Though there have been many greatly noted civilizations of the ancient world one might see those of the Egyptian and of the Roman Empire as two of the greatest. There were many contributing factors to the success of these two societies as well as there downfalls.
One reason the Egyptians was a successful in the ancient world was due to their environment. The main reason for the strength of the early Egyptian society was the Nile. The Nile kept a majority of Egypt’s riverbanks full of lush greenery and plentiful natural resources. The Nile provided fresh water, free transportation, endless agricultural possibilities, as well as trade aspects. In ancient times all people depended on the river for their existence. Egypt flourished for 3,000 years because of the people’s ability to harness the power of the great Nile. The importance of the great river is reflected in ancient Egyptians daily life. It shows through in their art, religion, writing, as well as social lives. The river helped shape their society as well as their existence.
Religion also greatly affected the Egyptian society greatly. Their religion was one based upon the central idea of polytheism. Where they believed in a series of many gods and goddesses. Even the Egyptian kings or “Pharos” as they were called, were even referred to gods on earth. Society and their religion were based mainly upon keeping the gods happy and content. Often times offering them sacrifices and other gifts to keep the Egyptian people free of torment and disaster. Everything in life depended on the gods. From fertility, to the rising of the sun and moon, crops, as well as the great Nile. The gods could be fair or vengeful, or so was the theory of the Egyptians. Thus why they tried to keep them eternally happy.
Another powerful if not the strongest civilization of ancient times was the Roman Empire. Much like the Egyptians Rome also focused on location as an ideal place for starting a civilization. Rome was a city protected by hills. It had many great routes in out and out of the city mainly used for trade. Since Rome had such a good defensive standpoint a citizen could feel safe living there. ROMs location also added up to a large amount of cultural diffusion being the center of ancient life during its time.
The Roman Empire also used every one of its available resources very well. From natural resources to manmade, they used everything. From The great roman military building roads, for travel and trade, which was a large part of roman life. Romans were also very smart, using great techniques in art, architecture, and labor forms. Ancient Rome was the only place to have running water, sewers, roads, as well as an outstanding military. But they also had a people’s republic, which gave the citizen an actual voice in society. Rome also took advantage of war. With every war came more slave labor, be to used in any way shape or form that they desired. Thus making Rome the most civilized as well as the least civilized of its time.