The purpose of this paper is to present information regarding effects of globalization on the economy and the culture of the Norway, during the past few years. Five sets of research questions were used to form the bases of the paper. The intent is to illiterate the cultural dynamics and business culture of the Country. Knowledge of the influence of culture and business practices will assist one with understanding globalization as it pertains to Norway. Using the information in this paper, individuals like consultants and managers who interact with Norweigians can use this as a framework or perspective
Summary of the case study “A Naïve Sahab In India”
The case study “A Naïve Sahab in India” tells the story of Brian Moseley, an Aspen Automotive employee from the US who has just been relocated to India to become the new managing director for Bindi Brake Company that had been acquired by Aspen. Brian’s main goal at Bindi is to improve operations and to “make the Indians efficient”. During Brian’s visits to the plants he observed many employees socializing instead of working, and found out that performance review and pay for performance were unheard at Bindi and employees were rarely dismissed no matter how poorly they performed their jobs. Brian asked his managers, who were born and educated in India to come up with a strategy plan to improve operations. After many months of frustrating meetings, and episodes when Brian lost his temper with his managers, he announced to the managerial team his own strategic plan to take place immediately that included performance appraisal, personnel cuts, pay-for-performance increases and others. Bindi’s manager did not reinforce the changes and Brian became even more forceful of his ideas, increasing the tension between him and his managers. Briand was referred by his managers as the “sahab”, a term used to describe Brian’s “culturally imperialistic” style.
Even with all the turmoil, Brain persisted and kept pushing his managers to apply the changes to their subordinates but instead of improving operations, Brian’s decisions pushed most of his managers to resign. All these obstacles made Brian wonder if changes and efficient operations would ever be a reality for the Bindi Brake Company. “A Naïve Sahab in India” clearly describes Deb Brian’s authoritarian managerial style and lack of cultural knowledge of India hurt his goals to transform Bindi into an efficient operations plant for Aspen Automotive. Brian’s personal frame of reference made him judge his Indian’s managers based on his own American values and made his Indians co-workers to see him as an dictatorial man telling them what to do in a disrespectful away. By failing to understand the Indian’s culture in the workplace Brian created a hostile environment and conflicts between him and his managers.
Many characters in the “A Naïve Sahab in India” can share the responsibility for the lack of change at the Bindi Brake Company. The first to be blamed is Aspen Automotive. Aspen should have better prepared Brian for his new position at Bindi. Aspen should also have directed Brian to attend multicultural training sessions where he could learn and better understand the Indian culture. Secondly, Brian should have taken the initiative to seek “cultural” assistance from Aspen human resources, from other expatriates or from Rajan in an attempt to find a more cultural sensitive way to approach his managers. Rajan, who had a better understanding of the Western culture due the fact that he was educated in a London University, felt attacked by Brian’s aggressive style but did little to help him. Rajan should have advised Brian that his aggressive managerial style would only bring conflicts to team instead of change in the company.
The last one to be blamed is the Indian manager, who had Brian’s trust, and should have been the bridge between Brian and his managers, trying to advise both sides to be more receptive to changes and culturally sensitive. Before Brian can advance and apply his strategy at Bindi, he needs to learn how to be more culturally sensitive. He would benefit from cultural training sessions, which has been proved to be very effective to prepare professionals for intercultural work. By going through such training, Brian would learn how to better approach his managers without being too offensive. Brian will have to re-think his strategies before putting together a new manager team made up with old and newly hired managers, and only then carefully and slowly introduce the expected changes for the company. Male/Female Differences
Disparities between males and females in society can be seen everywhere and the work place is no different. Women are expected to be vulnerable and
sympathetic to others’ needs, while men are expected to be competitive, strong and rational. In business, these gender differences determine communication behaviors and interactions. A study published in the “Journal of Social and Development Sciences” confirms, “the gender of individuals engaged in negotiations will affect the communication style utilized by each individual” (Yu-Te Tu, 2012, p. 125). Women might rely more on non-verbal and indirect communication, which has been noted as a characteristic to those who have less power. Women are still pictured as the fragile gender by society, however many of the exclusive “female traits” are strengths that can make women more efficient managers than men. For example, women who are able to relate to others easily and possess the ability to empower will be successful mentors to those in their workplace. It has been noted that women also tend to avoid confrontations, as they prefer to seek solutions to solve the problem. When it comes to emotional intelligence women, once more, they prove that they have an advantage over males.
