With the support of relevant examples from the given case:
a) Define personnel management and human resource management, and discuss TWO major differences between the two concepts. (6 marks)
b) Analyze TWO potential external business environment challenges faced by Enterprise Rent-a-Car and their implications on the Company. (10 marks)
c) Based on the challenges analyzed in Question 1b), above, suggest effective human resource planning process and methods, that can be used by Enterprise Rent-a-Car in determining the manpower needs for it’s international business expansion. Justify your answer with specific examples. (10 marks)
This question will focus on defining and differentiating Personnel Management from HRM, it will also examine some technological and social challenges, as potential external business environment challenges faced by the company, and will discus an effective HR Planning process and method to address those challenges.
a) Definitions and Differences
Is the administrative discipline which mainly works around Industrial/ Employee/ Labour Relations and activities connected with grievance handling, negotiations, enforcement of labour statute, looking after welfare of employees and so on.
Human Resource Management:
The process of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization and more integrated towards the goals and strategy of the company. One difference between PM and HRM is that in PM, the power distribution is centralized where the top management has full authority in decision-making. Personnel managers are not allowed to take part in any decision which involves employees, or give ideas. HRM, looks for the decentralization of power, where the power between the top, middle and lower management groups is shared. This can be noticed in the Enterprise Career Path graphic in page 4, case study. Mayor responsibilities are shared between General Manager, Group Rental
Manager, Area Manager and Branch Manager.
Another difference between PM and HRM is that, pay policies in PM is merely based on skills and knowledge required for the perspective jobs only. The value is based on the ability to perform the task and duties required.
In HRM, organizations look beyond pay for functional duties. The pay is designed to encourage continuous improvement and job performance. Enterprise applies this concept when they encourage their employees to “develop a career” instead of “just perform a task”, by providing training and mentoring to those employees, and, providing opportunities for professional growth by making promotions and transfers available, other than that just the payment.
b) External Business Environment Challenges
Technological challenge: the rented vehicles tracking system combines the use of automatic vehicle location in each individual vehicle, with software that collects these fleet data for a comprehensive picture of vehicle locations, very helpful for real time updates and for client monitoring in case of accidents. Nowadays, GPS is commonly used as a vehicle tracking system. This system needs to be monitored and maintained by qualified persons to ensure they work at their best. If these systems do not work properly , services won’t be delivered as they should and customer dissatisfaction will occur. This will result in losses, bad publicity and even a fatality in the event of an accident.
Social challenge: the diversity of the labour force might encounter some cultural differences that might need to be addressed to avoid confrontation and to provide a calm, respectful and tolerant work environment. People integration is very important because otherwise the work environment will be tense, co-worker relationships and productivity might be affected.
c) HR Planning and Process
For the Technological challenge described in item b), above, the Human Resource Planning and Methods suggested would be based in external human resource suppliers. Enterprise has an organizational need to add a department which primary task would be to manage all the communications between the vehicles‘ tracking systems and have all the data updated real time for customer enquiries and monitoring. Enterprise also needs someone to maintain all the systems and software.
To be able to achieve all this a lot infrastructure and investment is required, so the solution is to externally recruit a company that provides this services, after evaluating few candidates. For the Social challenge described in item b), above, the Human Resource Planning and Methods suggested would be based in internal human resource supply. The personalities of the staff will be evaluated, the most charismatic one will be appointed as the leader of the Enterprise Social Club, NZ Branch. This Club will be self managed by the staff, promoting interaction, understanding and tolerance between the employees. A local venue will be selected for gatherings, parties and any social event that involves the company.
The purpose of the question was to determine why and how important HRM is, when dealing with the quantity and quality of the people of a company, and, when trying to fit the objectives, strategies and challenges to a number of employees.
SECTION 2: Job analysis and Job design. (24 marks)
Select ONE of the positions stated in the Enterprise Career Path (on page 4) and suggest the job analysis process and methods you will use to design the position description, person specification and competency profile for this position. (12 marks) Justify your answer with:
• A brief explanation of job analysis and TWO of its purposes, • relevant methods/techniques,
• specific types of data to be collected for this position, and • relevant examples.
