These heavy metals are toxic to life because they generally bind tightly and permanently to the active sites of enzymes, thus destroying their catalytic properties and deactivating them (permanently). This therefore restricts substrates being broken down by enzymes to allow the human body to function properly since the heavy metals take similar pathways to that of essential nutrients. Metabolism and any sort of necessary chemical processes will not be preceded properly and therefore the maintenance of the living state of cells will prove to be futile as eventually they will die.
(Not receiving what they require in time since enzymes speed up reactions). 3. THERE ARE MANY ENZYME INHIBITORS THAT ARE NOT HEAVY METALS (E. G. THOSE FOUND IN SOME PESTICIDES). (a) NAME A COMMON POISON THAT IS AN ENZYME INHIBITOR, BUT NOT A HEAVY METAL. A common poison that is an enzyme inhibitor but not a heavy metal is (b) TRY TO FIND OUT HOW THIS POISON INTERFERES WITH ENZYME FUNCTION. BRIEFLY DESCRIBE ITS EFFECT ON A NAMED ENZYME. 4. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPETITIVE AND NON-COMPETITIVE INHIBITION 5. EXPLAIN HOW ALLOSTERIC INHIBITORS DIFFER FROM NON-COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS
PRINCIPLES OF HOMEOSTASIS 1. IDENTIFY THE 3 MAIN COMPONENTS OF A REGULATORY CONTROL SYSTEM IN THE HUMAN BODY There are 3 main components of a regulatory control system which are interdependent. The receptor is what detects the stress or disturbance (that takes place in the internal environment away from the optimum). It monitors the stimulus and the responds to it as it sends information to a control center (the component which sets a range in which a variable is maintained) which then sends signals and enables the appropriate corrective mechanisms (effectors such as muscles, organs, etc.
) to act to restore conditions back to the set value through either positive (enhancing) or negative (depressing) feedback. 2. DESCRIBE THE EFFECT OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Negative feedback has a significant effect on biological systems. The mechanisms of negative feedback are what are involved in the control of homeostasis, that is, the regulation and maintenance of the body’s internal environment.
It is negative feedback that detects a movement away from an ideal state (set point) and causes a return back to it. It acts to eliminate any deviation from preferred conditions, thus enabling biological systems to function properly by counteracting any disturbances and restoring and maintaining homeostasis. ENZYMES 1. Give a brief account of enzymes as biological catalysts, including reference to the role of the active site. 2. Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism, giving an example of each