During the early dynastic period, the early River Civilizations had just come to be. Egypt and The Fertile Crescent were 2 of the civilizations. Different civilizations were developing different things as well as living two different ways of life. In social and intellectual ways, these two civilizations handled themselves in very similar as well as many different ways to function the way they did and remain stable while they could. Egypt and the Fertile Crescent shared certain things within the social and political part of their civilizations.
They both needed a lot of work to be done. Anywhere from building pyramids, to parts of a city, someone had to do it, but who? To solve this dilemma, the Fertile Crescent used slaves, and Egypt had laborers. Having slaves or laborers made is accomplishable for job positions to be filled within a city, or made it easier and quicker to finish projects ordered by the Pharaoh. In an intellectual view, both developed a form of writing. The Fertile Crescent invented the cuneiform, which is also the first form of writing, to pass down history.
As well as Egypt, they had hieroglyphics, which served the same purpose, In other words, they needed a way to keep records from generation to generation. To do this, they used what they had to develop a form of writing to accomplish this. As for differences between to two civilizations, they were very many social and political ones. The Fertile Crescent had a small amount of social classes. They had a priest, merchants, and slaves. Those are the basic classes. The significance of having a less amount of classes is simplicity.
Also, because the Monarchy already holds most of the power, it has no need for someone else to have any. Egypt had a lot more compared to them. Pharaohs, Land owners, Army commander, merchants, Farmers, and Laborers. While having more social classes than The Fertile Crescent, it might seem to make it harder on them for they have more going on, and more people doing more things, but it made it easier on the Pharaoh. Yes, he still had say so in what went on, but there were still different people in charge of different things.
As for any intellectual differences, Egypt was able to develop a calendar. By doing this, they were able to tell when any floods were coming and it was no surprise. Not only did this calendar only help with flooding problems, but they could also mark any important date of when anything happened during their time. On the other hand, the Fertile Crescent was always hit by surprise by floods from the river. They never developed a calendar, so for them, they had no clue when a flood was coming and it became a panic when it did.