“Free Will” takes one of the central questions of any religious realm. Whether a human has a freedom in his choice? Whether a human can make a personal, independent decision such us what he should do in each situation? Or are all of his actions predetermined, and the possibility of making a free choice an illusion? Since the time of the Greek philosopher Socrates to modern times, philosophers, theologians, scientists have tried to prove the existence of “Free Will” or its absence, and as well have to answer to the question do people have real control over their actions?
The question, about existence of “Free Will”, appeared in ancient Greek philosophy. Socrates and his followers believed that the dependence of the lower sensual impulse is an equivalent to slavery, but responsible subordination which was inspired by human mind, means a “Free Will”. Socrates argued that all humans are looking for the good behavior, but not all equally know what good behavior is. If a person really knows what the true goodness is, then this person wants to do it, but one, who doesn’t know, usually takes imaginary goodness instead of real goodness.
Then rushes to reach the imaginary goodness and makes mistakes. This then produces evil deeds. No one is willing to be bad on their own will. This way, moral evil reduced to thoughtlessness, that equal to a lower needs level, and goodness for Socrates, according to Aristotle, expresses of the intellect, which is an equivalent to a “Free Will”. Which means, only human who doing good things can have “Free Will”. Based on the foregoing, it is possible to make a conclusion, that by the term “Free Will”, Socrates understands the qualities that exceptional people have, rather than an integral part of every human being.
The idea of “Free Will” gets a new interpretation with the development of Christianity. If we trace the history of “Free Will” in the Bible, it is necessary to start with the character of God, who decided on his own and created the universe and all that fills it. The Bible says that man was created in the image and likeness of God. This means that a human is equal to God, and has a consciousness, feelings and will, and has the ability to think and make decisions.
Suppose a person is really free in his choice. In such a case, two problems appear right away. According to religious beliefs, everything in this world happens only by the will of God. “God makes, all he wants, in heaven and on earth. ” And no one, including human can’t resist God’s will. How, then, can a person can have any “Free Will”? If a person is not free, another ethical problem appears. According to Christianity (as well as Islam and Judaism) God rewards man for good behavior and punishes him for his bad.
However, if a person cannot choose what he should do in each case, if his actions were predetermined and even corresponded to the will of God, how and why in this case, it is possible to punish humans? And what then is the “Free Will” for a man? Scientists consider issues related to the freedom of will. With development in science particularly genetic engineering, neuroscience and psychiatry; human view the presence of “Free Will” has changed. Scientists believe that people do not choose the genotype and the environment, do not choose the other factors affecting their lives.
People do not choose in which family to be born, therefore they do not choose hereditary genes that are the most meaningful way determine our lives. Some genes predisposing to a human disease, some genes determining appearance, behavior, intellectual abilities all of them affect our lives. According to scientists, human body is as a kind of machine, established and acting at the direction of the external forces that cause it to work in certain way. This point of view is a concern because it is mean that people cannot be responsible for their behavior in any situation.
No one has found the answer to the question of whether people have the “Free Will” or is it just an illusion. But in any case, a human has the right to follow the path of good or choice the path of evil. All humans exist like cells in a single large organism called “the universe. ” World created from all its parts or elements. Each element contributes to the world their personal characteristic; effects and change world’s destiny. It may be weak and insignificant in the overall system of the world, but it is exists. It operates within certain limits on domestic fundamentals essence and nature. Without any of these elements would be a different world.