Environmental Pollution is the most important threat to the human race on this planet today. Environment consists of earth, air, water, flora and fauna. It means adding impurity which threatens the life of flora and fauna to the environment. These impurities are mainly created by man-made activities. The impurity can be air, water, land any sort of thermal radiation, etc. As we moving towards globalization there is rapid increase in industrialization and technological growth which releases harmful gases and chemicals into the air and simultaneously into water and thus affecting land, air as well water and ultimately the life of species on Earth. When elements like water and soil are involved, catastrophes like ground leakage, waste-water discharge, surface-run off, littering, soil contamination all these environmental issues crowd together and destroy our eco-system.
In addition to this, another aspect is increasing population. As population is increasing in places where knowledge is inadequate, the economy is extreme low profile, there we see rapid increase in deforestation and unbalanced use of natural resources and thus resulting in greater Environmental Pollution. Environmental Pollution not only affects life of flora and fauna but also affects the economy of a country. Pollution becomes an expense when the result of an activity causes damage to someone else. Increase in pollution will increase healthcare cost. Disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes will become more prevalent with global warming. That will increase costs such as insurance, taxes(for disaster relief), damaged goods, damaged resources etc.
Objective of Study
The project covers the following areas in Environmental Pollution as to study the major causes of environmental degradation and its remedies. 1.Types of Environmental Pollution
2.Cause of Environmental Pollution
3.How Environmental Pollution affects Economy
5.Initiatives taken by Indian Government to reduce Environmental Pollution
For the purpose of doing the project doctrinal research methodology has been adopted. It acknowledges the work that has previously been done in the particular area. Various books, magazines, articles and websites have been consulted to examine the subject at length and to conduct a discourse on it. 2.TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
There are several different types of pollution, though not all types of pollution can be seen. However, they all affect our ecosystem. An ecosystem includes all living organism and how they interact together and with their environment. The major types of pollution that affect us can be classified in the following ways:- 1.AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases, dust, fumes or odour in harmful amounts. That is, amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or which could cause damage to plants and materials.
Air Pollution has both environmental and health effects. Some of them are – a)Precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulphuric acids causes acid rain. When theses acid rain falls it damages trees and causes solid and water bodies to acidify, making the water unsuitable for fish and other wildlife. b)When substances like chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons, and halons which are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants are released into the atmosphere depletes the ozone layer and thus increase amount of UV radiation which causes skin cancer, cataracts etc. c)Long term exposure to air pollution leads to lung diseases, causes inflammation of heart, prevents the uptake of oxygen by the blood. d)Increase in greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane disturbs the natural balance and resulted in increase in Earth’s temperature.
Water plays a key role in determining the weather, it helps to shape the land surface and regulate the climate.Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses it. When humans or animals drink polluted water it has a adverse effects on their health. Water pollution can also make water unsuited for the desired use.
a)The major effect of water pollution is that it results into death of aquatic animals and thus vanishing the marine life from ecosystem. b)By-products from number of industrial processes results into increase of inorganic mercury and therefore increasing the level of mercury in the oceans. It interferes with the development of the central nervous system also. c)Contaminated drinking water will be the most serious effect of water pollution. As water is necessary for existence of human life, therefore, water pollution will affect life of flora and fauna.
d)Ecosystems are destroyed by the rising temperature in the water, as coral reefs are affected by the bleaching effect due to warmer temperatures. Additionally, the warm water forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water in other areas, causing an ecological damaging shift of the affected area. e)It causes diseases such as typhoid, cholera, bacterial dysentery, giardia and many others.
It is the destruction of any type of land either agricultural or forest directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is know as land degradation. Note that land degradation can result from many factors, and land pollution is only one of them.
a)Soil pollution is another form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged. This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion caused by running water and other pest control measures; this leads to loss of fertile land for agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing etc. b)Contaminated lands causes skin problems, unhealthy fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil.
c)Dump sites and landfills acts as a place to breed for rodents like rats, mice and insects, who in-turn transmit diseases. d)When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is compromised on. This leads to a steep imbalance in the rain cycle. A disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors. To begin with, the green cover is reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we are subjected to various concerns like Global warming, the green house effect, irregular rainfall and flash floods among other imbalances.
