The opportunity to evaluate original research serves as one of the many foundations to both scholarly writing and research (Grand Canyon University, 2013). Therefore, to enhance this process I will critique empirical research articles for the purpose of demonstrating the effectiveness in understanding leadership ethics.
So, using the literature presented within in the works of “Predictors of Ethical Code Use and Ethical Tolerance in the Public Sector” by Neal Ashkanasy, Sarah Falkus, and Victor Callan along with “Advancing Ethics in Public Organizations: The Impact of an Ethics Program on Employees’ Perceptions and Behaviors in a Regional Council” by Itai Beeri, Rachel Dayan, Eran Vigoda-Gadot, and Simcha Werner, and finally, “ An Empirical Study of Leader Ethical Values, Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and Follower Attitudes Toward Corporate Social Responsibility” by Kevin Groves and Michael LaRocca comparisons will be made on the relevance and need for research purposes. In comparison, the authors of each study utilize ethical behaviors for the purpose of comparing relationships, perceptions, and beliefs associated with measures of ethical practice.
Furthermore, reasonable justification for conducting the research presented in each study is outlined as evidence from the posed research questions and is validated within the results of each piece of literature reviewed. Posed Research Questions Relating the Authors in the Comparison Similarly, the literature within each study focused on ethical practice and how it used to enhance behavior of individuals within organizations. However, assertions within the scope of the posed research questions present relevant generalizations for each study. For example, Ashkanasy, Falkus, and Callan (2000) focused on variables that formulated predictive roles of organizational, individual, group, and contextual levels for utilizing formal codes of conduct. These variables were developed to serve as predictors of ethical tolerance as a result of formal code use.
Whereas, organizational commitment (OC), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and quality of work life (QWL) are the basis in which Beeri, Dayan, Vigoda-Gadot, and Werner (2013) perceive positive relationships are built as ethical resources are generated. Hence, these three areas promote awareness of ethical leadership and decision making in addition to the ethics code. Further, Groves and LaRocca (2011) incorporate the notion of corporate social responsibility by modeling both transformational and transactional leadership styles. Here, the idea is leaders with deontological values of ethics will be perceived as modeling transformational leadership, while leaders with teleological values of ethics are perceived as modeling transactional leadership (Groves et al. , 2011).
Although each study assessed various ethical practices, each displays similarities in presenting study results as a means of validating posed questions of research. Sample Populations The results recorded from evaluations used in the sample populations’ highlighted evidence relevant to that of measures needed to verify theory associated with ethical practice. Hence, each study presented the results through a form of statistical analysis in which various test groups within the field of research were used. Moreover, similar methods were incorporated to assess the results of the respondents within all three studies. Ashkanasy, Falkus, and Callan’s Approach This evaluation involved mailed questionnaires to public sector employees in one State of Australia.
The principal method of conducting this study was based on hierarchical regression, and addressed several factors such as: demographic measures, personal ethical values and attitudes, context and group-level variables, and organizational practices (pg. 245, 2000). Given the basis of evidence Ashkanasy, Falkus, and Callan (2000) used this method of analysis to assert that ethical decisions are more likely to be influenced by employees, versus the effect of group and individual variables. Beeri, Dayan, Vigoda-Gadot, and Werner’s Approach In lieu of the goal to test the relationships between ethics and performance within governments locally, Beeri et al. , (2013) used questionnaires to evaluate the long term effects of an ethics program on employees’ perceptions, and the behavior in one council of an Israeli region.
This as a result, stems from awareness of ethical codes, and inclusion of employees in the ethical decision making process. Groves and LaRocca’s Approach Groves and LaRocca (2011) utilized voluntary community-based leadership programs that targeted educational values on ethics. The leaders of these community based programs were emailed a link with instructions for participation with an online questionnaire. The assumption here was that training on both transformational and transactional leadership, in addition to ethical decision making and CSR would now be implemented. Results Analysis All in all, the results displayed by the analysis of each study correspond to the overall effort of the posed research.
For example, supported results aligned with study hypotheses, but signified that certain mechanisms underlie the criterion for each of the tested variables on different levels according to Ashkanasy, Falkus, and Callan (2000). Whereas, Beeri et al. , (2013) report a greater awareness in ethical codes and decision making along with increased organizational commitment is achieved as a result of positive ethical leadership. And finally, Groves and LaRocca (2011) correlated their findings with the original prediction that transformational leadership alone was aligned with the beliefs of followers in view of the corporate social responsibility of stakeholders. Conclusion Study Limitations of Articles
To fully appreciate the level of understanding needed to evaluate literature of empirical research, a description of the methodology, research questions and an analysis of results must be presented to determine the validity of the overall analysis. And as such, each study discussed within the contents of this paper has been successful in delivering on all areas to support research efforts. However, there were areas that pose limitations to future research efforts for all three studies. For example, the use of questionnaires may not represent a true assessment of the respondent’s beliefs (Ashkanasy et al. , 2000).
Also, issues surrounding anonymity can urface when responding to questions concerning ethical climate (Beeri et al. , 2013). And further, influences set by both common source and common method can stimulate bias in lieu of follower values of CSR (Groves & LaRocca, 2011). For future development of the practice The results yield an overall influence within organizations that build on variables to increase ethical standards. However, there are yet underlying issues for democratic organizations that stress the importance of ethics, integrity, and fairness (Beeri et al. , 2013). And recommendations for further study are necessary to promote the continuous effort of influencing follower perceptions toward ethical commitments.