Energy is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument of socioeconomic development of a country. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factories and industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc.
there has been an enormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial development and population growth in our country, in comparison to enhancement in energy production. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged.
Pakistan Energy Sector:
Pakistan in one of those countries which don’t have a very well equipped and stable infrastructure of the Energy sector for which it is not developed properly and that is one major Problem of Pakistan and core reason for which the country is facing sever and alarming energy crisis from the past one decade. In the current scenario the energy consumption and energy supply gap is increasing by time to time as the current production of the Energy in Pakistan is almost 15,000 to 20,000 Mega Watt but at the same the production is just 11, 500 to 13, 000 Mega Watt so the deficit of 4,000 to 5,000 Mega Watt exists which is considered to be a huge difference.
Pakistan’s energy sector consists of the mentioning consumers: household, industry, services, transport, government, etc. The largest consumer is industry, accounting for around 58% of total consumption; it is followed by transport sector at 22% usage; and 15% is consumed by household, and rest with other sectors. In consumption of energy gas contributes most with share of 43.7%, followed by oil at 29% and so on.
Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan:
The major causes and the reason which have contributing in to the power shortfall is the mainly due to the increasing populations, because as simple as that the population is increasing day by day in the state which is definitely increasing the demand of energy and that is increasing the demand to supply gap. Energy theft is also a curse which Pakistan is bearing in which people not only on domestic level but even commercially and industrially are doing energy theft in which they are consuming the energy on high levels but are not paying the concerned department and body for which that all energy is being drained in vein.
i). Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.
ii). Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.
iii). Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing.
iv). Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment.
v). Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy (cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government. vi). Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity, unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty. Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in curbing the menace of poverty. Sources of Energy in Pakistan:
1- Non-renewable resources (fossil fuels):
Non-renewable resources are primarily fossil fuels emanating from remains/decomposition of animals and plants deposited deep into the earth crust and converted into oil and gas. These resources cannot be replenished. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). a). Petroleum products:
Petroleum is also used in generation of electricity, which counts 64 percent of total electricity generation. We are extracting approximately 24 million crude oil annually whilst the requirement is 303 million, meaning if we do not explore new wells, we will exhaust our current crude oil reserves in 12-13 years. b). Natural Gas:
Share of natural gas in energy consumption is 43.7 percent. Due to price differential between CNG and Petrol, vehicles are using converted to CNG and approximately 2.0 million vehicles are using CNG and currently Pakistan is the largest CNG user country in the world. Whilst Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contributes around 0.7 percent to total energy supply in country. c). Coal:
There are 929 billion tons approx. coal reserves available in the world whose 40% is used to produce the electricity. As per an estimation, third biggest coal reserve of 185 billion ton exists in Pakistan which is equivalent to 400 billion barrels of oil. In other words, our coal reserves are equivalent to Saudi Arab and Iran’s combined oil reserves. The world second largest oil producing country Iran generating its electricity from coal. China also producing its 75% electricity from coal.
2- Renewable Resources:
Renewable energy resources are those, which are naturally replenished and come from resources such as water, solar, wind, tides, and agriculture biomass/biodiesel.
a). Hydro power:
Hydro power is generated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Pakistan is having rich resource of energy in hydal power, however, only 34 % of total electricity generation is coming from hydro power.
Current Hydropower stations:
Tarbella Dam : 3,478 MW, Ghazi Brotha: 1450 MW, Mangla 1,000 MW, Warsak 240 MW, Chashma 184 MW Potential Hydropower stations:
Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4500 MW, Munda Dam – Swat river in Mohamand Agency 740 MW, Kalabagh Dam 2400-3600 MW, Bunji Dam 5400 MW, Dasu Dam 3800 MW b).
Wind: Wind potential of Pakistan is 10,000 MW to 50,000 MW. A Turkish company is going to install a 50 MW turbine in Jhampir while 6 MW turbine also operating in Jhampir. More plants are to be installed in Jhampir, Bin Qasim Karachi, Keti Bandar, etc. This time from wind Germany 18000 mega watt, USA 7000 mega watt, and Spain 8000 mega watt are producing the energy.
Pakistan has potential of more than 100,000 MW from solar energy. Building of solar power plants is underway in Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) is working for 20,000 solar water heaters in Gilgit Baltistan.
c). Agricultural biomass /biodiesel:
Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as sugarcane, corn or other vegetation to generate electricity. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs from biomass/biodiesel in the world, followed by USA. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) of Pakistan has planned to generate 10 MW of electricity from municipal waste in Karachi followed by similar projects in twenty cities of country.
Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current. The turbine can turn an electrical generator. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy.
Some eye opening facts:
In world level, the share of electric produced by the gas is 19% while in Pakistan 45%, hydro-generated electricity’s share into the world’s total energy share is 16% but in Pakistan 3.3% and from oil in world only 7% but in Pakistan is 16%. Poland and Germany produce the electricity more than 80% from coal. Likewise, South Africa 93%, India 78.3%, Australia 77%, China 72%, Germany 52%, America 49%, Denmark 47.3% and UK 32.9% produce the energy from coal. Pakistan produces only 200 mega watt from coal which is 7% of total energy production while the energy produced by coal should be up to 25%.
Recommendation/solution of Energy crisis:
Energy crisis can be curtailed by:
Usage of electricity saving devices, Awareness campaign for energy saving, Reduction in industrial uses with installation of effective equipment. Decreasing reliance on rental power projects, because instead of doing any good, they are increasing prices of electricity. Tapping indigenous resources (Thar coal) Using renewable resources (water) by constructing new dams and hydro power plants, Import of natural gas by IPI (Iran, Pakistan, India) and TAPI (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India) pipelines. Utilizing alternative energy resources: Windpower,Biodiesel/Biomass,Solar,Tidal
Pakistan is energy-deficient. How can one imagine an active and prosperous human being short on blood? Life is hard without sufficient blood running up and down the veins, pumped by the heart round the clock. Energy Crisis has, more or less, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering national progress in a drastic manner. This ‘feat’ has been accomplished with the help of poor planning, fire-fighting as a mental attitude of short-sighted governments, lack of political will, untapped resources, faulty fuel mix for electricity generation, and whole lot of other causes and its effects.
The main sources of energy need overhaul, change of heart, and replacement with new resources such as indigenous coal, gas, and more reliance on futuristic alternative, sustainable energy resources which will take at least decade or two before becoming true rivals to fossil fuels. There are at least four kinds of energy sources identified in the essay that are vast open spaces for development, including building new dams, exploiting Thar Coal, alternative energy, and importing cheaper energy sources to replace costly one. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the country.