The new ideas that shaped our modern world are the influence of democracy, republicanism, nationalism and liberalism. Democracy is a form of gaovernment in which the citizen elects a representative to create laws on their behalf. Republicanism is a form of government in which the head of the state is the citizen of that nation rather than a monarch. A monarch is someone like a king, queen or an emperor. Nationalism is the belief that people of a similar race, culture or ideas ought to belong to the same nation state and liberalism was a movement aimed at protecting and improving the rights of individuals. Age of Revolution American Revolution The American Revolution was a political upheaval, 1765–1783, as the Thirteen American Colonies broke from the British Empire and formed an independent nation, the United States of America. Starting in 1765 the Americans rejected the authority of Parliament to tax them without elected representation. In 1774 the Patriots suppressed the Loyalists and expelled all royal officials. Each colony now had a new government that took control.
The British responded by sending combat troops to re-establish royal control. Through the Second Continental Congress, the Patriots fought the British in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783. In early 1778, after an invading army from Canada was captured by the Americans, the French entered the war as allies of the United States. The naval and military power of the two sides was about equal, and France had allies in the Netherlands and Spain, while Britain had no major allies in this large-scale war. The war turned to the South, where the British captured an American army at South Carolina, but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilian to take effective control.
A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. A peace treaty in 1783 confirmed the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida. The American Revolution was the result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society, government and ways of thinking and gained independence.
The French revolution was from 1780 to 1799. It brought an end to the medieval feudal system of land ownership ain France and eventually Europe but not everyone agreed with this. After the execution of King Louis XVI in 1793, opponents sought to crush it with the help of foreign armies (period known as Reign Of Terror). In the autumn of 1793, Robespierre and the Jacobins focused on addressing economic and political threats within France. What began as a proactive approach to reclaiming the nation quickly turned bloody as the government instituted its infamous campaign against internal opposition known as the Reign of Terror. Beginning in September, Robespierre, under the auspices of the Committee of Public Safety, began pointing an accusing finger at anyone whose beliefs seemed to be counterrevolutionary—citizens who had committed no crime but merely had social or political agendas that varied too much from Robespierre’s.
The committee targeted even those who shared many Jacobin views but were perceived as just slightly too radical or conservative. During the nine-month period that followed, anywhere from 15,000 to 50,000 French citizens were beheaded at the guillotine. Even long-time associates of Robespierre such as Georges Danton, who had helped orchestrate the Jacobin rise to power, fell victim to the paranoia. When Danton wavered in his conviction, questioned Robespierre’s increasingly rash actions, and tried to arrange a truce between France and the warring countries, he himself lost his life to the guillotine, in April 1794. ]
In conclusion, the outcome of the French revolution is that they overthrew the aristocracy of the day and took control, swept away the French monarchy and nobility, the French Revolution may have been bloody and violent, but in the end it changed the economic, political, and social structure of France forever, Probably the best reforms to come out of the Revolution were the reforms that would be the cornerstone of a legal and administrative system that still endures. There is only one negative outcome I can think of, is that King Louis XVI died, if he hadn’t died then they wouldn’t have attacked France and none would have shed a blood.
The Eureka Rebellion
The Eureka rebellion in the year 1854 was a historically amazing organised rebellion of gold miners of Victoria, Australia. The battle of the Eureka Rebellion was fought between miners and the colonial forces of Australia. This event happened because of an act of disobedient in the Ballarat region, during the Victorian gold rush with miners against carrying a miner’s licence due to high fees. The licence fee became the main point of a much larger protest against the lack of democratic rights, and without the right to vote, miners had no say in the governments decisions. The only way their views were known was to either not carry them or even publically burn them and as this gets the Polices attention, they built stockades to protect themselves from the Police. The outcome of the Eureka Rebellion was that they came to symbolize the fight of the ordinary people for justice and basic rights.
The suffragettes argued that women should be able to vote and stand for election because the wishes of women should be reflected in parliament. They argued that a government ‘by the people’ should include government by women, because laws affect women as much as they do men. Vida Goldstein was born in Portland, Victoria. She believed that men and women should have equal rights. She worked for the right of women to vote, called ‘suffrage’, and her parents encouraged her to be strong and free. In 1903 Goldstein was the first woman in the British Empire to try to become a member of a national parliament. She stood for election to the Australian Commonwealth Parliament but did not win. She did not give up but worked towards women’s suffrage in Victorian state elections. Women in Victoria got the vote in 1908. During the First World War, Goldstein formed a group of people who worked for peace. A special tree was planted in the grounds of the Victorian Parliament to honour her achievements and an electorate (voting area) in Melbourne is named after her.
Egalitarianism basically means a fair go for all. Fairness and equality, mateship and brotherhood are words I would use to describe egalitarianism. Everyone helping everyone through tough and thin, bushfires, droughts and floods, they would all need to co-operate and help each other to survive. However egalitarianism hasn’t applied to everyone in Australia. Within the framework of Australia’s laws, all Australians have the right to express their culture and beliefs and to participate freely in Australia’s national life. At the same time, everyone is expected to uphold the principles and shared values that support Australia’s way of life. These include: •respect for equal worth, dignity and freedom of the individual
•freedom of speech and association
•freedom of religion and a secular government
•support for parliamentary democracy and the rule of law
•equality under the law
•equality of men and women and opportunity
•a spirit of egalitarianism that embraces tolerance, and compassion for those in need. Australia also holds firmly to the belief that no one should be disadvantaged on the basis of their country of birth, cultural heritage, language, gender or religious belief. So Is Australia an egalitarian society?
Australia is a relatively new country, with federation occurring little over a century ago. However, it has progressed steadily and today we are considered a wealthy, internationally competitive democracy. To many outsiders, Australia looks like heaven, a perfect paradise in which to live. Beautiful beaches, unique animals, a laidback lifestyle and a democratic system of government all add to this image of Australia being the perfect place to live. It has become the way of Australians to promote the image of equality in our country. However, Australia has had a very racist past, with policies such as the White Australia policy and the many discriminatory acts of injustice placed against the native Aboriginals.
An egalitarian society is one that looks after the poor, treating them with dignity, and taking appropriate measures to ensure the welfare of all its citizens regardless of age, gender or race. An egalitarian society should not condone any form of discrimination, and should attempt to provide equal opportunity for everyone. Since 1901, Australia has come a long way in fighting inequality. Women now have equal rights to men; the White Australia policy and the Assimilation policy were abolished; life has improved for Aboriginals as their rights are now being acknowledged; average life expectancy has increased; and the government does a good job ensuring that all Australian citizens benefit from the nation’s prosperity.
However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether Australia is starting to neglect the important issue of equality in society. In 2003, it was found that the top 10% of Australian households had a higher income than the bottom 50% of households combined. While one may argue that Australia has become wealthier than ever, statistics read that there are more homeless and disadvantaged people than there were 25 years ago. I believe that Australia has improved in becoming a more equal and fair society but it seems that these days were lacking something, like there is a big gap in between the poor and the rich, like no matter how much they work the poor will stay a poor, and the rich get richer as time goes by.