As early as 2600 BC, games are universal part of human experience and present in all countries as part their cultures. Games are usually for enjoyment, leisure, and sometimes used as educational tool. Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental and physical stimulation, and often both. Games can take a variety of forms, from competitive sports to board games and video games. One of the famous board game is the Chess which is a mind of game and strategy. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known board games (“Game”, 2011). In the Philippines, Filipinos have many traditional games. Games that commonly play by children usually using native materials or instruments. Among these games are Patintero, Tumbang Preso, Syatong, Sipa, Turumpo, Chinese Garter, Luksong Tinik, Luksong Baka, and Sungka. Most of the games started in rural province at the turn of the 20th century, and brought to the city suburbs role in the early 1950’s. Traditional games had a socializing the Filipino community. According to Armando Malay, one of the first Filipinos to document traditional in the country through his book Games of the Philippines, “Filipinos like to play games, one index to their sociability.
Games bring members of the family together after their respective chores have been done in the neighborhood; they strengthen the ties that bind families.” But traditional Filipino games are slowly getting lost. As today’s kids are becoming more and more adept with technology, spending more times with their electronic gadgets and even getting their own accounts in social networking sites, the less they are able to play outdoors. But the popularity of many of the country’s traditional games has been diminishing even decades ago. In her book “A Study of Philippine Games, Mellie Leandicho Lopez has quoted E. Arsenio Manuel as repeatedly lamenting in his series on traditional games publish in Sunday Mirror Magazine from 1960 to 1961 that “Philippine games are disappearing” (Benosa, 2009). One of the traditional Filipino games that are rarely played today is the game of Sungka. Sungka, one of the games popular not only to kids but adult as well Filipinos find it enjoyable especially in the rural areas to spend time with. For as long as anyone can remember, there has always been a Sungka board in the Filipino.
Sungka is popular traditional board game in the Philippine variant of a widely distributed family of board games called Mancala. Mancala is the name of a family of similar board games played on boards consisting of rows of hollows or cups, into which seeds, shells, stones or similar objects are sown. It is also known as Count and Capture Game. It is one of the oldest board games in existence and also on of the most widespread games being found all over the world. Mancala is known to date back at least 1400 years before the birth of Christ. Most historians believe Mancala originated in ancient Egypt. Form Egypt, the game spread to the nearby areas of Africa and the Middle East with whom Egypt has trade relations. By 600 AD, Mancala began to spread further eastward into Asia. Mancala was little known in Europe until 19th century. And it was finally introduced to the New World during the time of the slave trade. The recorded history of Mancala in Southeast Asia goes back to the 17th century. The first written sources this time provided enough detail to identify it as a Mancala game.
It is likely that Mancala games existed much earlier but the absence of rules makes such suggestions only speculative. The outstanding feature of Mancala games in Southeast Asia is the inclusion of each player’s store, which is enlarge hole at each of the board, among the holes in which counters are placed. Most variant of Mancala in Southeast Asia are played by two people only. One particular set of rules is shared by the players in Indonesia and Malaysia the game is known as Congkak or Dakon, where it is played on two rows of three with up to two rows of nine or more holes with two holes with two stores at each end. The number of holes per row varies from up to three up to nine or even more. In Maldives, the game is called Ohvalhu, which means “the game of eight hole”. Boards with rows of six and ten holes are popular in the Maldives. And finally, there is a game best known as Sungka in the Philippines that exclusively played on two rows of seven (Voogt, 2010). Sungka was first described by the Jesuit priest Father Jose Sanchez in his dictionary of the Bisay language (Cebuano) in 1692 as Kunggit.
Father Jose Sanchez who had arrived on the Philippines in 1643 wrote that at the game was played with seashells on a wooden, boat-like board. It was first described outside of Asia in 1894 by the American ethnologist Stewart Culin as Chuncajon (“Sungka Wikimanqala”, 2011). As for the origin of the term ‘sungka’, researchers found traces of a similar game at a stream in Indonesia. The stream, widely known to travelers as the Red River, is called sonka by early Asians. The theory maintains that the Sungka game Filipinos know today may have been brought by Indonesians when they migrated to the Philippines (“Sungka WikiPilipinas’, 2010). Sungka is indeed a Philippine mancala game, which is traditionally played on a block of woo or game-board called sungkahan (As shown on Figure 1).
