Introductions for at least two historical theories of emotion and arousal as they relate to human motivation. In social interactions emotions play an essential role, (Russell, Bachorowski, & Fernandez-Dols.2003; Scherer, 2003; Sanderel al, 20050. Your perception and facilitate rational decision-making and the brain within the human body. It is difficult to perform important regulatory and utilitarian functions. (Damasio, 1994). Perception and human cognition is the importance of emotions. And this is evidence from recent neurological studies underlines, (Picard, 2001). The discipline that studies human computer interactions, the affects and gain understandings of these phenomenon interactions have only recently started to investigate this. (Julien Mc Kecknie, & Hari, 2005; Picard, 1997; Nahl & Bilal, 2007).
Affective systems are developing and some progress has been made in the subject. Pleasurable and computer interaction experiences more effective and the ultimately making, human’s emotions are capable of recognizing and appropriately and responding to it. (Picard, 1997). In this field of emotion is still young with rapidly developing. The specific research objectives, has been to present this existing methodologies, so are readers will be able to evaluate these approaches against specific research objectives. In their opinion the reviewed methods have had a similar level of exposure and validation by our peers. They are what make life worth living and sometimes ending it. No aspect of our mental life is more important to the quality and meaning of our existence than emotions. Covered by the word “emotions” perhaps because the sheer variety of this phenomena. What is so surprising is that much of the 20th century philosophers and psychologists tend to neglect them. Economics, evolutionary biology.
Neurology, particularly psychology disciplines, it is no longer useful to speak of the philosophy of emotion and isolation from the approaches of others, between different emotions as well.as some of the ways in which they have envisaged in relation, I began by outlining the different ways that philosophers have conceived the place of emotions and the two pagraphy of the mind. In their relation to particularly in their relation to bodily states, to this starts of motivation, to a beliefs and desires as well as some of the ways in which they envisaged that relation to the contents of life offered a number of theories of emotion and stressing their function. Be said to be rational. Morality and relations between emotions this results in a particularly ambivalent. I will conclude with a brief survey of some recent trends by the neighboring disciplines in which the studies of the motion had become increasingly prominent,
Historical Theories of Emotion
According to Deckers (2010), “psychological arousal is one of the expressive channels for emotion” (p. 325). Also changes in different psychological variables are also important in determining what emotion the person is feeling. An assumption regarding physiological arousal is that the arousal is the cause for the emotion. Another hypothesis is that the arousal is the stimulus accompanying and deciphering the environment, resulting in the emotional reaction (Deckers, 2010). Lastly a third assumption is arousal and subjective feelings happen together and arousal provides preparation for the reaction (Deckers, 2010).
“The James-Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is one of the earliest theories of emotions within modern psychology” (Lang, Peter J., 1994. The Varieties of Emotional Psychology. The theory was developed by William James and Carl Lange and the basic concept of this theory is that the physiological arousal reveals a specific emotion. Instead of the body feeling an emotion and the body using its responses, this theory shows that the physiological change is first, and emotion is then kicked in when the brain reacts to all the information given and received by the nervous system. The James –Lange theory shows how most and all emotion is presented at the presented at the basis of a natural stimulus, which shows a physiological response. The responses produced from this could be a rise in one’s heart rate, sweating and dryness of the mouth and sometimes fatigue.
When dealing with and understanding the James- Lange theory an object that has an effect on a sense relays and the message to the cerebral cortex. At that point the brain sends that information and message to the body’s muscles and the viscera, in return they both respond to the signals. James showed that the response comes first, followed by an emotion and them instantly followed by a reaction. The James- Lange theory relies and uses the foundation of impulses from the periphery to account for many emotional experiences. “The main concepts of the Cannon- Bard theory is that the emotional experiences result from stimulation of the dorsal thalamus” (James, W; 1922. The Emotions).
Many times the physiological changes and feelings of a particular emotion as part of the response to a natural stimulus which are independently aroused and can often occur before emotion happens. This theory is based on research and studies that use the brain, physiological responses and feelings in an emotional situation. The most important factor in the Cannon- Bard theory is that the body changes with different emotional experiences and situations. Cannon summarizes this theory with the understanding that the thalamic region is the coordinator and operation center for emotional reactions.
