk for pregnancy. The results to this study are very appropriate and there is enough information to determine that the article was indeed effective.

The statistics provided in this study were clearly listed and defined. The data was ethically collected and appropriate exclusion criteria were indicated to avoid producing biased results. The article further indicates that previous research was conducted on the topic of adolescent pregnancy. This research enabled the creation of a scoring method to identify those at risk of adolescent pregnancy. The article, Assessing pregnancy intention and associated risks in pregnant adolescents, looks into risk factors for adolescents becoming pregnant and having a health pregnancy. The article uses the research process to come to the conclusions that family type, emotional readiness and planning are all important. Family type is statistically important because it states that an adolescent is more at risk for pregnancy if they come from a less than ideal home. Emotional readiness and planning is statistically important because they can affect pregnancy outcome. These conclusions are the same conclusions that the researchers came to in their article.

References
Neutens, J. J., & Rubinson, L. (2010). Research techniques for the health sciences (4th Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Phipps, M. G., & Nunes, A. P. (2012). Assessing pregnancy intention and associated risks in pregnant adolescents. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(9), 1820-7. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-011-0928-0 The Statistics Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/glossary/


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