According to the study published by the “Journal of Business and Psychology”, it states that women scored higher than males on an emotional intelligence test which results imply “females might be better at managing their emotions and the emotions of others as compared to males” (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003, p.399). It is important to note that emotional intelligence is the key aptitude necessary for successful leadership, which should put women in a more advantageous position to assume managerial positions. Unfortunately the “glass ceiling” is not the only issue women have to worry about; sexual harassment in the workplace is another big concern for organizations and companies.
The majority of victims of sexual harassment in the workplace are women. Studies have shown that more than half of women executives in the U.S. have been a victim of sexual harassment (Central Michigan University, 2008). Sexual harassment has many consequences, for instance, it can be financially costly to the company and cause severe emotional issues for the employee who suffered the harassment. To eliminate sexual harassment, companies are investing in training and have reinforced rules, policies and penalties regarding such inappropriate behavior. Women still have to go through many obstacles to prove themselves efficient as leaders, but big corporations are slowly realizing how much more women can do to improve their business. Differences in Self Disclosure
Self-disclosure is the concept of divulging information about oneself with others, whether it is co-workers, family, or friends. According to S. A. Beebe, S. J. Beebe, Remond, Geerinck (2010), they define self-disclosure not only as a strategy of sharing basic information with others, but it is the sharing of information about oneself that may be out of the ordinary that would not necessarily be discoverable otherwise. There are different styles of self-disclosure that derive from the Johari Window, ranging from the turtle and interviewer to the bull-in-the-China shop and transparent. The differences between these styles are based on how much one discloses and depending on how much is disclosed, it will determine the kind and quality of relationship that is formed with another person. Those who are able to disclose much about his or herself are transparent, whereas those who keep to themselves are seen as “turtles,” which carry an imaginary bubble around them (Central Michigan University, 2008). Interviewers are those who have no problem asking questions of others but are more likely to shut out to those who ask questions of them, whereas those who possess a “bull-in-the-China shop” style are those who have no problem giving feedback but shut out those who give them feedback (Central Michigan University, 2008).
The information that Chapman (2003) presents on the Johari Window is very similar to the Central Michigan University’s (2008) information. They both discuss the breakdown of the Johari Window, including the discussion of the four panes, known area, hidden area, unknown area, and blind area, although Chapman (2003) does a better job as discussing what each pane means. In order to tie into emotional intelligence, Chapman (2003) give the relationship of the Johari Window to emotional intelligence, suggesting that the Johari Window has offered a new way to assess oneself and the relationships that are formed based on the openness level achieved. All readings offered the same conclusions about self-disclosure and the Johari Window, stating that being open with others offers risks and rewards, however in order to build strong relationships, one must be able to find a balance on the amount of disclosure one will allow.
Emotional intelligence is the notion of understanding oneself and how one is self-aware, how one self-manages, how one is socially aware and how one is able to mange their relationships. The common trend among all definitions of emotional intelligence is that it is the ability to understand and recognize not only one’s own emotions, but also other’s emotions and how they influence one’s relationships and behaviors (Bradberry, Greaves, 2009). The level of emotional intelligence one possesses can greatly influence the interpersonal communication skills one develops. Many could argue that it is important to have a strong sense of emotional intelligence in order to bring cohesion to the workplace, as well as be more understanding of those who come from a different background.
