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Empiricism Essay Topics & Paper Examples

The debate of rationalism and empiricism

Bertrand Russell clarified certain philosophical queries such that he divulged on the true nature of the philosophical discourses in the relation to empirical and rationalist valuation of knowledge. The categorical exposition of the philosophical analysis of his work “The Problems of Philosophy” in which this study is generally drawn, the assumption is that the debate between the rationalist and empiricist view of the world had evolved from previous theories on the true nature of the human mind. One may assume to reconsider the reality of human ethics such that most ethical standards are based on the religious conception of morality. Hence, the propensity to react of human beings in relation to the environment and the subsequent development of the human…

Kant’s Views on Space and Time

In his Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant wrote about the science of the transcendental aesthetic in which he argues that space and time exist as a priori intuitions in the human mind. Space and time, for Kant, are the pure forms of intuition that order our empirical intuitions or sensations and allow us to have them. Thus, the essence of his view in this regard is that space and time are subjective human conventions that our mind brings to the realm of experience. There is one argument of Kant’s for space being a pure intuition in particular that I find compelling. Essentially, Kant says that empiricists advocate that the concepts of space and time are derived from our sense…

Tabula rasa

Empiricism is the view that all knowledge comes from experience whatever is the mind got there through the senses. Locke was an empiricist who held that the mind was tabula rasa or a blank slate at birth to be written upon by sensory experience. Empiricism is opposed to rationalism or the view that mental ideas and knowledge exist in the mind prior to experience that there are abstract or innate ideas. George Berkeley argued against rationalism and materialism. He also criticized Locke on many points. He said most philosophers make an assumption that has no proof of the existence of matter. Berkley questioned the inference that material things cause our sensory experience or that our sensory experience is material things….

Immanuel Kant by Nathalie G. Catalogo

German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is considered the most influential thinker of the Enlightenment era and one of the greatest Western philosophers of all times. His works, especially those on epistemology (theory of knowledge), aesthetics and ethics had a profound influence on later philosophers, including contemporary ones. Kant’s philosophy is often described as the golden middle between rationalism and empiricism. He didn’t accept either of both views but he gave credit to both. While rationalists argue that knowledge is a product of reason, empiricists claim that all knowledge comes from experience. Kant rejected yet adopted both, arguing that experience is purely subjective if not first processed by pure reason. Using reason while excluding experience would according to Kant produce theoretical…

John Locke outlinect

“Rationalism is the thought that appeals to reason or intellect a primary or fundamental source of knowledge or justification. ” “It is typically contrasted with empiricism, which appeals to sensory experience as a primary or fundamental source of knowledge or justification. ” John Locke argues that, “We come to this world knowing nothing whatsoever. ” (Warburton 74). He believes that experience teaches us everything we know. This view is usually known as empiricism, in contrast to innatism, (the theory that some of our knowledge is in born), and to rationalism (the strife that we can achieve knowledge of the world by the power of reason alone). ?Locke’s essay “Human Understanding” published in 1689, soon became a philosophical bestseller. He produced four…

Philosophy Epistemology

Epistemology is one of the very important branches of philosophy. It is also known as the knowledge theory. The knowledge theory consists of three questions; “What is the origin of knowledge? What is the reliability of knowledge? & What is the criteria of knowledge? ” Rene Descartes and John Locke really looked into epistemology and both had different theories to approach it. John Locke looked at empiricism and Rene Descartes looked at rationalism. John Locke was an English philosopher and formed his opinion around empiricism. Empiricism is an approach to doing philosophy stressing experience as the in road to all knowledge. The human being is a blank slate to him. Locke was a moderate skeptic, who doubted until valid proof…

Epistemology – cognition

“I have found that such an object has always been attended with such an effect, and I foresee, that other objects, which are, in appearance, similar, will be attended with similar effects”. This foretells that with knowledge, our society may be able to associate a certain aspect/detail with an object, but that does not necessarily mean it will always happen. Therefore, Hume, who starts out as an empiricist, has arrived at the conclusion where an individual may not have knowledge at all, of skeptic doubt. This is explored through the three epistemology questions, the process he did take, and what the reader thinks on the matter. According to Hume, with his process of thought with empiricism, thinks knowledge is possible….