Figure 1.0: Sungka Board
The board is commonly shaped like a boat and consists of two rows of 7 small holes called houses (bahay), and additional large store hole which known as head (ulo) at either end of the board for the captured stones or shells. A player owns the store hole to his left. Sungka is a game of skill in calculation played commonly by women and children. It is a two game, sit on the either side of the board across from each other. Ninety-eight shells or similar counters are used. Each fills the small holes with seven shells each, leaving the head empty. The goal is to store as many shells as possible in their large store holes.
In today’s modern technology, many traditional board games are now available as computer games, which can include the computer itself as one of the player r as sole opponent. Many games were developed and become electronic and computerized games. There are existing theories and studies on how to develop computerized and electronic games. Specialists provide a computer program that can solve the problem of computerized and electronic games and they called it Artificial Intelligence Program (Cruz et. Al. , 2011). Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave in ways that resemble intelligent human behavior (Radlow, 1986). In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program. The potential applications of Artificial Intelligence are abundant. They stretch from the military for autonomous control and target identification, to the entertainment industry for computer games and robotic pets. Game have played an important role in Artificial intelligence because game playing is considered as typically intelligent task, but also because games always form a closed environment with limited possibilities and clearly define rules. The most famous result of AI in games is of course the fact that computers nowadays can play chess at grandmaster level.
In competitive race between computer-chess programs, many techniques have been developed that are now being applied on regular base in other areas of AI and computer science. The family of Mancala games has been introduced in Artificial Intelligence relatively early, although most research is restricted to only two games: Kalah and Awari. The game of Kala is modern, commercial variant of Mancala. It was introduced in the 1950s by a firm called “The Kalah Game Company” owned by W.J. Champion. In 1960, a first computerized version of the game was created and many other followed. Kalah has been studied as early as 1964 by Richard Russel. He wrote a program, called KALAH that actually could play the game. In 1968, A.G. Bell wrote another program that could learn in some way from the errors. A year later, Slagle and Dixon (1969, 1970) used the game of Kalah to illustrate another algorithm for playing games. Using some of the advanced techniques that were developed for chess, irving, who is an undergraduate student at Caltech University, was able to find the winning strategy for Kalah. The smaller instances of Kalah were solved by considering every possible position that actually can arise during a game of Kalah.
Database were created in which every position and its game-theoretic value are stored. The larger instances of Kalah were solved by game tree search. For these instances, only winning strategy from the opening position is known explicitly. The program is however able to find an optimal strategy for every position that can occur during a game of Kalah. The other mancala game that gained interest from AI game researchers is Awari. This game is played in West Africa and the West Indies. The interest in Awari started the AI community by the construction of a program called “OLITHIDION” and has been growing steadily since then. The game of Awari is the only mancala gamed that is played on the computer Olympiad. This is an event in which all kind of computer programs compete in several classical game like Chess, Checkers, and Go, but also in new and artificial games like Hex and Lines of Action.
The fact that a student has solved Kalah, several competing teams of AI researchers were still not able to solve Awari despite the serious efforts done in this direction. In the competition for solving Awari, one strategy of the participating teams is build large end-game databases. These databases contain for a huge number of board positions how many counters can be captured and which move is the best to play. The team of Lincke (2000) constructed the databases that contain all board positions with 35 or less counters still in play. It is sure that it is impossible to create a complete database with all possible positions. The expectation is that soon the game tree search from the starting position and the end-game database will meet in the middle (Donkers et. Al., n.d.). This study is intended to design and develop a Android Sungka game correlated with other mancala games. By adapting traditional games into computerize version, the researchers can preserve some of the country’s heritage and culture while making it interesting for the next generation.
Significant of the Study
The significant of the Android Sungka Game will benefit the following: To the Players. It help them to enhance their strategy and skills and at same time to enjoy the game. To the Public. The development of this game will enable the public to be aware of the Filipino game of Sungka. To the Developers. It help them to design and develop a program like traditional game in relation to the study of Artificial Intelligence. To the other Researcher. This study will be a guide to the other researchers to a broader research about computer games in relation with Artificial Intelligence Program and will encourage developing other computer games inspired by Filipino games.
