The fallacy of ad hominem is an attack against the person of the one asserting a claim. The assumption made is that, as a consequence of the attack against the person, the claim made by such person is also false. 2. Ad hominem tu quoque This fallacy is possible to occur when a person made two inconsistent statements or a statement inconsistent with a prior action. It is assumed the claim later made is false because of the inconsistency without considering which or whether one of the two statements or actions made is really true.
3. Appeal to consequences of a belief Appeal to consequences of a belief makes the truth or falsity of a claim be based on the consequences that may occur if its truth or falsity is accepted. In this fallacy, if a claim will result to good consequences, it must be true and vice versa. 4. Appeal to authority Appeal to authority exists when a claim is asserted to be true based on the fact that it was made by an authority, who is in fact not an authority on that subject or is not qualified to make such claim.
If the person to whom the claim is attributed is actually an authority or an expert, then there is no fallacy. 5. Appeal to emotion Appeal to emotion is the act of stirring one’s emotion to influence a person to accept that a claim is true. 6. Begging the question Begging the question is properly called as reasoning in circles. It involves a premise that contains an assumption that the conclusion is true, thus giving rise to a situation wherein the premise is used to support the truth of the conclusion while the conclusion is used to support the truth of the premise.
7. Confusing cause and effect This fallacy occurs when a person assumes one event to be the cause of another event just because these two events usually occur regularly together, when there may in fact be no justification or proof establishing such causal relation other than the fact that they often occur together. 8. Middle ground The fallacy assumes a position to be true just because it lies in the middle of the two extremes. 9. Red Herring This fallacy is used to direct the attention of the other person away of the main topic of the argument.
The argument is diverted from the main issue to another issue which is not relevant, but s introduced under the guise of being relevant to the main issue. 10. Slippery slope This fallacy argues that one event will follow another event without giving a justification why. This usually occurs when the causation is too remote, such as when several other steps, which may not be inevitable, will have to follow before such claimed consequence may arise.
11. Straw man
This fallacy occurs when a person attacks a distorted position of another person, as a consequence of which it is assumed that the real or original position is also falsified. 12. Who is to say? In this fallacy, a person asks the question “who is to say” or other similar questions, but already has a preconceived answer that no one is to say. As a consequence of this, it is accepted that the issue cannot be decided because no one is capable or qualified to decide on it.