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Enzyme Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Effect of Varying Temperatures on Enzymatic Activity

Abstract This experiment consisted of setting up a control group of starch in various temperature and then placing both fungal amylases and bacterial amylases in a mixture of starch and placing the solution of amylase and starch in various temperatures of water. After a certain amount of time- different amount of time needs to be used in order to have reliable results- iodine is added in a well on spot plates, then two drops of the mixture of amylase-starch is added from each temperature used, by adding iodine into the plates the mixture will show how much starch was hydrolyzed, this is used to calculate the amount of enzymatic activity each mixture had at the different set temperatures and at…

Fundamentals of Cell Biology

The name of enzyme involved in this experiment is salivary amylase, which presents in our saliva. Salivary amylase catalyses the breakdown of complex sugar, such as starch, into a simple sugar, such as glucose. In this experiment, the optimum temperature for salivary amylase to function is 37˚C. Above the optimum temperature, the kinetic energy in the substrate and enzyme increases. The number of collisions between substrate and enzyme also increases, but the formation of enzyme-substrate complex decreases. This is because the increasing of kinetic energy causes the amino acid molecules to vibrate violently. Some bonds like hydrogen and ionic bonds which hold the configuration of the enzyme break. The shape of active site of the enzyme changes and is not…

Human anatomy and Physiology

1. Ketones are formed by the breakdown of which substances? Fats for energy a process called ketosis 2. Hyperglycemia stimulates the secretion of which substance from the pancreas? Insulin 3. Hypoglycemia stimulates the secretion of which substance from the pancreas? Glucagon 4. What type of assay was used to measure plasma glucose and ketone levels? glucose, oxidase, peroxide, dianisidine 5. 5. What type of assay was used to measure plasma insulin and glucagon levels? glucose, oxidase, peroxide, dianisidine 6. When was the blood glucose concentration the highest? Immediately after the meal 7. Why was blood glucose concentration the highest at this time? Food and beverage intake 8. When was insulin concentration at its highest? 1-3 hour after meal 9. What effect…

Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism

Many diseases and disorders are caused by defects in the molecular level of cells and not just having to do with nutrition or other extrinsic factors ,in this report ,we will specifically look at enzymes and their key role in energy production and the cycles and series of activities that make it possible for the human to function properly . Enzymes have four basic characteristics .They do not make a reaction occur that would not occur on its own, they just enhance and make it happen quicker. The enzyme will not be changed by the reaction, it may be changed during the process, but the end product will leave the enzyme as it was when it started. Enyzmes can be…

Biochemical Basis of HFI

1. 2 Important Features of Enzymes Enzymes are proteins used in chemical reactions. In the reactions, enzymes act as catalysts. They function to speed up chemical reactions without using the enzymes themselves. The catalysts are neither the reactor nor the product. The first feature discussed in the text is the energy of the reaction. Catalysts will not change the energy of any reaction. For example, a non-catalyzed reaction and a catalyst reaction will both have the same equilibrium. Another feature is the activation energy. This is the free energy of activation where the catalyst reaction reaches the transition state. All catalysts lower activation energies of reactions. By lowering the energy molecules will reach the necessary energy level where the reaction…

Zachary’s Story

A) An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the GI tract wall. What functions of digestion and/or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and then the muscularis? Some of the ingested and secreted may not be absorbed correctly and may seep lumen if the mucosa layer is no longer functional. The functions that may be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and the muscularis would be the breakdown of food and mixing it with digestive secretions. If the ulcer eats through the muscularis it may be difficult for digestion to occur. B) If Zach has a peptic ulcer affecting his…

Banana Peel as an alternative for a shoe polish

I. Rationale Banana is a staple starch for many tropical populations.Depending upon cultivar and ripeness, the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet, and texture from firm to mushy. Bananas are an excellent source of vitamin B6 and contain moderate amounts of vitamin C, manganese and dietary fiber. There many uses of the “banana”; banana sap from the pseudostem, peelings or flesh may be sufficiently sticky for adhesive uses, the large leaves may be used as umbrellas and many more. One of these is the banana peel.We eat banana almost everyday. There are 100 bananas consumed in the UK alone, how much more would it be including the rest of the world? Aside from us being satisfied from…

Enzyme activities

The term “photosynthesis” is so called because it synthetic process driven by light. Many studies have been carried on the light spectrum quality, intensity, wavelength and their combinations thereof on the rates of photosynthesis. Different importances have been attributed to different factors. But light and carbon dioxide are the most important paramers for active photosynthesis. In the present studied effect of light intensities (low and high) were investigated. It was found that Light is crucial for photosynthesis. It was also shown that Red and blue colors were also involved for this process but not as good as both put together in the form of the total light spectrum. Introduction Respiration is a biochemical process, a characteristic of all living organisms…

