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Epistemology Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Management Art or Science

The concept of management is universal and very old. That is why different views have been expressed about its nature by different writers from time to time. The continuous and rapid development of management principles and practices in organization has changed the nature of management. The main points of view about the nature of management are given below: Management as an Art, Science or Both A lot of controversy arises whether management is an art or science or both. It is said that the management is the oldest of arts and youngest of science. This explains the changing nature of management. But to have an exact answer to this question, it is necessary to understand both these aspects separately and…

Tolerant Society

Consider the view that in tolerant society no particular way of life should be promoted as superior. Many would argue that a tolerant society involves the state being a neutral umpire. This is the idea of a neutral based liberalism and it states that we should not supress, or promote any particular way of life. This is because of the reason for being tolerant in their opinion is because we are fallible humans who will never know the truth and also because moral truth is subjective. First of all there are always going to be different opinions of what is moral truth and different meathods which people use to find it because moral truth can not be proved using empiricm….

Allegory of the Cave

The allegory of The Cave is an attempt to show that what we are seeing are reflections, abstractions, and illusions. What we have believed in are not the real thing and never have been, but because we’ve acknowledged them for so long, it’s hard for us to accept it in any other way. Plato’s allegory of The Cave is a symbol for the contrasts between ideas and what we perceive as reality. Plato argues that we are the “cave slaves.” We live in a world of shadows, where we don’t see the reality of ideas. However, it is possible to climb out of the cave, to be released from our shackles, but the process is painful. When the “cave slaves”…

Introduction to Core 1: Points of Engagement

Lecture’s Central Argument: The central argument of the lecture is students must take Core-001 in order to study how individuals and society can make the best choices in preparing for an uncertain future. Although the program places a strong emphasis on writing, critical thinking, and understanding events in their historical and cultural contexts, a wide range of interdisciplinary perspectives from arts, humanities, social sciences, life and physical sciences, and engineering will be brought to focus on the course topics. Lecture’s Supporting Evidence/Examples: The introduction to the seven modules of the course with brief explanations provided appropriate evidence for the possible interaction between perspectives of varied fields of knowledge. For instance, under module three- Origins of Societies and Culture- it was…

Descartes Argument for the Existence of Corporeal Things

Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes, which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and divinity. This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist. 1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of sensing and I use it involuntarily. 2. If there exists a passive faculty of sensing within me and I use it, then there exists an active faculty of producing sense ideas, either in me, or in something else. . Therefore, there exists an active faculty of producing sense ideas, either in…

PMBOK Project

Over the past decades, Project management became a significant essential process to achieve objectives of the project. According to PMI Guide to the PMBOK (2008), Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. In the process of project management, project management methodologies are using for starting clear and achievable objectives and examination the demands of scope, time and cost for quality. According to different project, different project management methodologies can be used. This report focuses on PMBOK and PRINCE 2, giving detail about the two valuable tools and comparing them. Using the model-based project management methodologies has many advantages. These models offering an understanding and framework of project management. They…

Ecosystemic Psychology

Ecosystemic Psychology – Definitions Definition Epistemology Epistemology is “the study of the origin, nature and methods, as well as the limits, of knowledge; it is also how things can be known, thus a framework for describing and conceptualizing what is being observed and experienced and it also specifies the nature of the relationship between the researcher (knower) and what can be known” (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 2006, p. 6; Terre Blanche, Durrheim & Painter, 2006, p. 559; Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004, p. 507). Theory is “a general principle or a collection of interrelated general principles that is put forward as an explanation of a set of known facts and empirical findings” (Reber, 1985). Example If for example the researcher needs…

Explain the Concept of Ideals in Plato’s Writings

“The unexamined life is not worth living” according to Plato. He argued that we should always pursue knowledge and ask questions to do this. A key part of Plato’s philosophy is epistemology – his theory of how we know things. His concept of Ideals, also known as Forms, is Plato’s explanation of how true knowledge can be sought. Plato understood that there are concepts that we can all recognise in various things, for example the concept of beauty. We all recognise beauty in art, nature, people, or music, and we all understand the idea when we hear the word used. Although we can all recognise beauty, our opinions of what classes as beautiful are widely varied and subjective. The conclusions…

