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# Electricity and Magnetism Spring Lab Project Essay

Electric Field Hockey

Objective: Write two paragraphs. Explain the challenges of scoring goals in this game. Be sure to include in your explanation the terms positive and negative charge, electric field line and explain how mass affects the motion of the “puck.”

This simulation project is all about getting the puck into the goal while surround the puck with using few positive and electric charges. The positive charges have made the puck bounce back off, while the negative charges have made the puck oscillate to each there meaning that the puck and negative charges are compatible and moves towards each other. However, the two charges and the electric field had played a significant role by letting the audience figure out how to get the puck into the goal. According to the book, electric field is depicted as like the gravitational force and a field force as well. Since field forces are similar to electric field forces, electric field forces are able to produce these open areas where no objects are contacting with each other, but still actively involved with the actions with other objects that were also involved with the electric force fields. The electric field has an equation know as E= Felastic/q0.

According to http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/Lesson-4/Electric-Field-Lines, the electric field has these charges that are composing the electric field that is related to the numbers of charges that the original charge has been carrying and how the electric field also correlates with “the distance from” the original charge. The website implied that the electric field’s direction is also correlated to the “direction that a positive test charge” and is correct due to the fact the electric charge would be positioned itself of encompassing around the original source.

Furthermore, the website has depicted the electric field lines as “vector arrows.” The most important fact is that how the electric field’s direction and length are related to the “strength and location of the electric field” in different vicinities. The website has later taught us a shortcut that in order to understand the aspect of how electric field lines are depicted as vector lines by drawing infinite amount of vector arrows. After we drew these infinite amounts of vector arrows, we began to realize that these lines are also known as electric field lines that go in the direction of the positive charge’s acceleration.

The puck and the charges play a special role within this simulation. Without the field forces, we are not able to figure out where the puck was going and the strength of the puck’s force even though the puck was positive and if the puck and the charges were set in the “field setting.” Furthermore, we should dissect the role of the positive and negative charges. In the beginning, we noticed that the positive puck would be attracted to each other if there were negative charges and bounce off each other if there were positive charges. If the puck was not positive, the reactions were the opposites. The negative puck would be attracted if there were positive charges and would bounce off each other if there were negative charges.

Secretly, the negative or the positive puck would move quicker in velocity as known as acceleration if the positive or negative charges were adjacent or about close to each other. The final component to this simulation was about how the mass affects the puck’s motion. As I played around with the simulation, I have noticed that the puck is able to move quickly over time if the mass was lighter and the puck moved slower if the mass was increased. Since the mass has continued to increase, it was harder for both the negative or positive puck to reach the goal, while the lighter negative and positive puck was able to reach to the goal more quickly and efficiently. The con of this simulation is that there would be a collision occurring if the puck had weighed from 1 to 4 N/M and the puck moves slowly at the least amount of mass at 50 N/M.

John Travolta

Objective: Write two paragraphs. Explain how John Travolta’s shirt gets charged and what happens to the charge when John gets near a doorknob. Be sure to include the terms charge, friction, positive, negative, metal and ground. Make sure to include what happens to the amount of charge that is built up in his body if the hand is initially close or far from the doorknob.

John Travolta’s shirt get charged due to the fact that his shoes are rubbed constantly on the rug that is underneath him. The charges are very unique because they all are negative and have convened at one specific place. As these negative charges have continued to move up towards his body, these negative charges have begun to slowly pervade throughout his whole body. The simulation had used friction, but there are two types of friction. Friction is not allowing any objects to move at all.

However, there are two different types of frictions: kinetic and static. Kinetic friction is “the force that opposes the movement of two surface that are in contact and are sliding over each other.” Meanwhile, static friction is “the force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between two surfaces that are in contact and at rest.” By doing the simulation, we were able to find out that there are two object that applies to the static friction: John Travolta and the doorknob.

The general picture is that John Travolta is building up these negative charges due to his foot is rubbed on the carpet and the doorknob has positive charges, which would lead up to transfer of charges, which is the process known as grounding. A ground is when an object has continued to build up these negative charges. In this case John Travolta is the ground because John Travolta’s foot is being rubbed against thee rug, which causes electrons to be produced and later ravaged throughout his body.