The Influence of pH on the Activity of Catalase Enzyme

INTRODUCTION Enzymes are vitally important for every living organism, because without them the reactions within the cells would occur to slow to sustain life. However there are many factors which affect the rate of enzymes reactions. One of them is pH, which influence on the enzyme activity will be the subject of this investigation. Catalase of potato tuber cells will be the enzyme used in the experiment. RESEARCH QUESTION What is the influence of different values of pH on the activity of catalase in potato tuber cells? VARIABLES Independent: potato discs treatment (placing them into buffer solutions of different pH values, mixed with hydrogen peroxide)Dependent: the activity of the catalase, reflected by the rate at which oxygen is evolved, measured…

Biology: Experiment

Aim: The aim of the experiment is to test the effect temperature has on the activity of the enzyme rennin. Hypothesis: I believe the rate of reaction will speed up as the temperature increases until it reaches about 37oC, which is the body temperature, where it will begin to slow down and stop reacting. I believe this will occur because enzymes have a temperature range at which they work best in and once the temperature goes out of this range the enzyme will stop working. Introduction:Enzymes are made up of proteins which are produced within living cells and act as catalysts which speed up chemical reactions. They are made up of long chains of amino acids containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen…

Alkaline Phosphatase

The Effects of varying p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate concentrations on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Nathan Overholt Louis Settembrino March 5, 2002 Abstract: The enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase was set up in solutions of varying p-nitrophenyl phosphate concentrations. A fixed time assay was used to find the Michaelis constant and Vmax. All solutions were incubated at 30 C° for 30 mins. Absorbances were measured at 405 nm, and the Km was found to be 0.002 M (pNPP) and the Vmax to be 0.433 A/min. Introduction: Alkaline Phosphatase: Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme that comes from liver, bone, placenta, and intestine. This enzyme hydrolyses phosphate esters, is secreted into the serum by osteoblasts and is used as a diagnostic marker for increased metabolic activity. Growing bones…

Enzyme and Heavy Metals

These heavy metals are toxic to life because they generally bind tightly and permanently to the active sites of enzymes, thus destroying their catalytic properties and deactivating them (permanently). This therefore restricts substrates being broken down by enzymes to allow the human body to function properly since the heavy metals take similar pathways to that of essential nutrients. Metabolism and any sort of necessary chemical processes will not be preceded properly and therefore the maintenance of the living state of cells will prove to be futile as eventually they will die. (Not receiving what they require in time since enzymes speed up reactions). 3. THERE ARE MANY ENZYME INHIBITORS THAT ARE NOT HEAVY METALS (E. G. THOSE FOUND IN SOME…

The Iodine Test sor Starch

The purpose of this experiment was to use Iodine, Benedict and Biuret to test the reaction of the following 12 samples: 1% glucose, 0. 3% glucose-1-phosphate, 1% maltose, honey, 1% sucrose, 1%lactose, 1% glycogen, 1% starch, protein, beer, distilled water and an unknown solution (test tube: 300). The iodine test for starch was to test how would starch reacted if we put iodine in it. The color of starch before the test was clear. The color of the iodine was brown. When you added iodine into starch, the result was the starch solution turned dark blue. Starch had a positive result is because of the complex of iodine stuck inside the amylase coil which produced a characteristic purple – black…

Why doesn’t jelly set when fresh pineapple is used?

Basic Problem: Jelly is made from protein, gelatin, this is dissolved in hot water and as it cools, it sets. For a childrens party it was decided to make some fruit jellies, these were made by putting sliced pineapple into the jelly before it set, the following observations were made: oThe jelly set normally when tinned pineapple was added. oWhen fresh, unripe pineapple was used the jelly set but was not as firm. oWhen fresh, ripe pineapple was used, the jelly did not set at all But why? The reason the jelly is not setting is due to protease, which is breaking down the protein in the jelly, protease is an enzyme, and its rate of activity is affected by…

Investigating Effect

Plan Aim: The aim of the experiment is to find out what effect temperature has on the action of a protease enzyme on exposed developed film. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are made in livings things built up by amino acids to make protein. Enzymes are able to speed up reactions and can repeat reactions. There are various factors that affect the activity of enzymes they are: “Y Temperature “Y pH “Y Specificity “Y Concentration of enzyme or substrate Enzymes are specific, this means that they only work on one substrate molecule. A substrate molecule is what the enzyme actually works on. The factors I have chosen to investigate are temperature. This therefore means that the temperature will be the…