Noise are unwanted sounds which produces unpleasant effect and discomfort. When it either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. Not all noise can be called noise pollution.
a)It may permanently damage hearing by causing severe damage to eardrums. Prolonged exposure to impulsive noise to a person causes impairment of haring. b)Intemperate commotion contamination in working territories, for example work places, development destinations, bars and even in our homes can impact mental health. Studies show that the event of combative conduct, unsettling influence of rest, steady stretch, weakness and hypertension could be joined to unreasonable clamor levels. These thusly can cause more extreme and incessant health issues sometime down the road. c)It also causes headaches, irritability and nervousness, feeling of fatigue and decreases work efficiency.
d)Natural life confronts significantly a bigger number of issues than people on the grounds that commotion contamination since they are more subject to sound. Creatures advance an improved feeling of hearing than us since their survival relies on upon it. The sick impacts of intemperate clamor start at home. Pets respond all the more forcefully in families where there is consistent commotion
3.CAUSE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
There are many causes which increases air pollution some of them are man-made whereas some of them are natural. Some of causes are –
a)In Volcanic eruptions which is a natural event gases like carbon dioxide and sulphur oxide are released and therefore causes acid rain in nearby places. It can generate so much gases into the air that it blocks the sun rays and land temperature in affected area are lowered, as with the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 b)Other natural causes for air pollution are wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compound.
c)The major cause for air pollution is emission of harmful gases and release of volatile organic compounds and particulates from industries and manufacturing activities. d)Burning of fossil fuels which are now a part of our day to day routine also causes air pollution. When fossil fuels are burns, every step of the way it releases sulphur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, heavy metals and particulates into the air and thus increasing air pollution. e)Biological decomposition, smelting of sulphide containing ores, combustion of sulphur releases pollutants like hydrogen sulphide, sulphur oxides which adds further impurities to air.
a)Industrial Waste : Practice of dumping waste, discharging of toxic and poisonous chemicals such as lead, mercury, and other contaminants play a major role in polluting the water. b)Non Point Sources like Oil spills from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being slit into one place. Oil being in soluble in water forms a thick sludge in the water and suffocates fish, marine birds and also blocks light as a result hamper the process of photosynthesis. c)Practice of using fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural activities, homeowners lawn acts as a threat to the natural water resource. When runoff into local streams or rivers or when drained down into groundwater, they contaminate the water completely. d)Water is also polluted because of air pollution. Each time air Is polluted with sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, they mix with water particles in the air and form a toxic substance.
This falls as acid rain to the ground and gets washed into water body. The result is that, water body also get contaminated and thus affecting animals and water organism. e)A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated. Many UST’s constructed before 1980 are made from steel pipes that are directly exposed to the environment. Over time the steel corrodes and causes leakages, affecting surrounding soil and groundwater.
a)Deforestation and Soil Erosion : Deforestation completed to make dry terrains is one of the major concerns. Land that is once changed over into a dry or infertile area, can never be made prolific again, whatever the size of measures to reclaim it are. Land change, significance the modification or alteration of the definitive lands of the area to make it utilize commendable for a particular intention is an alternate major cause.
This hampers the area tremendously. Additionally there is a consistent waste of area. Unused accessible land throughout the years turns desolate; this land then can’t be utilized. So in inquiry of additional area, powerful area is chased and its indigenous state is bargained with. b)Agricultural Activities: With developing human populace, interest for sustenance has expanded respectably. Ranchers frequently utilize exceedingly dangerous composts and pesticides to get freed off creepy crawlies, organisms and microscopic organisms from their products.