So let say there’s a situation where his hand is far away or close from the doorknob. Since Travolta’s feet is rubbed on the rug and his fingertip is at a specific distance, the stored electrons have been pervaded throughout John Travolta’s body and are slowly transferred to the doorknob. Meanwhile, if Travolta’s finger is adjacent to the doorknob, John Travolta’s foot is still rubbed on the rug, but the transfer of charges to the doorknob happens immediately, which prevents electrons from pervading throughout Travolta’s body.

Balloons and Static Electricity

Objective: Write two paragraphs. Explain why the balloon sticks to your sweater and also to the wall. There are three components to this simulation, which are the sweater, balloon, and the wall. Strangely, all of these two components have the same amount of positive and negative charges except the balloon since it is uncharged. However, the simulation begins when we drag the balloon to the sweater, the balloon begins to take away those negative charges that the sweater had. Since the balloon has gained all of the sweater’s electrons, the balloon has more electrons than protons that the balloon sticks onto the sweater, which has only positive charges.

This simulation is like the balloon experiment. The balloon experiment is when we rub the balloon onto our hair, but the electrons are staying at the surface of the balloon. This makes the balloon repel to one another. This is a similar situation to when a rubber rod is covered with a fur. Despite this, a glass rod that is covered with fur is going to attract the balloon since the two objects have different charges. At the end, the result of the balloon and sweater are attracted since they have negative and positive charges respectively.

The final component is the wall that also has the same number of positive and negative charges. The wall is very subtle at first, but is very similar to the sweater. Since the balloon still has the negative charges from the sweater, the balloon is still attracted to the wall. The balloon plays a crucial role due to the fact that the balloon deflects or positions out any negative charges that the wall has. As a result, the wall become positive and attracts to the negative charged balloon, since positive and negative charges attract.

Charges and Fields

Objective: Write two paragraphs. Explain how the electric field lines flow between the different sets of charges. What are the equipotential lines and how do they vary with distance from the charges. What do they correspond to on a topographical map?

This simulation is all about knowing how to use positive and negative charges while have electric field sensors. The positive charge has one nanocoulomb while negative charge has a negative one nanocoulomb. The positive charge particle allows us to know the direction and the intensity of the electric field lines, which is very similar to the electric field hokey simulation.

However, similar to the Electric Field Hokey simulation, the negative charge particle has shifted the direction and the magnitude of the electric field lines when the positive charged particle was placed. The electric field sensors allow us to find out the intensity and the direction at a specific point. These electric field lines affect the positive and the negative charges. For example, if you want to find the magnitude and direction of the positive charge to then negative charge we need to create multiple amounts of electric field lines in order to find the magnitude and the direction.

According to http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/equipot.html, the website stated that equipotential lines are these “contour lines” which are placed on map so that we could create lines that have “equal amount of electric potential or voltage.” The website also stated that equipotential lines are vertical to the electric fields, in which we could put in three perspectives. The equipotential lines within the constant field have these congruent “conducting plates” that have electric field lines are vertical to the “plates and equipotential lines are parallel plates.” The equipotential lines with the point charge has this equation known as “V= kQ/r2”, which r depicts distance, the q depicts the charge, and k is given the constant, 8.99 x 109 N x m2/c2).

Finally, the equipotential lines within the dipole have these charges that have the same magnitude, but one particle is negative and the other is a positive. Like the website mentioned, they mirror one another meaning that the positive and negative particle need the same number of lines and are convening in the center of where all the actions occur. Topographical maps are these maps that use “counter lines” and show the details of what each other country has like mountain ranges, rivers, and historical places. The equipotential lines play a specific role within drawling lines on the topography. The equipotential lines are able to maintain the same mount of potential energy as long as the lines that are drawn look very neatly.

The equipotential lines have a set of principles when they are drawn on a topography map. The first rule is that the equipotential lines could never touch each other or become adjacent to one another meaning that the lines need to have the same exact and can’t be drawn separately or discreetly. The second rule is that once the lines are drawn then the lines need to have an ending point, since the graph would look unfinished. Most of all, the equipotential lines need to look like flat curves almost like the shape of an upside parabola instead of vector arrows.

Explain the following to an eighth grader:

1. Describe why charged particles are sources of electric fields and are subject to the forces of the electric fields from other charges. Draw Field lines to help illustrate. The electric fields are “these regions where electric forces on test charges can be detected.” When a positive charge is placed, we could find out the magnitude and the direction of the positive charge while set in an electric field. However, if an object was involved with this, then the object is going to be interactive with the other object as well. In the book, they give us a small diagram, which is all about how if q0 is a positive charge and the spheres are positive and negative charged. The positive charged sphere is going to repel the positive particle, since liked charges are always going to reflect off one another. Meanwhile, the positive particle and the negative sphere are going to attract since opposite charges are going to attract with one another.