Scope and Delimitation
The Android Sungka game limits itself as a single-player and dual-player game. For single-player game the computer (which is the AI) is the opponent of the player while for the dual-player game it is Human VS Human. AI will definitely test the player’s skills and strategy to win the game. Definition of Terms
Android – is a Linux-based Operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile such as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by Google in conjunction with the Open handset Alliance. Android Software Development kit (SDK) – includes a variety of tools that help you to develop mobile application for the Android platform. Eclipse – Does a Multi-language development environment comprise an integrated development environment (IDE) and an extensible plug-in System. It is written mostly in Java. It can be used to develop applications in Java and, by means of various plug-in, other programming languages. Java Development kit (JDK) – is an Oracle Corporation product aimed at Java developers. Since the introduction of Java, it has been by far the most widely used Java Software Development kit (SDK). Emulator – is a software application that can accurately imitate another computer, mobile phones, device or even arcade machine and run software from that computer.
SDK Manager – the Android SDK separate tools, platform, and other components into packages you can download using the SDK Manager. Android Virtual Device (AVD) – is used to configure Android’s emulator to artificially represent an actual mobile device. An AVD modelled to the specification of a real mobile device enables developers to test their android applications for that device. AVD Manager – The AVD Manager provides a graphical User interface in which you can create and manage Android Virtual Devices (AVDs), which are required by the Android Emulator.
Dalvik – is the process virtual machine (VM) in Google’s Android operating system. It is the software that runs the applications on Android devices.
Objective of the Study
The main goal of this study is to develop an Android Sungka Game. Specifically, the study has the following objectives:
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents a review of related literature that read by the researchers which served as basis is doing their study. Furthermore, the literature review helped the researchers in the development of the present project. Related Literature
Android among Smartphone’s
Android among Smartphone was chosen as the target platform of our application, we devoted this chapter to show its place among competition, and perhaps shine a light on why we chose it. Early Years of Smartphone
The Smartphone industry started with the Symbian operating system, Palm, windows Smartphone and Blackberry. These devises were the first to be called Smartphones and rightfully so. They provided larger than usual screens, often stylus-controlled touch screens, were able to use email and could even browse the web in a limited fashion. Then came the Apple iphone. The iPhone brought a few key improvements that made it a hit. First and foremost it, which used capacitive touchscreen, a touchscreen controlled by a finger, which the often and uncomfortable stylus. The whole interface was designed to be easily controlled by human finger, making it the attractive to the customers. Its display even supported multi-touch, a great when zooming and navigating web pages for instance. On that note another key improvement was the web browser, by ArsTechnica then described as “far superior to anything that we had ever used prior.” And last but not least the iPhone applications that became a huge success, beneficial for all parties, generating revenue for Apple, connecting developers to customers and bringing great amounts of apps for Users. It started s development boom for the plat-form which ended in hundreds of thousands of applications.
Android: The Beginning
Android is a result of increasing demands on smartphones.in the early years of smartphones, apart from Windows Mobile and partially Symbian, each manufacturer had its propriety operating system developed for their own devices. The Android came because of two reasons: 1. the ever increasing demand for smartphones, and because if there exists unified system used by many manufacturers, both the manufacturers and the customers benefit. Manufacturers don’t have to spend resources on developing high-end system, in the case of Android they don’t have spent any resources at all since it’s free, and customers benefit from increased amount of applications since developers don’t have to port apps to each of the many platforms.
Android started as a startup company in Palo Alto, California, the birthplace of many computer revolutions. Development started in 2003 and by 2005 Google bought the project and accelerated its pace. Android is powered by Linux Kernel. In 2007 the newly formed Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of powerful communications companies, aimed at developing open standards for mobile devices, was unveiled. On the same day they introduced their first product, Android. Android 1.0 was released in September 2008.
Software designed to support young people’s learning often borrows from game design in an attempt to replicate the levels of engagement and harness this to facilitate more traditional learning. These attempts are not always successful and the results do not always convince a discerning gamer.
Nowadays, the most popular and useful types of cognitive games used for education in natural sciences are quizzes, puzzles and problem solving games. Game types such as word, logic, board or problem-oriented games may utilize semantically organized course content for dynamic exaction of terms, concepts, and semantic relationships such as sub-typing, association, aggregation, instantiation and dependency.