English literature

For Locke, all knowledge comes exclusively through experience. He argues that at birth the mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, that humans fill with ideas as they experience the world through the five senses. Locke defines knowledge as the connection and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy, of the ideas humans form. From this definition it follows that our knowledge does not extend beyond the scope of human ideas. In fact, it would mean that our knowledge is even narrower than this description implies, because the connection between most simple human ideas is unknown. Because ideas are limited by experience, and we cannot possibly experience everything that exists in the world, our knowledge is further compromised. However, Locke asserts…

Example of a Reflective Writing

An example of good reflective writing – integration of theory with personal experience; justification and explanation of person experience using relevant theory as support; provides insight into the author’s observations of the theory; appropriate use of language; analysis of theory within the context of own experience. Organisational change and development theory suggests that models are a good way of providing change practitioners with strategies to plan, implement and move through various stages of change (Waddell, Cummings & Worley, 2007). While it is arguable that models are useful in providing guidelines for change practitioners, I feel that they are not necessarily an accurate representation of how change is actually experienced in organisations. I have worked in an organisation that has been…

Princiole Issues with Epistemology

Society has attempted to decipher what is real. The idea of what is real and what is understood has been a problem for societies. The different societies and cultures believed in other beings such as different God’s. Greek society was a leader in worshipping and believing in God’s that perceived to be real in their minds and culture. Worshipping these God’s begun to have other’s question if these God’s were real and gave birth to skepticism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the principal issues related to Epistemology. Philosophy has many branches but the one branch concerned with the theory of knowledge is Epistemology. Epistemology asks questions that relate to the scope, source, and nature of knowledge. The…

First Mover Advantage

What. exactly, are first-mover advantages? Under what conditions do they arise, and by what specific mechanisms? Do first-movers make above-average profits? And when is it in a firm’s interest to pursue first-mover opportunities, as opposed to allowing rivals to make the pioneering investments? In this paper we examine these and other related questions. We categorize mechanisms that confer advantages and disadvantages on firstmover firms, and critically assess the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. The recent burgeoning of theoretical work in industrial economics provides a rich set of models that help make understanding of first-mover advantages more precise. There is also a growing body of empirical literature on order-of-entry effects. Our aim is to begin to provide a more detailed mapping…

History of Psycology

Before psychology there was philosophy. Descartes was around during the end of the Renaissance and in the era of revolutionary developments in science. Born in 1596 to a French lawyer, Descartes could understand more than most. When he was in his late 20’s, he resembled more of a scientist than a philosopher since he had studied physics, optics, geometry as well as physiology. The first to discover that lenses in one’s eyes are inverted by removing an ox’s eye, Descartes also believed in truth and was an active rationalist, meaning he believed the truth would emerge by careful use of reason and it became his modus operandi. This way to truth was also through the human capacity to reason. He…

Epistemic Dilemma: Hume Versus Descartes

While Descartes believes that knowledge can be gained by reason alone, Hume’s Empiricism suggests that we can only gain knowledge from the experiences of perceptions, which he called “Impressions.” Rationalists use skepticism to find the most clear and distinct truths and build their foundations from there. Ultimately, Descartes states there are 3 substances that exist- God, mind and body. From doubt and confusion, Descartes finds clarity. Empiricists on the other hand, reject rationalism suggesting knowledge that can not be traced back to an impression from the outside world does not have any meaning. Hume also believes that there is no causality in the world, therefore we can never gain knowledge from events that we have witnessed in the past or…

The Ideals of Rationalism

There is not one definition of rationalism because it means so many different things. The Rationalists believe that knowledge is gained a priori or independently of experience. You know that 4 + 3 = 7, and that this won’t change wherever or you go to another country or to the moon. Knowledge of the world is gained through rational intuition (clear and distinct idea) and reasoning & understanding. A priori knowledge can be a hundred percent certain and is necessarily true. A priori can be divided into four types: Prior to experience, which means that you have the knowledge before any experience. This is innate knowledge. Second and third ones are independent of experience and experience is irrelevant to a…

How Have Western Views of Knowledge Changed over Time?