This question will focus on defining and explaining the purposes of Job Analysis, it will also examine the method, technique and data used to create the Position Description, Person Specification and Competency Profile for an Assistant Manager‘s job.
Definition and Purposes of Job Analysis.
In a job analysis we study the tasks and skills that make up an employee’s role, the conditions under which those tasks are performed, and the required contacts with others. It is used for writing position descriptions because it’ll summarize the role of a job in the organization, and, in recruitment and selection because it’ll highlight the characteristics a candidate needs to have to fulfill the post.
Method and Technique.
A relevant method that was used was competency based profiling,by integrating other methods such as observation, and company documentation, to collect the data from the case study.
This methods will determine the skills, knowledge and behaviors that will ensure a successful work performance from the employee. In this case , for an Assistant manager, some of the competencies that Enterprise look for are: to be able to adapt to suit the audience, to work cooperatively, get things done creatively, amongst others.
Types of Data collected for this position.
For this position the following data was identified:
Position: Assistant Manager
Duties: provide great customer experience, market the business, sell the service, deal with business partners such as insurance companies, dealerships and auto body shops. Work environment: branch office.
Relationships: – internal: supervises management assistant and reports to branch manager. – external: business partners and customers.
Qualifications and experience: studying first or second year uni + initial classroom based session and on the job training as
Skills: customer service focus, persuasiveness, flexibility, results driven, leadership ability, communication.
Example of Job Description, Person Specification and Competency Profile.
These elements were integrated in a draft for advertising the position. Assistant Manager for new branch office in NZ.
Full time position available for an experienced Assistant Manager at Enterprise-Rent-A-Car, with exceptional selling and communication abilities.
The job will require the person to:
provide great customer experience,
market the business,
sell the service,
deal with business partners such as insurance companies, dealerships and auto body shops.
Previous qualifications or equivalent experience requirements: studying first or second year uni + initial classroom based session and on the job training as Management Assistant.
As an Assistant Manager,you will be reporting directly to the Branch Manager and you will be expected to see issues and needs from a customer perspective, to adapt to suit the audience, to be creative about getting things done, to start growing the leaders and managers of the future by supervising the Management Assistant, and to support the professional Enterprise reputation. If you posses skills such as being customer service focused, persuasive, results driven, leadership abilities and communication, we invite you to apply filling the Application Form.
This question has explained the central importance of developing an accurate Job Analysis. Demonstrating how all the data gathered from this analysis is used to create a clear and effective Job Description which includes Position Description, Person Specification and Competency Profile.
Suggest, with justification, FOUR best job designs to be used for the position discussed in Question 2, above, so that it can contribute to the organization effectiveness and the needs of individual workers at Enterprise Rent-a-Car. (12 marks)
Include in your answer:
• a brief explanation of job design and TWO of its purposes, • FOUR best job designs for use in the given situation, and • relevant examples.
This question will focus on defining and explaining the purposes of Job Design, it will also examine the best job designs for the proposed Assistant Manager‘s job.
Definition and Purposes of Job Design.
Job design are all the tasks and activities associated with a particular role. One purpose of job design is to increase employee motivation and productivity. It also helps in designing, redesigning, evaluating and also cutting back responsibilities from a job, adding extra responsibilities to another particular job, trying to match the person’s capabilities with the role.
Best Job Designs for the position of Assistant Manager.
Job enlargement: this could be used to increase the job scope of the Management assistant to cover the duties of the Assistant manager.
Job enrichment: this could be used to increase the job depth of the Management assistant by upgrading the job task mix, increasing motivation and giving the the employee the potential of growth within the company.
Workplace flexibility program: this will offer flexible hours of work where the employe could start early and finish early, or having to cover a minimum of weekly hours in the time that is more convenient to the employee, this is attractive for students and parents as they can manage their time more freely.