In “Emotional Intelligence and competitive advantage: Examining the relationship from resource-based view,” by Voola, Carlson, and West (2004), the reader learns about Mahatma Gandhi’s influence on the world and how he possessed the emotional intelligence that gave him a competitive advantage over other leaders. Gandhi had the philosophy to provide strategic change, by “being the change you want to see in the world,” which translates to a crucial part of having a strong emotional intelligence; one must to take the time to understand the other cultures, people, and environments by being socially aware. Gandhi has be viewed as one of the most emotionally intelligent leaders of all time, the vision he created had a positive impact on effective changes among the world.
Two scholars, Bradberry and Greaves (2009) have broken down what emotional intelligence into four components, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management; whereas it has also been broken down into five components of self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy, and social skill. These components comprise what skills need to be developed in order to achieve that high level of emotional intelligence. Once each of these components is understood, then the process of attaining emotional intelligence will become self-evident. Self-awareness is the ability to know oneself, inside and out; it is the ability to truly understand oneself as you really are (Bradberry, Greaves, 2009). Many people have a difficult time with this component of emotional intelligence because it takes courage and honesty to dig down deep and get in touch with ones emotions.
The component of self-management/managing emotion builds on how well ones self-awareness is developed; a weak self-awareness will produce weak self-management and vise versa. Self-management is the ability to manage ones emotions and understand when and how one should react to a situation before exploding into anger. Motivating oneself is also important when it comes to self-management because this is how one keeps optimistic when things may get tough. Understanding how to recognize and manage ones emotions is the underlying trend when it comes to self-awareness and self-management.
As far as social awareness, relationship management, empathy and social skills, these components are what provide the basis for interpersonal relationships. Social awareness is the ability to understand those around you, by being aware of others emotions. This component can be developed by taking the time to observe others and the kinds of emotions they are giving off, whether it is by facial expressions or spoken words; a lot can be learned about another if one takes the time to interpret social cues a person is sending you (Bradberry, Greaves, 2009). Relationship management requires one to be able to demonstrate empathy and social skills, these two subcomponents are very important in building interpersonal relationships. The component of relationship management is built on the foundation of self-awareness, self-management, and social awareness. Each component naturally builds among each other and the stronger each is; the stronger the emotional intelligence one has will be (Bradberry, Greaves, 2009).
All of these components of emotional intelligence are crucial in terms of building strong and meaningful interpersonal relationships. A thorough understanding of emotional intelligence is needed for any workplace to achieve a high level of success. Emotional intelligence is an individual characteristic, however it is also up to that individual on how one will use their emotions to interact with others (Guillen, Florent-Treacy, 2011). As the reader has seen, emotional intelligence is a foundation on which one builds and develops their relationships; it is used to provide a deeper understanding of oneself and those around in and out of the workplace. A study done by Guillen and Florent-Treacy (2011) provided the basis that emotional intelligence in the workplace is not directly correlated with how a leader is perceived, but is necessary for leaders’ collaborative capabilities, more so how they influence teamwork. Harms and Crede (2010) have also found this to be true in their studies, that emotional intelligence does not determine the outcome of a leaders leadership, but does have a positive impact on school and work performance.
One could argue that emotional intelligence is a viable source of a workplaces success. Pearman (2011) presents a table with different situations and how those with a good grasp on emotional intelligence have an advantage in sorting the situation. For instance if one is working for any company that deals with customers, one may be presented with a situation where customers become unhappy. Those with a high emotional intelligence are able to help engage the individual who is unhappy by having a welcoming attitude, listening with an empathetic ear, and offering problem solving skills in order to help the satisfy the customer (Pearman, 2011). There are multiple examples about emotional intelligence in the workplace, whether it is in how one handles workplace relationships, interactions with customers, ineffective leaders and the list goes on an on.