Throughout history, cultures have held disparate views on the nature of knowledge. Epistemology, the branch of philosophy that focuses on basic questions such as: “What is knowledge? How do we know what we know? ”, lies at the heart of these views. In Western culture, the answers to these basic questions have changed markedly over time. Throughout history, this evolution in philosophy has been inextricably linked to science and religion. Much of Western thought has been heavily influenced by the philosophy of the Ancient Greeks. In particular, the epistemological views of the Ancient Greeks dominated Western thought for centuries. Of all the Greek philosophers, Plato was one of the most influential. In his most famous work The Republic, Plato used…

Shared, Competitive, and Comparative Advantages

Department of Business Administration and Marketing, Universitat Jaume I, Campus Riu Sec. ? 12071 Castellon, Spain; e-mail: [email protected] uji. es Received 26 February 2004; in revised form 29 April 2004 Abstract. The author’s aim is to construct and validate empirically a theoretical model that allows performance and competitiveness in firms located in industrial districts to be explained. From the strategic perspective adopted, economic revenues are explained by three types of advantage: shared advantages, competitive advantages, and comparative advantages. Neither integration in the district, nor its attraction due to the shared competences within it, are significant predictors of performance. Empirical results indicate that organisational performance is largely explained by the joint effect of firm distinctive competences and cluster-shared competences. It was…

The impact of intellectual capital on firms market value

Purpose – Intellectual capital (IC) shows a signi? cant growing acceptance as a worthy topic of academic investigation and practical implication. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of IC on ? rms’ market value and ? nancial performance. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical data were drawn from a panel consisting of 96 Greek companies listed in the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE), from four different economic sectors, observed over the three-year period of 2006 to 2008. Various regression models were examined in order to test the hypotheses included in the proposed conceptual framework. Findings – Results failed to support most of the hypotheses; only concluding that there is a statistically signi? cant relationship between human capital ef? ciency…

History of Psychology

Modern psychology is a science that it continually being researched and added to. Psychology predates the 19th century and includes roots into early philosophy. Looking closely one can identify philosophers that related to the beginnings of psychology, identify major philosophers that historically relate to the beginnings psychology as a formal discipline and how the development of the science of psychology changed during the 19th century. A philosopher that could easily be called the father of modern psychology would be: Rene Descartes. Descartes was a philosopher in the 17th century that stepped outside the limits and wanted to know more. Descartes came up with 4 basic rules to arrive at the truth of whatever he was researching. These rules were basically…

Scientific method

Outline and illustrate three characteristics of sense-data. (15 marks) Anticipate the following characteristics: • We are immediately/directly acquainted with sense-data, (from which we infer a mindindependent reality). • Sense-data are (usually) mental or mind-dependent. • Sense-data exist only as they are perceived. • Reports regarding sense-data are incorrigible. • Sense-data are nothing other than how they appear – they have no hidden depths. • The sense-data I experience will vary according to the conditions in which I perceive an object. • Sense-data, unlike physical objects, can have indeterminate process. • Sense-data and physical objects/distinguishing sense-data. Illustrate examples are likely to differ depending on the points being made and can be drawn from various sources: Illusions and delusions (e. g. bent…

Tabula rasa

Empiricism is the view that all knowledge comes from experience whatever is the mind got there through the senses. Locke was an empiricist who held that the mind was tabula rasa or a blank slate at birth to be written upon by sensory experience. Empiricism is opposed to rationalism or the view that mental ideas and knowledge exist in the mind prior to experience that there are abstract or innate ideas. George Berkeley argued against rationalism and materialism. He also criticized Locke on many points. He said most philosophers make an assumption that has no proof of the existence of matter. Berkley questioned the inference that material things cause our sensory experience or that our sensory experience is material things….

Hume, Locke, Berke

Based on past philosophers, the philosophers after them are able to expand their theories and find greater knowledge. The philosophers that will be introduced in this paper are David Hume, John Locke, and George Berkeley. Each have either found a new theory or expanded it from a previous one. Although it is important to know what their theories talk, it is as important to also study how they were led to believe in those theories. David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist. He is greatly known for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. Skepticism being the requiring of evidence to prove something and empiricism being evidence from senses and knowledge. He sought to find knowledge purely based upon…

Tuckman’s Theory of Group Interaction

Tuckman’s theory is one which explains the main stages new groups or teams go through in their formation. Bruce Tuckman believed that there are four basic and predictable stages of development. These four stages include forming, storming, norming, and performing. Forming, which is Tuckman’s first step to his theory, is when new members of a group or team get together for the first time, and feel uncomfortable. This first step consists of the new members to try to understand each other, define their tasks, and test personal relationships. Once everyone gets comfortable, and learns what they are supposed to do, then the second stage begins. This second stage is called storming. As group members start talking about important ideas and…

Intellectual Craftsmanship

TO THE INDIVIDUAL social scientist who feels himself a part of the classic tradition, social science is the practice of a craft. A man at work on problems of substance, he is among those who are quickly made impatient and weary by elaborate discussions of method-and-theory-in-general; so much of it interrupts his proper studies. It is much better, he believes, to have one account by a working student of how he is going about his work than a dozen , codifications of procedure’ by specialists who as often as not have never done much work of consequence. Only by conversations in which experienced thinkers exchange information about their actual ways of working can a useful sense of method and theory…