Furthermore, the magnitude of the electric field also relies on whether it has more or fewer electrons than that of protons does. As mentioned in the lab, electric field lines are depicted as “vector arrows,” which some people might argue that it is very useful to indicate the magnitude and the direction of those electrical field lines. According to the book, there are four different situations to an electrical field line. The first situation is that a positive particle is in an electrical field and an object was positive. The end result will lead to repelling off another since liked charges don’t work. A negative charge will lead to contact with one another if there was a positive charged object. This is like the Electric Ice Hokey challenge, since the puck was positive and the positive particle was placed somewhere close to, it had to lead to a deflection off one another. Meanwhile, the negative particle attracted and contacted the puck.

The second example is how if there are two particles: positive and negative. These particles have the same number of lines going towards and outwards. According to the book, this process is known as electric dipole, since the two particles have the same magnitude, but the one particle is negative and the other one is positive. The third example is that there are two positive charges that are not convening at the center, but moving outwards. This is a situation of how two liked charges could never attract with one another.

According to the book, the final example is involving of these particles known as +2q and –q. This is a situation where the first particle has these line that s are moving outwards twice as much as the other particles are. There was an indicator also to notice that is viable situation due to the fact there is a two in front of +2q instead of q. Since the lines for +2q are moving outwards twice as much, the –q has some positive lines. The book stated that the positive lines do not in fact become negative, but instead it becomes infinity. At the end, the lines of +2q and –q will look identical to one another despite the components that each of the particles has.

2. Describe how charging by touching occurs.

According to http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/Lesson-2/Charging-by-Conduction, charging by touching is also known as charging by conduction. Charging by conduction is the transfer of electrons to an uncharged object, but the two objects have to contact with one another. In a sense, this is comparable to an electrical conductor due to the fact that the particles within the objects are able to move freely. The website explains how charging by conduction occurs when there’s a negative charged object. It is the idea that a negative object is contact to an object that has an equal amount of protons and neutrons. Since electrons don’t like to be contact with one another as we saw in the John Travolta’s simulation, the electrons are moving around quickly to find a place to stay away from the electrons.

As soon as the negative charged object touches the neutral object, the electrons are quickly transferred. The negative charged object still has neutrons, but the other neutral object has the most electrons now. However, when they try to contact with one another, two negative objects will never attract, but would bounce off one another or reflect off one another. This is similar to the Balloons and Static Electricity simulation because the balloon, the wall, and the sweater have the same amount of positive and negative charges.

If the balloon had attracted all of the negative charges out of the sweater, the balloon is going to contact or stick on to the sweater since opposite charges attract. This applies to the wall as well because as that balloon is slowly approaching the wall, the negative charges are going away from the positive charges, while the balloon and the all are slowly attracted and contracted to one another due to the opposite charges attract. Another experiment is when two balloons are rubbed onto a person’s hair, which will end making both balloon negative charged. As a result, they would not attract to one another.

3. Describe how charging by induction occurs.

Charging by induction is when two objects are involved and transfer of charges occur without any contact with one another. Induction involves an electrical insulator that is when the particles within the objects are not able to move freely. The specific definition for induction is that a conduct is being charged by another charged object if one of the conductors is grounded to the Earth and is in contact with one another. For the example, the book gave us four great ideal examples when charging by induction occurs. The first example is when a rubber robbed has electrons and the sphere also has a mix of protons and neutrons. However, like in the John Travolta’s case, we learned that electrons don’t like to be contact with one another and would bounce off each other once they are met. This is the specific case for the first example.

The second example is when grounding is involved. Grounding is the idea that the transfer of charges takes place between two contacted object if one object has a lot of specific charges. The second example involves a negative charged object is brought tote sphere that is grounded onto the Earth. Since the electrons are repelled due to the electrons on the rod, the electrons are quickly going to the ground. The third example is that the sphere would have more positive charges than negative charges if the negative charged object is not in contact with the sphere. The final example is that the sphere would have the same number of positive and negative charges if the negatively charged object were not within the vicinity.

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