Epistemology and Truth

How do we know what we know? Is what we believe to be truth really truth? A branch of Philosophy that seeks out to answer these questions and to discover the origin of knowledge is Epistemology. Much of what we believe is based on allegations and generalizations rather than established evidence. That’s way so many people have different beliefs throughout the world. I will be discussing more of these Worldviews in a later paragraph. Right now I’d like to continue to focus on Epistemology, which is the study of knowledge: how we obtain knowledge and how we justify it. These are some of the questions Epistemology attempts to answer: What is mind? ; What is knowing? ; What is true?…

Theory of Forms

1. a) Explain how Plato’s epistemological assumptions shape his metaphysics (Why does he think that there must be Forms? Hint: Plato says (in effect): “Since knowledge is certain, therefore the objects of knowledge must be unchanging. ”). b) Define Plato’s Forms and present the theory of Forms by explaining the “divided line. ” (You can use the visual image, but explain it. ) Plato was extremely devoted in answering the sophists’ skepticism about reason and morality. To do so, he spent more time than any philosopher before him studying knowledge, or epistemology. He realized that to answer the sophists’ skepticism he had to first solve the three main problems that earlier philosophers had left behind; the problems of change, the…

Plato – Philosophy

The Republic is one of Plato’s longer works (more than 450 pages in length). It is written in dialogue form (as are most of Plato’s books), & it addresses major issues in almost all of the branches of philosophy. The central theme in the book seems to be the nature of justice, a topic in political philosophy, but Plato also has his characters explore issues in ? philosophical cosmology, ? philosophical theology, ? philosophical anthropology, ? ethics, ? aesthetics, and ? epistemology. The parts of the Republic that are contained in our text (pp. 107-123) focus on Plato’s idea (ideal?) of the Philosopher Ruler. According to Plato, ? the best possible political system (state) ? will be ruled (governed) ?…

Bakit hangad ng mga bansang Asyano na magkaroon ng pambansang Wika?

Rene Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy. ” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Second, he wanted to replace their final causal model of scientific explanation with the more modern, mechanistic model. Descartes attempted to address the former issue via his method of doubt. His basic strategy was to consider false any belief that falls prey to even the slightest doubt. This…

What Is the Aim of Education in Our Life

Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex life simple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, or objective life becomes incomplete and haphazard. Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs. Every individual wants to achieve certain goals in life. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy. Educational aims are varied. They have their different role in different fields. Some specific aims are listed below: (i) Knowledge Aim: The aim of education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It helps to adjust properly in one’s own environment. Knowledge helps the man to overcome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher…

Descartes vs Locke

Socrates once said, “As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. ” Several philosophers contradicted Socrates’ outlook and believed that true knowledge was in fact attainable. This epistemological view however had several stances to it, as philosophers held different beliefs in regards to the derivation of true knowledge. Rationalists believed that the mind was the source of true knowledge, while in Empiricism, true knowledge derived from the senses. Rene Descartes, a rationalist, and John Locke, an empiricist, were prime examples of epistemologists who were seen to differentiate greatly within each of their philosophies. However, although Descartes and Locke’s ideas did contrast in that sense, they both shared common concepts that helped mould the basis of their ideas….

Immanuel Kant

There have been many philosophical perspectives and debates held throughout the centuries on the foundations of human knowledge. The stand points that both Descartes and Locke have differ and both of these philosophers’ perspectives have contributed to the rational and empirical debate about the foundations of human knowledge. Descartes’ understanding of the foundations of human knowledge takes on a rational viewpoint and has lead to Locke’s response of an empirical proposition of this understanding. Both of these philosophers’ understandings are two sides to the same coin according to Immanuel Kant. In Kant’s writing of Critique of Pure Reason he explains how both of these perspectives are intertwined and work together to as the foundations to forming human knowledge. To Kant…

