Immigration, annexation, and colonialism are processes that may create subordinate groups. Other processes such as extermination and expulsion may remove the presence of a subordinate group. Significant for racial and ethnic oppression in the United States today is the distinction between assimilation and pluralism. Assimilation demands subordinate-group conformity to the dominant group, and pluralism implies mutual respect among diverse groups. The definition of ethnicity people value differently for each of the primary and secondary factors Primary whether it be Race, Nationality, Language, Religion, Perceived Ethnic Identity.
Secondary whether it be Social status, residential concentrations, age, gender and caste. The processes which create and maintain ethnic diversity are such as Colonisation, annexation and international migration showing the role of those processes that create ethnic diversity in one country. The problems that come with the processes is ethnic diversity whether it be Segregation, pluralism, multiculturalism and discrimination that also shows the economic, social and spatial outcomes of ethnic diversity’ showing the role of these processes and their outcomes for one ethnically diverse city.
The problem with Britain is that has been colonised over the centuries by various groups from Romans (introducing the catholic religion as a new ethnicity) the introduction of one of the first colonial powers to rule the British empire. The British isles came together as a political unit through annexation over a number of centuries culminating in Ireland. First wave of Immigrants was in the mid nineteenth century when thousands of Irish fled the potato famine and came to cities with major ports e. g. Liverpool in aid of work and living this is classified as international migration.
Most significant increase in ethnic diversity in Britain started in the 1950s. During two world wars hundreds of thousands of men from across the empire had fought for Britain. India alone provided 1. 3 million soldiers. During these years many remained in Britain, forming small ethnic communities in ports this was due to India being a colonial country under British rule. A Number of Jewish immigrants also fled to Britain from the nazi oppression in Europe. At the end of the WWII there work shortages throughout Europe and Britain.
157,000 polish immigrants arrived in Britain in search of work. Shortly after where joined by the Italians but there was still a labour shortage and eventually workers were recruited from the colonies this is all international migration due to it being an economical climate issue. 22nd June 1948, the empire wind rush brought the first of many West Indians to live and work in Britain during the 1950s. In 1956, London transport was struggling to find workers so advertised in Barbados, Trinidad and Jamaica for bus drivers and conductors.
More and more immigrants flocked to Britain throughout the years from Barbadians, West Indians in 1958 and in the 1960s they were joined by immigrants from Indian sub continent which had become India, west and east Pakistan, following independence from Britain. The new immigrants were different to the rest as instead of flocking to the port areas they moved to the London area filling low paid, unskilled jobs in factories and the service sector. Car engineering in car manufacturers in the West Midlands were another focus.
They frequently established clusters or neighbourhoods in the poorest areas in the inner cities – Toxteth in Liverpool, Brixton and Bethnal Green in London. In most cases the new immigrants eventually established their own places of worship and other ethnic services. These new immigrants were not welcomed easily into British society and there were protests at their arrival. The government reacted by amending the British nationality Act to make it more difficult for non white immigrants to bring their family members with them.
In spit of this, the numbers of non-white residents continued to grow and by 1970 they numbered 1. 5 million, one third of these were children born in Britain. Racial prejudice was quite widespread and there were racially motivated riots in the 1980s. Riots were started by claims that ethnic minorities, especially black male youths, were being targeted by the police. These minorities are being represented by racial unequal treatment. The amount of ethnics taking and filling British jobs is causing ethnic conflict between white Caucasian. conflict sociologists see the social world as being in continual struggle.
The conflict perspective assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between the competing groups within Britain. The result of this conflict is significant economic disparity and structural inequality in education, the labor market, housing, and healthcare delivery. Specifically, society is a struggle between the privileged (the dominant group) and the exploited (the subordinate groups). Such conflicts need not be physically violent and may take the form of immigration restrictions, real estate practices, or disputes over cuts in the federal budget.
Courtney from Study Moose
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