However with the abuse of these chemicals, they bring about sullying and harming of soil. c)Mining Exercises: Throughout extraction and mining exercises, some land spaces are made underneath the surface. We steady know about area collapsing; this is little more than nature’s method for rounding the spaces forgot in the wake of mining or extraction activity d)Industrialization: Due to expand popular for sustenance, haven and house, more products are transformed. This brought about formation of additional waste that ought to be discarded. To take care of the demand of the developing populace, more businesses were produced which accelerated deforestation. e)Overcrowded landfills: Trash like aluminium, plastic, paper, material, wood is gathered and sent to the nearby reusing unit. Things that cannot be reused turned into a part of the landfills that hampers the delightfulness of the city and cause land contamination.
a)Commercial and industrial activities: Printing presses, assembling commercial enterprises, development locales, help clamor contamination in extensive urban communities. In numerous businesses, it is a prerequisite that individuals dependably wear earplugs to minimize their presentation to substantial commotion. Individuals who work with yard trimmers, tractors and boisterous gear are likewise needed to wear commotion confirmation devices.
b)Use of loudspeakers on various occasions like festivals, elections, worships in temples, mosques and during advertisements, mining operations, use of bulldozers, drillers and dynamites to break rocks, household gadgets like vacuum cleaner, TV, radio, stereo, grinder, mixer etc., common vegetable and fish markets. c)It is the biggest source of noise pollution in today’s time, especially in urban areas. In the past few years the number of automobile vehicles has increased manifold.Thus, traffic problems created by these vehicles is an important source of noise pollution. The sound produced by the exhaust systems of trucks, autos, buses, etc. cause a lot of noise.
3. AFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON ECONOMY
a)Environmental Pollution not only affects health of living beings but also has a affect on economic activities of a country. Environmental pollution like Air and Land severely affect the economy of Country. The more we pollute, the higher the costs related to the damage. Pollution is expensive (and difficult) to remove. It also increases the cost of health care because many people die from pollution-related illnesses and diseases.
b)Poor air quality debilitates the well-being of city-tenants as well as our long -term profit, also, particularly as far as the personal satisfaction, material and vegetation harm, diminished tourism to the nation, disheartened remote ventures, around others. c)Water pollution can be damaging to the economy as it can be expensive to treat and prevent contamination. Waste that does not break down quickly accumulates in the Earth’s waters and eventually makes its way to the oceans. d)It is general, if pollution will keep on increasing it will ultimately result in increase of Healthcare costs and also Law suits on industries. e)Disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes will become more prevalent with global warming.
That will increase costs such as insurance, taxes (for disaster relief), damaged goods, damaged resources etc. f)Land pollution renders massive stretches of land unsuitable for inhabitation and destroys natural greenery. As a result, tourism in that particular area drops, since further tourism infrastructure cannot be built and the surrounding beauty quotient decreases. g)For developing countries like India where there is need for substantial development, natural resources are required which can be met only when there is balance in ecological system and if pollution continues to be the same, it would be very difficult to achieve the goal because industries would not be able to set up which is very necessary for economic development.
4. REMEDIES TO PREVENT/REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
1.Adopting alternative energy sources can drastically improve outdoor air quality.
2.If people reduce the burning of sulphur rich coal and gas the can the levels of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, two major air pollutants
3. Filters must be use in chimneys of industries.
4.Industries must be surrounded with trees, these trees will block the spreading of smoke after combustion of fuels in industries.
5.Some of the vascular plants and non-vascular plants respond to air pollutants. Using these plants we can monitor highly dangerous air pollutants.
1.Fertilisers and micronutrients should be applied correctly and only if required.
2.Reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural activities.
3.3.Cultivation on hilly slopes should be require terracing and building along contour lines.
4.Avoid buying packages items as they will lead to garbage and end up in landfill site.
5.Ensure that you do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal of garbage.
6.Buy biodegradable products and Periodic sampling of soil should be done.
7.Do Organic gardening and eat organic food that will be grown without the use of pesticides.
8.Control of urban sprawl and encroachment on agricultural land.
9.Achieving economies of sale and least cost of production of public services.
10.Soil fertility should be restored by using cultural practices like, mulching, green manuring, more use of organic manuring.
i.Road traffic noise can be reduced by better designing and proper maintenance of vehicles.
ii.Noise abatement measures include creating noise mounds, noise attenuation walls and well maintained roads and smooth surfacing of roads.
iii.Retrofitting of locomotives, continuously welded rail track, use of electric locomotives or deployment of quieter rolling stock will reduce noises emanating from trains.
iv.Air traffic noise can be reduced by appropriate insulation and introduction of noise regulations for take off and landing of aircrafts at the airport.
v.Industrial noises can be reduced by sound proofing equipment like generators and areas producing lot of noise.