Born Global and Gradual Internationalization

In traditional models, firm internationalization is seen as a gradual process of capability build-up by which firms slowly accumulate the resources necessary to face foreign market uncertainty (Eriksson, Johanson, Majkgard, & Sharma, 1997). These models assume that firms grow in their domestic markets before they start to export extensively. This is supposedly so because there is a learning process involved in facing unknown markets, and such a process requires knowledge and resources to face and overcome uncertain outcomes and costly investments. Knowledge and resources are progressively acquired through experience, first in known domestic markets and then in larger foreign markets (for a review see Leonidou & Katsikeas, 1996). Much literature has documented this liability of foreignness, or the cost faced…

Firstmover Advantage

What, exactly, are first-mover advantages? Under what conditions do they arise, and by what specific mechanisms? Do first-movers make aboveaverage profits? And when is it in a firm’s interest to pursue first-mover opportunities, as opposed to allowing rivals to make the pioneering investments? In this paper we examine these and other related questions. We categorize the mechanisms that confer advantages and disadvantages on first-mover firms, and critically assess the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. The recent burgeoning of theoretical work in industrial economics provides a rich set of models that help make our understanding of first-mover advantages more precise. There is also a growing body of empirical literature on order-of-entry effects. Our aim is to begin to provide a more…

Dr Nick Mercer

1. Explain the logical positivism principle and how it leads Ayer to reject claims about values, God, and the afterlife. The cornerstone of LP beliefs was the principle of verification. This claims that a statement only has meaning if it is either analytic or empirically verifiable. An analytic statement is true (or false) just in virtue of the meaning of the words; “a bachelor is an unmarried man” is an analytically true, while “a square has three sides” is analytically false. A statement is empirically verifiable if empirical evidence would go towards establishing that the statement is true or false. For example, if I say “The moon is made of green cheese”, we can check this by scientific investigation. If…

Should We Trust Reason Rather than Perception?

Reason and perception are two main methods which we use in our live very different from each other. Reason is the way we obtain knowledge by means of our justifications and perception is the way we obtain knowledge by our experiences. This two methods are not perfect are in part right ma not always. In my opinion, however I think that reason is a more reliable method for gaining knowledge. This is only because when making a decision based on reason you have to deal with at least two different facts with coming up with the final conclusion. While with perception everything you see may seem like this, but in life we learn that isn’t always like this and you…

Locke, Berkeley & Hume

Enlightenment began with an unparalleled confidence in human reason. The new science’s success in making clear the natural world through Locke, Berkeley, and Hume affected the efforts of philosophy in two ways. The first is by locating the basis of human knowledge in the human mind and its encounter with the physical world. Second is by directing philosophy’s attention to an analysis of the mind that was capable of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for enlightenment by affirming the foundational principle of empiricism: There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses. Locke could not accept the Cartesian rationalist belief in innate ideas. According to Locke, all knowledge of the world must ultimately…

The Role of Multinational Corporations

Abstract Literature and discourse relating to Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and human rights is ubiquitous with theoretical contestation on the merits and demerits of the potential harmonious existence of the two. Some argue that by virtue of the consequential results of their business operations, MNC’s have the potential to alleviate human suffering. For others, they are the cause of it. Advocates of both perspectives draw on a mixture of factual experiences and theoretical propositions to substantiate their positions. Empirical analysis is often used to differing degrees, and with differing levels of success, to further authenticate these dichotomised positions. Diverging standpoints, when empirically endorsed, however, ensure that no coherent theory can be extrapolated and applied to specific location and circumstance. With competing…

Miss.Independent

Abstract We survey the phenomenon of the growth of ? rms drawing on literature from economics, management, and sociology. We begin with a review of empirical ‘stylised facts’ before discussing theoretical contributions. Firm growth is characterized by a predominant stochastic element, making it di? cult to predict. Indeed, previous empirical research into the determinants of ? rm growth has had a limited success. We also observe that theoretical propositions concerning the growth of ? rms are often amiss. We conclude that progress in this area requires solid empirical work, perhaps making use of novel statistical techniques. JEL codes: L25, L11 Keywords: Firm Growth, Size Distribution, Growth Rates Distribution, Gibrat’s Law, Theory of the Firm, Diversi? cation, ‘Stages of Growth’ models….