Job sharing: this method could be used to integrate the New Assistant Manager with the organizational culture of the company while temporary sharing the responsibilities with a more experienced Assistant Manager from another
This question has explained how a Job Design for a particular role can accommodate different types of candidates, starting from people who would like their duties increased, passing through people who would like their job tasks mix upgraded and a more flexible time schedule, to people who could share responsibilities for mutual learning.
SECTION 3: Recruitment & Selection. (30 marks)
If Enterprise Rent-a-Car plans to open a new branch in one of the cities in New Zealand, what would be the BEST recruitment strategy for this new branch to attract qualified candidates for the position you discussed in Question 2, above? (15 marks)
Justify your answer with:
• the purpose of your proposed recruitment strategy for the selected position at this new branch,
• THREE best recruitment methods you would use,
• ONE benefit and ONE constraint for each of these recruitment methods,
• TWO New Zealand legislative requirements that would affect your recruitment strategy, and
• relevant examples.
This question will focus on describing the Recruitment strategy and method that’ll be used to attract candidates to the Assistant Manager position.
Purpose of the Recruitment Strategy.
The recruitment strategies that I proposed have the purpose to provide a pool of candidates from where the most suitable candidates will be picked.
Recruitment Methods, their Benefits and Constraints.
The first recruiting method would be an internal one: a transfer, I would advertise an application form to transfer an experienced Assistant manager from one of the existing branches. This ensures that the person taking this position has the required experience and knowledge for the role, and that he/she is already familiar with the company’s methods. However this will leave a vacancy in the other branch.
The second one is an internal one as well, promotion. I would advertise an application form to promote a Management Assistant from another branch to the position of Assistant Manager. This method can increase motivation within the staff because they see career growth opportunities. However, this can create a high competitive environment where friction between staff members can occur.
The third recruiting method that I would use would be an external one, I would advertise the job position to local independent contractors. This might bring a candidate that brings new and fresh ideas to the company and it’s familiar with the new area of the branch in NZ. This method allows to hire people that are specialized in certain areas of expertise. However, this can be expensive.
New Zealand legislative requirements that would affect Recruitment Strategies
Privacy Act 1993, which establish the rules for dealing with the personal information collected from an employee.
Human Right Act, which is designed to ensure that selection of future employees and the promotion of existing ones occur without any discrimination against any particular sector of society.
For me, the best recruiting strategy in this case is a mixed strategy. Integrating internal and external methods to get the best pool of candidates possible, divided in two groups, one with the ones with the possibility of being transferred or promoted, and another one with the local independent contractors.
What is the BEST selection strategy you would use to fill in the selected position discussed in Question 4, above? (15 marks)
Justify your answer with:
• the purpose of your proposed selection strategy for the selected position at this new branch,
• THREE best selection methods you would use,
• ONE benefit and ONE constraint for each of these selection methods,
• TWO New Zealand legislative requirements that would affect your selection strategy, and • relevant examples.
This question will focus on describing the Selection strategy and method that’ll be used to choose the most suitable candidate for the Assistant Manager position.
Purpose of the Selection Strategy.
The selection strategies that I proposed have the purpose to narrow the number of candidates for the position of Assistant manager .
Selection Methods, Benefits and Constraints.
The first selection method that I’d use would be Application Forms customized into two types of candidates, candidates that could apply for possible transfer or promotion on one side, and the ones that could apply as private contractors in the other. The second method that I’d use would be a Face-To-Face interview with the candidates selected for possible transfer or promotion, and the ones selected as private contractors. Then create a shortlist with the qualified candidates.
The third selection method that I would use, and that also is a standard of the Enterprise recruitment process, would be an Assessment Day. The shortlisted candidates will take part in practical exercises, individual and group activities.