Emotional intelligence is a subject that is seeing an increase in studies as to how and if it correlates with job performance, leadership abilities, work relationships, etc. There have many studies that have proven one aspect or another as to how emotional intelligence ties into the workplace. It is importance to receive training on the topic of emotional intelligence because it is a growing subject that needs to be recognized as having a part in the successes of an organization or relationship. Pearman makes a great representation of how important teaching emotional intelligence is to leaders and employees alike. He states, “Emotional intelligence facilitates not just communication effectiveness (or other competing training topics) but also an increase in individual performance that affects all levels of the organization” (Pearman, 2011, p. 71). Emotional Intelligence Research
This study is intended to assess whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and interpersonal communication with respect to developing managerial capabilities. The study was done by using the survey that provides data for each of the five areas of one’s emotional intelligence – self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy, and social skills. Students in graduate school completed the survey. This study was a qualitative design as well as a quantitative design. What this researcher is looking for is a person’s emotional intelligence at work. Who participated in the Survey?
The instrument that used was the typical Liker scale survey. This particular Likert scale survey is called what’s your emotional intelligence at work? (See Table 1). According to the developers of the instrument, the Liker scale has a high reliability and validity. The following focuses on a research project, consisting of three employees who shared their experiences about emotional intelligence in the workplace. Each person volunteered to describe their interpersonal relationships in the workplace by responding to a set of questions. Below is a summary of each person’s responses. Person A is a career Military Soldier and currently serves as a senior Logistics manager for the U.S. Army as a part of an organization consisting of over 300 personnel. The organization is a very interpersonal cohesive atmosphere.
Person B has served in the information technology field for over twenty years. Currently, works as an organizational IT applications manager ensuring IT compliance pertaining to Disaster Recovery Programs globally. Person C currently works for the Air Force, commanding communication satellites as a satellite vehicle operator and works closely with a crew to achieve the mission. It is imperative that the crew works well together and that cohesion is visible, since they are dealing with a multibillion-satellite constellation that provides secure communication not only to those overseas, but also to the president. Person C’s job is crucial to the Air Force and military in order to properly maintain the health of the satellite.
Understanding the Survey
The first part of emotional intelligence is self-awareness, which means being in tuned to your feelings, being cognizant of your internal feelings. The second part is managing emotions that are aimed at leaders calibrating their attitudes and moods so as to not negatively impact the workplace climate. The third part is the ability to inspire and instill optimism in the workplace regardless of challenges. The fourth part is the capability to empathize with other and identify how others are feeling without them telling you how they feel. The fifth part means to have the ability to make a personal connection with others and influence others is in a way that is personally engaging. This survey demonstrates a sign of one’s emotional intelligence. If one receives a total score of 100 or more, one can expect to have high emotional intelligence. A scoring of 50 to 100 highlights one’s level of emotional intelligence as good.
There are five different components of emotional intelligence that consist of the following; self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy, and social skills. If one reaches a score of 20 they are considered to have a high level and a score of 10 is low. Each student scored well for self awareness, 19 (Person A), 18 (Person B), and 19 (Person C). For this survey managing emotions scores were slightly different because Person B scored 22 while person C scored 18 and person A scored 19. Motivating oneself tends to instill ones confidence person A scored 20, while person B scored 19 and person C scored 18. In this survey when it comes, empathy organizations are looking for managers who possess caring attitudes -person A scored 22, while person B scored 21, and person C scored 20. As it pertains to social skills are always a critical attribute to have in the workplace and person B scored 24, person A scored 21 and person C scored 20. Overall person A scored 101, person B scored 104, and person C scored slightly lower than the other at 95. Table 1: Emotional Intelligence Survey Results
Table 2: Emotional Intelligence Survey Results
Only recently, has attention been directed to understanding the role of emotional intelligence in the work place and how the process may play in the development of manager’s abilities to improve work environments. The case study in this paper discussed communication problems that might have been avoided had the expatriate experienced intercultural, professional development, before visiting India. Focusing on one’s emotional intelligence in the workplace has beneficial outcomes for increasing trust and improving interpersonal relationships. Results of the emotional intelligence survey indicated three participants effectively used empathy and social skills and effectively managed their emotion while engaged in the work place.
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