According to Moughamian (2009), “English language learners (ELLs), represent one of the fastest growing groups among the school-aged population in the U.S.” (para. 1). By the year 2015, English language learners will make up 30% of the schools population in the U.S. (Moughamian, 2009). English language learners, as well as native English speakers, are required to be successful in school and succeed as productive members of society. There have been a number of programs developed to help aid in this issue. Pull-out, Sheltered Instruction, and Bilingual Education Programs Pull-out, Sheltered Instruction (SI), and Bilingual Education programs were developed in order to help the teachers of ELL students effectively acquire knowledge to succeed. Similarities of These Programs
There are some minor similarities between these programs such as pull-out programs and Sheltered Instruction (SI) offer instruction in English while the student is in the mainstream classroom. Another similarity is that pull-out programs and bilingual education programs work with the student outside the regular classroom during regular school hours. However probably the most important similarity is that these programs were established to help ELLs gain the language and knowledge they will need to succeed in school. Differences of These Programs
There are significant differences between these programs such as pull-out students will have the support of a specialist that pulls them from the classroom and works with them in a different learning environment, whereas the SI student will not. In SI classrooms the instruction is adapted to the ELLs by the use of gestures, visual aids, and manipulatives. Classroom with pull-out students, instruction is not adapted.
Even though SI students and at times pull-out students are instructed in mainstream classrooms, bilingual education students are kept separate from the regular classrooms. The concern for bilingual education students is to learn English while in the program. Regular classroom content is not a concern for these students until they exit the program whereas the pull-out and SI students are taught the grade level content. Development of SIOP Model
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) was developed to promote high quality instruction for English learners and provide teachers with a fully connected, practical model of sheltered instruction (SI). The SIOP model was introduced to bring together the instructional programs of the school and to organize its methods and techniques to ensure that their practices are effectively implemented.
According to Echevarria, Voyt, and Short (2008), “The goals of the research project were to (1) develop an explicit model of sheltered instruction; (2) use that model to train teachers in effective sheltered strategies; and (3) conduct field experiments and collect data to evaluate teacher change and the effects of sheltered instruction on LEP students’ English language development and content knowledge” (p. 15). The SIOP model consists of 30 items and is grouped into eight elements that help ELLs comprehend content better. The elements are: preparation, prior knowledge and experience, comprehending dialogue and texts, strategies, interaction practice and application, lesson delivery, and review and assessment (Moughamian, 2009). Conclusion
With the growth of ELLs in the classrooms it is important for teachers to have knowledge about certain programs such as Pull-out, SI, and Bilingual Education. With the aid of the SIOP model it will grow the academic content knowledge of ELLs and help them succeed in school.