Building a Bridge Between Popper’s Philosophies

Karl Popper is regarded one of the greatest philosophers of his century. He had a major influence on the establishment of the philosophy of science and politics. Yet little research has been done on the interconnection of his theories’ elements. His philosophies are generally regarded unconnected. Therefore, we look for a link between his political and scientific theory. To what extent is his scientific and political philosophy interrelated? Popper’s philosophy of science and political theory are discussed before searching for a bridge between the various elements of his philosophy. Popper holds that in the philosophy of science, demarcation is the central problem. Unlike the traditional view, he argues that there is no unique methodology specific to science. Instead, he uses…

Immanuel Kant

In reading the Ethics problem box regarding the Trolley Problem I will attempt to answer the question of would I throw the switch. I have had the chance to research different profiles to try and answer this question. The first profile is Ayn Rand. I don’t think that she would have thrown the switch base off her theory about the “virtue of selfishness”. Her theory promotes the philosophy of Individualism. Individualism states the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one’s goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social…

Tok Essay

People’s choice of belief is possibly one of the most intriguing topics one can study. The journey of gaining knowledge in itself is so dynamic and full of factors that one couldn’t possibly be able to analyze in full. In this essay, the question that is to be answered encompasses and questions the details of that journey in one of the most controversial topics of all time; religion. The question above subjects the issue of belief to the spotlight as it is one of the largest aspects of life that is to many people asserted with no concrete evidence to be found; in my perspective. Yet again not all people agree that evidence must be concrete and therefore the relativity…

The Move from Doubt to Certainty

Descartes is interested in the certainty of his existence and the existence of other people and things. Descartes’ beliefs vary from those of Socrates. Descartes argues that knowledge is acquired through awareness and experience. Using this approach, Descartes moves through doubt to certainty of his existence. He asks himself various questions about the certainty of his existence and solves them through clear thought and logic. Using this method Descartes establishes doubts to be truths and by the end of the book, he has established that he does indeed exist. In this paper, I will show how Descartes moves through doubt to certainty. I will explain how Descartes uses the cogito, proves the existence of God and what that means to…

Allegory of the Cave

The allegory of The Cave is an attempt to show that what we are seeing are reflections, abstractions, and illusions. What we have believed in are not the real thing and never have been, but because we’ve acknowledged them for so long, it’s hard for us to accept it in any other way. Plato’s allegory of The Cave is a symbol for the contrasts between ideas and what we perceive as reality. Plato argues that we are the “cave slaves. ” We live in a world of shadows, where we don’t see the reality of ideas. However, it is possible to climb out of the cave, to be released from our shackles, but the process is painful. When the “cave…

Ccontemporary Epistemological Research in Education

ABSTRACT. In this article the authors challenge contemporary epistemological research within educational settings. After a reconciliation of the current models which treat epistemological beliefs as static and mechanical, the authors present a teaching experience to illustrate their enactivist view that epistemological beliefs should be conceptualized as fluid and dynamic constructs, emerging in web-like configurations. Answers to epistemological questions unfold within the interstices and mutual interactions between people and their environment. Boundaries between student–teacher, individual–community, cognition–bodily experience are becoming blurred. From this enactivist perspective the researcher’s role changes considerably. Instead of determining teachers’ personal traits and epistemological make-up, the researcher should sensitize teachers to the subtle ways epistemological beliefs are enmeshed within their day-to-day professional lives, focusing on the complex fabric…

Apearance vs Reality

In human life, there are many things people think they know with certainty. Is it really so? Can anybody be really sure about knowing something? What make us know something? Is there any knowledge in the world that is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? According to Bertrand Russell, this last question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked. In daily life, we assume many things to be certain, which after a closer analysis, are found to be less correct than we first thought. Knowledge plays a very important part in human lives. In the history of humankind, it was knowledge that separated common people…