This study is intended to come up with a game design that can be integrated with relevant learning techniques in educational games that are both engaging and educative.
Research into the use of mainstream games in education is relatively novel, ut growing rapidly. Research is mainly concerned with the development of related competences and illiteracies during game play, or the role of games in the formation of learning communities either while gaming or related to game play.
Significantly the experience of game play seems to be affecting learners’ expectations of learning activities. Preferred tasks are fast, active and exploratory, with information supplied in multiple forms in parallel. Traditional school-based learning may not meet these demands
Compared to ours the study relates on some aspects of their developed project like its concept where you can answer the question with a running time. As to developing our game, we had searched and found some studies that could help us make our project more interesting.
The difference with our project compared to some games is that ours is concern with the entertainment, opportunity and the challenge factor.
Mechanics, Dynamics and Aesthetics
Games are created by designers/teams of developers, and consumed by players. They are purchased, used and eventually cast away like most other consumable goods. Game design and authorship happen at many levels, and the fields of games researcher and development involve people from diverse creative and scholarly backgrounds. While it’s often necessary to focus on one area, everyone, regardless of discipline, will at some point need to consider issues outside that area: base mechanisms of game systems, the overarching design goals, or the desired experiential results of game play.
This chapter discusses the software development methodology, scope and delimitation, data gathering, techniques, data gathering instrument and source of data use in the study. This will help the researchers on conducting the study systematically to achieve the study’s objectives.
Software Development Methodology
The software development methodology use to develop the Android Sungka Games is Prototyping. Since, android games like the Sungka game requires modeling and testing in its development. Prototyping is a process in which a prototype (model) is built, tested, and then rework as necessary until an acceptable prototype is finally achieve.
Prototyping has several advantages, including reduction of project risk and costs, by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process. It also requires user to see and interact with a prototype allowing them to provide better and more complete feedback and specifications. The iterative framework and trial-and-error process of prototyping is apply to design and develop the Android Sungka Game.
The prototyping has the following phases:
Planning. This phase intends to identify the project goals. Precise project problems and scope of required solutions are identify. All of the software product requirements to be develop during requirements definition stage flow from one or more of these goals. In this phase, the researcher has set the project goals: to apply the most basic rules of the traditional game of sungka to the android sungka game: to add some features to the game like having an AI opponent. The researchers aim to develop the game using Eclipse programming language. Requirements Gathering and Analysis. Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired. Requirements are a description of how a system should behave on a description of system properties. Required data about the traditional game of sungka are gathered and analyze in this phase. The researchers basically acquired information about the game, its origin, how it is play manually. Also, ask some people especially those who know the game, about the rules and techniques. The researchers learn to play the game manually to know some instances in the game. Some computer games features are studied to be able to apply on the computerized sungka game.
Preliminary design is creates defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for the system to satisfy specific requirements. The objective of this phase is to design the solution, defined during the analysis phase. After all the requirements gathering and analysis, the researchers design a simple illustration of the game, basic interface and design of the board is created. As shown in Figure B.4 of Appendix B. Code generation. The design is now translated into a machine-readable form. The code generation step performs this task. Detailed design could lessen the complication of the code generation process. Visual Basic 6.0 is the programming language used. Testing. After code generation the software program-testing begins. This will test if the program is ready for use. If other modifications are needed the developer will undergo rework. Implemention. If all modification are satisfied the program is now ready to use. Maintenance. The software will surely undergo changes; these changes could directly affect the software operations. Routine maintenance is carry out on a continuing basis in order to maintain good condition.
Data Gathering Techniques
The instrument use to gather the most essential data and information in this study is research. Research is a systematic study or investigation in a field of knowledge to discover or establish facts or principles. The development process involved the following: study of the existing board game and how to play the game. The researchers examined if the existing manual board game can be computerize and technically possible. The researchers gathered the existing board game’s mechanism including articles related to this study.
Data Gathering Instruments
The researchers used internet research and books from the Library for collecting data and information needed in the development of the study. Internet Research
The internet was the primarily tool used for the collection of data and useful information with regards on the development of the study specially the history of Sungka game which is a traditional game found in the Philippines. The researchers downloaded important articles regarding Sungka game rules to attain the important information needed. Library Research