vi.Power tools, very loud music and land movers, public functions using loudspeakers,etc should not be permitted at night. Use of horns, alarms, refrigeration units, etc. is to be restricted. Use of fire crackers which are noisy and cause air pollution should be restricted.
vii.A green belt of trees is an efficient noise absorber
i.Turn off the tap when water isn’t necessary and try to take shorter showers if possible. This not only helps prevent water shortages, but reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment.
ii.The water requirement should be minimized by altering the techniques involved.
iii. Water should be reused with or without treatment.
iv.Recycling of water after treatment should be practiced to the maximum extent possible.
v. The quantity of waste water discharge should be minimized.
6.INITIATIVES TAKEN BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
As Environmental Pollution is increasing rapidly and India being country with second largest population government has started to work towards reduction of Environmental Pollution. Various camps and programs have been organised by governments to increase Awareness among people in rural areas and in schools in order to create awareness among children from very beginning. Not only awareness programs have been initiated but legislation has enacted many laws in order to safeguard various endangered species, reduce pollution and also introduced penalties for industries not abiding by the law. Acts and Rules Introduced by Government to control Environmental Pollution – A.ENVIRONMENTAL (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was introduced as an umbrella legislation that provides a holistic framework for the protection and improvement to the environment.
B.AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT 1981
The objective of this Act is to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes, of Boards, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.
C.WATER (PREVENTION & CONTROL ) ACT 1974
The objectives of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act are to provide for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution and the maintenance or restoration of the wholesomeness of water for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.
D.THE NOISE POLLUTION (REGULATIONS AND CONTROL RULES) 2000
It deals with ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different area/zones and enforcement of noise pollution control measures. The state government shall take measures for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movements and ensure that existing noise levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards specified under these rules.
GANGA ACTION PLAN
Of India’s major rivers, the case of the Ganga deserves brief comment. Most Indians take the purity of the Ganga for granted. Unfortunately, it is a highly polluted river. Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi has initiated an ambitious Ganga Action Plan (GAP) (14) in an attempt to restore the Ganga to its pristine state. The Ganga is a symbol of the culture of India, the source of its legend and poetry, and sustainer of its teeming millions. The thrust of the rupees 250 crore (USD approx 160 million) GAP is rapid reduction of the pollution load and establishment of financially self-sustaining treatment schemes along the river’s 2525-km course.
Government is putting considerable emphasis on environmental education. The national media particularly private news- papers are regularly featuring articles and programs on environmental protection for schools, farms, factories, and the general public. Radio and television are also treating environmental protection as a priority area side by side with economic development. There is an increasing trend in privately sponsored environment programs on the national television circuit.
In this era of globalisation where every Country is developing and in this race of being the superpower, there is adverse affect on our Environment resulting in health and economic issues. As population is increasing water, air , and land pollution is also increasing and there will be no sustainable development. Without Sustainable development, out future we will be lacking resources and thus hampering future prospects. Some of the following measure can be adopted and implemented by government and citizen to reduce Environmental Pollution – Government should organise camps and awareness programs to roots levels in order to teach people about the problems of environment and consequences if it is not stopped.
Family Planning should be encouraged especially in rural areas in order to control population Industries should be required to be setup far from cities and surrounded by eco belts and there should be body to have regular check on it. Judicious use of natural resources and proper distribution of resources among countries. Afforestation should be promoted and when there is need to cut tree they should be not cutted from root level. Increase of government transports in order to reduce air pollution and people should avoid using personal cars and vehicles. Proper techniques of land harvesting should be taught to farmers and implementation of same should be ensured.
“If the world is saved , it will be saved by people with changed minds, people with a new vision. It will not be saved by people with old minds and new programs. It will not be saved but people with the old vision but new program.” -Daniel Quinn
1.Bhattacharya, Rabindra, Environmental Economics, Oxford University Press, New Delhi ,(2007) 2.Rajagopalan, R.,Environmental Studies, Oxford University Press, New Delhi,(2008) 3.Eugine, T., Environmental Economics, Vrinda Publication, New Delhi (2007) 4.B.Chhokar, Kiran,Understanding Environment, Sage Publication, New Delhi,(2009) Websites –
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