Uncovering emotion is an ongoing process. Researchers work diligently to find ways to measure how human emotions occur. In the Little Albert experiment, Albert was not afraid of white rats until it was paired with a loud clinging noise. This experiment demonstrated how fear can be produced in a human being. This research was done in 1920 by John B. Watson and Rosaline Rayner, the purpose was to prove fear is a learned behavior. Although this research method demonstrated how a behavior is created, it also added insight into human emotions.
Research methods have since then evolved into understanding how emotions can be measured. One research method used by psychologist is called the observer method. In this method a person is given several tasks to perform, which are observed by a researcher. The researcher is looking for facial expressions, body language or gestures, and also speech. This method is widely used in psychology research of different disorders as well as emotions. Although the participant may fake some of the emotions during the process, this method has been instrumental in aiding the psychologist reading emotions. Analyzing the data from the observer research method can be somewhat skewed; and therefore, the information may not be as accurate if the person is afraid to show his or her true emotions. However the observer method is a good method to consider.
Another type of research is called a self- report, where the participant is given a questionnaire or an interview in order to understand how a person responds. Using self – report method, participants may be asked to keep an honest journal of how they feel. Journal writing may be one of the most effective ways to uncover emotions because it gives an honest account of how a person feels at any given time. The self – report method may prove to be more accurate in terms of understanding human emotion. Participants are more likely to answer a questionnaire truthfully especially of it is anonymous. If a research method does not single out a person, then probably he or she will provide honest responses. When a person is interviewed it is possible he or she will be honest with the interviewer, which can further the research on emotions. There are others methods used to uncover emotions, however self – report perhaps is the best way to unlock the mysteries of human emotion.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Facial expressions are an individual’s way of letting others know how he or she feels. Facial expressions provide an insight to the person basic emotions. Because facial expressions are a connection to the person’s emotions, it is safe to say that a smile simply means he or she is happy and a frown means a person is sad, unhappy. A hypothesis regarding facial expressions is that emotion and an experience are in relation to each other, however they do not share a connection or cause each other. A stimulus is the cause for an emotion and experience that are presented through facial expressions. Another hypothesis is that the affective experience and emotions are in direct cause of one another. This means that a person will show emotion through facial expressions only based on an experience, such as watching a sad movie and showing sad facial expressions, watery eyes etc.
The event-appraisal-emotion sequence is how an individual concludes the reason for someone’s emotional or sentimental response. An example of this sequence process is a person’s first date. A person will evaluate the date, and if the date seemed successful the person may feel happy, at ease, excited for possible future dates, and a possible long term relationship. Therefore, evaluating a situation based on the emotions that are being felt about it can lead to other emotions based on that experience. Both the facial feedback hypothesis and the event-appraisal-emotion sequence are based on a person emotions and experiences with other people. Despite the events that take place and the emotions that evolve due to these events all situations end in the same way, people ending up with a variety of emotions (Deckers, 2010).
Throughout this class we have learn so much about motivation and emotion gaining a good understanding about the influences our motivation and emotions how we can influence them. Motivation research and there theory are so importance so we can understand why we do what we do and why we act the way we do. All of these theories are in a way correct with interplay the different drives that motivating us in different times. Many theories have been done and they suggest psychological drives of autonomy competence or socialized drives for achievement affiliation and the power to motivate us. Hunger and sex are biological drives witch motivate us and many theories have been formulated which suggest this.
When trying to increase my own motivation I found information on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation really resonated. If what we are support to seen as enjoyable or interesting then we will be motivated to do them. To increase motivation sometime if you have an explanation about what it means or the importance of the task this will also increase the person’s motivation. To keep you motivate on a task you can break down into tasks that you can achieve and goals is also very motivated as positive reinforcement. Overall this class has help me to understand motivation and apply it to everyday life in this case I will need a lot more motivation.it has also taught me to understand how to go for it and inprove these situations so I can get move motivation.
Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Lottridge, D., Chignell, M., & Jovicic, A. (2011). Affective interaction: Understanding, Evaluating and Designing for human emotion. Human Factor and Ergonomics Society, 7(197). Retrieved from http://www.sagepublictions.com
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Lang, Peter J. (1994). “ The Varieties of Emotional Experience: A Meditation on James- Lange Theory”. Psychological Review 101 (2): 211-221. James, W. ; C.G. Lange ( 1922). The emotions. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co.