Deductive Argument

In this essay I will be arguing against Plato’s theory of knowledge given in the Republic’s divided line. I will distinguish the differences and similarities in the epistemological concepts of Plato and Aristotle intending to explain how one comes to have knowledge and the process through which it’s obtained. As support, I will explain Plato’s theory of forms and Aristotle’s theory of essence because they are a direct correlation to their view of knowledge through reality. Plato’s theory of Forms is a theory of knowledge and a theory of being. He describes, in the divided line, the division of existence. Plato believes the source of our knowledge is separate from this world. Participation connects us to this world. In the…

Nature of Knowledge

In the study of knowledge we distinguish between knowledge by acquaintance, in essence to know someone or know of something. Ability knowledge is for example to know how to swim or how to ride a bike. And, our main concern, propositional knowledge that is sentences or statements that can be either true or false. To have knowledge one needs to have a belief and for this belief to be true. The following text will show how true belief, even if it is justified in a rational way, does not suffice for knowledge. Take Nina, she is walking by some slot machines in the casino. She feels drawn to one of the machines, and believes it is her lucky day and…

Plato theory of forms

Plato was a duellist and thus believed that there are two worlds; the material world and the world of ideas/Forms. The world of ideas or Forms is the true reality and the world of appearances is just reflections of world of Forms. Plato believed that our knowledge of the Forms was a priori which means that our souls knew the Forms before it was inside us, therefore we have knowledge prior to experiencing the objects with our senses. Plato believes everyone is born with an intuitive but imperfect understanding of the Forms. He also believes the philosopher is able, through using his intellect, to achieve true knowledge of the abstract Forms without using his senses. Plato’s theory of Forms can…

Descartes Existence of God

The existence of God has been a question since the idea of God was conceived. Descartes tries to prove Gods existence, to disprove his Evil demon theory, and to show that there is without a doubt something external to ones own existence. He is looking for a definite certainty, a foundation for which he can base all of his beliefs and know for a fact that they are true. Descartes overall project is to find a definite certainty on which he can base all his knowledge and beliefs. A foundation that he will be able to prove without a doubt. To find a definite certainty he uses a methodical doubt, this states that anything that could be doubted must be…

Notes on Chapter Two- Does the Center Hold?

Epistemology * Theory of knowledge; often provokes big questions on the meaning and justifications of conventional knowledge. * Ex; What is knowledge? Can we know anything for certain? What are the limitations of what we know? * Socrates began to question the usual perceptions of knowledge, advocating for a clearer picture than common sense allowed. The Philosophy of Plato * You cannot claim to know something if you cannot claim to believe it as well. * Belief is not the only requirement for knowledge, truth is also required. * You need to be able to communicate what you know. * Real life application: We often do not believe what people tell us if it is not communicated clearly, reflecting Plato’s…

Is Wikipedia a reliable source of Knowledge?

Knowledge is a justified true belief that are passed down from generation to generation. The ones who have passed down these knowledges and information are known as sources. However, not all sources are reliable nor are they all true. Wikipedia is a very worldly wide known website that is used to look up for informations on any matter. Even so, this website is also famous for its unreliable information that are given. So, I believe that wikipedia is an unreliable source with wrong facts of knowledge. For a knowledge to be true there should be facts and evidence that goes along with it. In our enormous world we rely on expert’s opinion to justify many of our knowledge claims, however,…

Bakit hangad ng mga bansang Asyano na magkaroon ng pambansang Wika?

Rene Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy. ” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Second, he wanted to replace their final causal model of scientific explanation with the more modern, mechanistic model. Descartes attempted to address the former issue via his method of doubt. His basic strategy was to consider false any belief that falls prey to even the slightest doubt. This…

Explain the Platonic Concept of Forms

Plato believed that reality is more than what we sense around the world (e. g. taste, smell, hear, see and touch), he believed that behind these physical realities lies a perfect version of them in which he called Forms and that the greatest thing we can learn is to have knowledge and understanding of them. Plato’s theory means that what we can sense around us (for example a chair) is just a mere shadow of the perfect version which exists in the world of Forms. The perfect version of a chair is one in which for fills its purpose e. g.to be comfortable and to be sat on. Plato believed that everything had a perfect Form, from objects such as…