The respiration of yeast in different sugar substrates

Aim: The aim was to compare the respiration of yeast in different substrates of sugars, i.e. between a monosaccharide (glucose) and a disaccharide (maltose) Theory: There are three types of Carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The two, which I will be looking at, are, monosaccharide (glucose) and the disaccharide (maltose) Classification and major properties of carbohydrates GroupPropertiesExamples Monosaccharides general formula:(CH20)n(n = 3 to 0)Small molecules with low molecular mass; sweet tasting; crystalline; readily soluble in water.Trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde (C3H603)Hexoses e.g. glucose, fructose (C6H12O6) Disaccharides general formula:2[(CH2O)n] – H2OSmall molecules with low molecular mass; sweet tasting; crystalline; soluble in water, but less readily than monosaccharides.Sucrose, maltose, lactose, all with the general formula C12H22O11 From the above you can already see the…

Lab report on enzyme activity

Enzymes are a protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of the reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Enzymes are proteins made up of long chains of amino acids. These form complex shapes. The enzymes are individuals, like the different players on a ball team, they have different specific structures and jobs. As one ball player may be very tall and one short, the specific different shape of the active site on an enzyme is unique and prepares it to mix with a certain substrate. Without enzymes, the process of metabolism would be hopelessly slow. The reactant an enzyme acts on is referred to the enzyme’s substrate. The enzyme will combine with or to…

Enzyme-controlled reaction

Write an explanation of how any two factors affect the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. How do these factors affect the chemical structure and properties of the enzyme. Many things can affect the rate of enzyme activity. The temperature of the enzyme, the pH of the solution, the concentration of the enzyme, substrate and the product. Also, another affector is the number of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors. As I cannot explain them all, I have chosen to explain the effect of temperature and also the effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity. Temperature : As the temperature is increased the kinetic theory is applied. More energy is present and the molecules move fast. This increases the chance of collision between the enzymes…

Yeast Lab Report

Are there any differences in the rate of metabolism of a dried yeast culture with differing carbohydrate sources? In the current practical that was undertaken the growth rate of yeast (S. cerevisiae) with differing carbohydrates sources : Glucose (C6H12O6), Fructose (C6H12O6), Lactose (C12H22O11), Xylitol “(CHOH)3(CH2OH)2” and Water (H2O) as a Control were observed. “ Yeast are single-celled fungi which consist of more than one thousand different species which have been identified. The most commonly used yeast is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae which has been utilized for the production of bread, wine and beer for thousands of years. Biologists in a wide variety of fields use S.Cerevisiae) as a model organism” (Simpson,2010). Fermentation is the metabolic procedure in which an organism alters a…

Yeast Fermentation

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of different amounts of a substrate on the respiration rate of yeast and to compare this to the effect of different amounts of glucose on the rate of yeast respiration. The substrate which I chose to further investigate was fructose. Fructose is a fruit sugar which is one of the three, along with glucose and galactose, dietary monosaccharides that are directly absorbed into the bloodstream during digestion. Materials: 2% yeast solution Large beaker Small beaker Conical flask Thermometer (˙C) Glass rod pH meter & data logger Hot water Sensitive digital scale (g) Fructose (1.0g, 1.5g, 2.0g, 2.5g) Glucose (1.0g, 1.5g, 2.0g, 2.5g) Measuring cylinder (cm3) Variables Independent: Concentration of glucose…

Mastering Biology Suggested Answer Book

The rate of reaction increases when the polyphenol oxidase concentration increases. 1m b Rate of reaction = 1/18 = 0.056 1m From the graph, the enzyme concentration is around 1.15%. 1m c Use boiled enzyme in the tube. 1m d The enzyme does not work in acidic medium. / The enzyme is denatured in acidic medium. 1m e The colour change becomes faster at start 0.5m as enzyme activity increases with temperature. 0.5m When temperature becomes too high, no further colour change will be observed 0.5m as the enzyme is denatured. 0.5m f The rate of reaction drops / stops if all active sites of the enzymes are blocked. 1m The inhibitor competes with normal substrate for active sites. 1m…

Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme Activity

The Purpose of doing this experiment is “how factors affect on the rate of enzyme activity.” “We examine the affects of enzyme activity when exposing enzymes to different substrates, PH and temperature. In this experiment a type of enzyme called Peroxides has been used. Peroxidase is the enzymes are found in living organism so, it can be founded in both liver and potato. For measuring the rate of enzyme activity in each experiment the height of the frothy foam column formed by the reaction’s product have been measured by mm, within a 60 seconds. Then the units changed to mm/h. Rate is distance over time and it means how fast something occurs in a given time period. The enzyme peroxidase…

Microbiology Unknown

The purpose of this report was to identify an unknown bacterium by applying methods that were previously learned and conducted in microbiology lab class. It is possible to identify a mixed culture by running experiments on the unknown bacteria and taking what we already know and applying it to the results. It helps to slowly eliminate any bacteria that do not correspond with the results of certain tests. An unknown test tube labeled 94 was given to me b my instructor. The first procedure performed was an isolation of my unknown bacteria with the goal of obtaining a pure culture. This was done by streaking the unknown onto a nutrient agar plate using the streak method. The plates were incubated…