1) Identify the organs of the endocrine system, including their locations and structures.
Hypothalamus: Is located below the thalamus just above the brainstem.
Pituitary: Is location within the sella turcica which is a dip in the sphenoid bone. Structures are tropic hormone and neurohypophysis. Thyroid: A) Location: anteriorly, above the thyroid glad. B) Structures are the isthmus connecting the two lobe and thyroid follices and network of capillaries Adrenal: A) Location: sit on superior border of each kidney, it has 3 regions which are the capsul, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Pancreas: A) Location: within the abdominopelvic cavity btw the inferior border of the stomach. B) Structures are cluster of gland cells and attached ducts, and the islets of langerhans Pineal: A) Location: lies in the posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle. B) Structures are neurons, neuroglia and pinealocytes. Parathyroid: A) Location: posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
2) Describe the structural classification of hormones.
The Structural classification of hormone are “amino acid derivatives” which is a group of hormones called catecholamines (consist of four different hormones) and melatonin. “Peptide hormones” include all hormone from the hypothalamus, heart, thymus, digestive tract and pancreas and most of the pituitary gland. Peptide hormone are synthesized as prohormones and range from short chains to small proteins. Lastly, “lipid derivatives”, these hormones consist of carbon rings and side chain which can be fatty acids (ex; Eicosanoids, which is very important for cellular activities) or cholesterol.
3) Define the term hormone receptor.
A hormone receptor is a receptor on the surface of a cell (or interior) that binds to a specific hormone causing some form of reaction.
4) Identify the three mechanisms by which the hypothalamus integrates neural and endocrine function.
The three mechanism are by which the hypothalamus integrates neural and endocrine function are two synthesize hormones (ADH & OXT) which are transport to the posterior lobe of pituitary gland. Then regulate hormones in the anterior lobe in the pituitary gland, then have autonomic center which have direct neural control over endocrine cells of the adrenal medullae.
5) Identify the nine pituitary hormones and their target tissues.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Targets the kidney Oxytocin: Targets the uterus and stimulates muscle contraction in the smooth muscle wall Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH): Targets the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH): Target the release hormones in the adrenal gland Gonadotropins (FSH and LH): The FSH stimulates the secretion of estrogens in the ovary and promotes development of sperm in male. While LH induces ovulation and stimulates production of sex hormone in the testes for the male Growth hormone (GH): This hormone stimulates cell growth, targeting the musculoskeletal system Prolactin (PRL): Target the mammary gland development
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): Stimulates the melanocytecs which increase the production of the skin.
6) Describe the names and functions of the hormones of the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the adrenal cortex, the adrenal medulla, the pancreas, and the pineal gland.
Thyroid gland: Secretes thyroxine that affect metabolic rate and calcium levels in fluids in our body. Parathyroid gland: Secretes PTH which regulate calcium ion amount in body fluids Adrenal cortex: Secretes mineralocorticoids (MCs) and aldoserone which inhibit hormone opposing that system and increase urinary loss of K+. Adrenal medulla: Synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine which increase cardiac activity and blood pressure. Pancreas: Secretes glucagon that regulate the rate glucose uptake and used by body tissues. Pineal gland: Secretes melatonin which affect reproductive function and protect again tissue damage due to free radicals.
7) Identify and describe the two types of diabetes mellitus.
Two type of diabetes are insulin dependent (type 1) or non-insulin dependent (type 2). Type one diabetes is when insufficient amount of insulin is being produced and patient needs to take medication (injection usually) daily. While type 2 is when the body make sufficient amount of insulin but your tissue don’t response to it. This is the most common form of diabetes and it is control with weight management and drugs.
8) Discuss a peptide secreted by the heart and a hormone released by the kidneys.
Natriuretic peptide is secrete if blood volume or B/P is too great. The peptide promote loss of NA+ and water at the kidneys. This allow the release of aldosterone to get the body back to normal. However if blood volume or B/P is too low the kidney release a hormone called “erythropoietin” which start the process to increase fluid intake.
9) Identify three hormones necessary for normal growth and development.
Three necessary hormones needed for normal growth are Insulin, Calcitriol and Thyroid.
10) List the three phases of the general adaptation syndrome.
The three phases of the adaptation syndrome are Alarm (fight or flight), Resistance, and Exhaustion.
11) Identify six endocrine disorders, including characteristics signs and symptoms.
Acromegaly- Excessive growth Grave disease- Increase body temperature and metabolic rate Hyperparathyroidism- High blood CA2 cause weak and brittle bone, muscular and mental problems Cushing disease- Excessive breakdown of protein and lipid reserves which impaired glucose metabolism Hypogonadism- Sterility, lacking of testes and or ovaries.
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