Analysis of a long period (1947-1971) needed for the independence of Bangladesh is mainly depicted in this book. Analysis of why and how Bangladesh was emergent as a sovereign country in the world is also illustrated here. Number of both internal and external factor that led the liberation war of 1971 also plays a vital role in the analysis.
The liberation war 1971 with its final achievements through the sacrifices has remained as a sacred and precious part in the history of Bangladesh. The nine month long a glorious war which was identified as a major land mark in the entire process of evaluation, analytical role of India, erstwhile Soviet Union, USA and China constitute the central content of the work. Internal developments stimulating the rise and consolidation of nationalism are analytically discussed. The focus however is on the international setting of Bangladesh in a relatively short time.
The present revised and enlarged edition contains analysis of national and international developments since 1975,which was the cutoff point of this book when published in 1978.Three new chapters included in this enlarged edition dwell on Global, Regional and National changes and developments from 1975-2006.State building, Nation building and Parliamentary Democracy in Bangladesh and terrorism & national security.
It describes how the birth of a new state occurred in a polycentric world.
The world of the nineteen seventies apparently multipolar can also be described as a ‘Pentarchy’ structure of two triangles in which five dominant power rules. The first triangle is Military, consisting of those states with dominant strength in arms, actual and potential, the United States, the Soviet Union and China. The second triangle consists of three leading powers in the world of economy and finances the United States, Western Europe and Japan.
The triangles are asymmetrical and unstable for, while chinas Military power continues to rise, though slow and gradually, the economic position of the United Sates continues to decline relatively, if only proportionately, to those of Western Europe and Japan.The triangles are also complex and inter related. The Military triangle is composed of limited adversaries, whereas the economic triangle consists of limited alliances. The World System since the beginning of seventies has not only registered as marked integration of the cold war collisions but has also been featured by growing challenges to the competence and authority of nation state institutions.
The challenges to the existing nation state institutions has been most strident in the so called Third world, where practically every government presides over a multi-ethnic,multi-linguistic and multi-cultural state.
That Challenge was crowned with success in a spectacular fashion in the case of Bangladesh at the close of 1971 the caesarean birth of Bangladesh marked the success of the first armed separatist struggle in the post,1945 post-colonial third World.
During 1953-1957 the United State was busily making collective security arrangements in an attempt to recruit ‘Allies’ for her confrontation with the communist camp. In south-east Asia the United State sponsor and encouraged the formation of SEATO (The South East Asian Treaty Organization) and CENTO (The Central Treaty Organization).
The arrangement was originally viewed by the United States & Thailand as underpinning the inherently with Geneva agreement which recognized the communist-ruled North Vietnam. CENTO also began as a regional security grouping at the behest of Iraq and Britain, but the participation of those
northern states of Asia sharing frontiers with the Soviet Union such as Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and the reinsurance, as it were, provided by the United Sates, made CENTO no less than SEATO, a US weapon against her Global adversary, Soviet Union.
The birth of Bangladesh-the first state to be born in blood and fire in a polycentric world has been a unique case, as the following analysis shows. There is hypothesis that political factors, rather than economic, ethnic and cultural one, were catalyst of Bangladesh revolution.
From autonomy to secession
1. A brief history about the Muslim rules in India from the late 1200 century to 1957 is described here. Muslim separatism-British rule in India, in general ,was favorable to Hindus. In Bengal, the nineteenth century ,Bengali middle class with Calcutta as its economic, cultural and multi political Mecca, was a Hindu middle class.The Bengali muslim society, at this time, consisted of a thin aristocratic stratum, a small but gradually growing, English educated middle class and a vast, impoverished and illiterate peasantry.
2. Political history of mother tongue-from the beginning of the emergence of Pakistan that was cultural and linguistic discrimination between east and west Pakistan. The Awami Muslim League with other dissident political groups demanded the recognition of political and cultural rights of East Pakistan. When Pakistan tried to impose Urdu, a language as the only speech language of the country, the political parties of East Pakistan and several other organizations opposed these attempts through mass rallies, processions, meetings and demonstration during the period 1942-1952. A number of students lost their lives as a result of police firing on the procession.
They became the first martyrs of Bengal for the cause of language, culture and autonomy. 3. Formation of united front government in 1954 and they demanded 21 points. Among other things the most important was full regional autonomy. 4. Proclaimed of martial law in 1958 – President Mirza proclaimed martial law in the country on 7th October’1958.On 27th October he himself was ousted by General Ayub Khan, who proceeded to build a Unitarian, centralized, dictatorial system with the support and sanction of arm forces. Sheikh Mujib with his lieutenants came out openly in 1966, with their manifesto, called the 6th point program, which outlined a situation of maximum political, economic and administrative autonomy for East Bengal within a confederal Pakistan. 5. Politics under military resumes.
6. Civil world and secession from 25th March to Aug’1971.
7. Gaining of de-facto independence of Bangladesh.