New Zealand legislative requirements that would affect Selection Strategies
Employment Relations Act 2000, which establish that either party must not mislead each other in their obligations to each other. (Obligations of good faith) Human Right Act, which is designed to ensure that selection of future employees and the promotion of existing ones occur without any discrimination against any particular sector of society.
The best Selection Strategy for this proposed position of Assistant Manager is one that integrates Application Forms,to gather the required data, Face-To-Face interviews, to asses first impressions, personality, basic social skills, and an Assessment Day, for group development and team work.
SECTION 4: Training Process and Personal Learning and Development Plan. (30 marks)
One of the competencies outlined in the Skills and Competencies Framework on page 5, above, is customer service focus.
Select one of the positions outlined in Enterprise Career Path ( on page 4, above) and discuss how you would use a training process model to prepare, organize, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a Customer Service Training Program for the job holders of this position at the new branch in one of the cities of New Zealand.
Support your answer with relevant concepts and examples. Invent details as appropriate.
This question will focus on describing The Training Process Model for a Customer Service Training Program for the position of Assistant Manager (AM). This Program will allow the AM to acquire new skills and knowledge via multimedia material, online assessment and on the job observations.
The Training Process Model for a Customer Service Training Program for the position of Assistant Manager (AM).
The Training Process Model that I would use involves the following given steps:
Step 1: Customer Service Training Program Preparation.
In this phase the Customer Service contents related to the duties of the AM position, such as: being able to provide great customer experience, market the business, sell the service, deal with business partners such as insurance companies, dealerships and auto body shops, are identified,the multimedia content is developed.
Step 2: Customer Service Training Program Organization.
In this phase the content is arranged in learning units and the decision to make the program a Online Web-based Multimedia Training Program is taken. Topics such as: “Understanding the customer”, “Customer satisfaction and customer delight”, “Benefits of Good Customer Service”, “Internal and External Customers”, etc, will be available 24/7 online. The AM will be able to log in and follow the training at his/hers own pace.
Step 3: Customer Service Training Program Implementation.
In this phase the Program material is unlocked so the AM can access it via his/hers log in details. The units and lessons are delivered in a variety of formats, video streaming, written essays and case studies. The material will be available 24/7 and this implementation method allows the management to track the participant’s progress.
Step 4: Customer Service Training Program Evaluation.
In this phase the Participant, in this case the AM, will have to answer scheduled online quizzes, summit written essays, and he/she will be monitored for positive changes in behavior when engaging customers which demonstrates the degree of the Online Web-based Multimedia Training Program effectivity.
Assume you are in the position discussed in Question 6 , above, develop a Personal Learning and Development Plan (PLDP) that would meet your individual organizational needs of the new branch. Include in your PLDP the following elements:
a) The General Competency Questionnaire you have completed ( see page 69 in your Course book ) (3 marks)
b) Based on your answer in Question 7a), above, complete the Personal Learning and Development Plan for the position you selected for the discussion. This PLDP will include the following elements:
• Learning needs analysis
• Learning methods
• Learning outcomes
• Evaluation of learning outcomes
This question will focus on illustrating the PLDP based on my General Competency Questionnaire results. This results showed some competencies which need improvement in order to better match the requirements for the role of AM.
The following table summarizes the PLDP elements and their relationships, for example, the learning need of “speaking and presenting to groups” was identified. The learning outcome of this need is “to deliver important conversations in a confident and articulated way”, the learning methods chosen to improve this area are: “Videos and Verbal Communication Coaching, body language.” The ways these learning methods will be analyzed are by Off the job short lectures and presentations.
PLDP for an Assistant Manager
presenting to groups.
Videos and Coaching
To deliver important
conversations in a
Off the job – Short
Managing stress &
Role play simulating
To be able to cope
On the job reactions
to stressful situations.
case studies about
to be able to maintain
and induce positive
To be able to work
Peers’ and Superiors’
From the graphic above I conclude that in order for me to be compatible and capable of taking the Assistant Manager job, I have to improve some important skills like persuasiveness, communication, leadership abilities, patience and a open mind