In this assignment I will be reviewing the different effects of exercise on the body system including the acute and long term using the pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data which I collected based on interval and continuous training method. I will also be including the advantages and disadvantages of these, also the participants’ strengths and areas where they can improve on.
-Effect of exercise on the musculoskeletal system
As Andre began to exercise, this had an effect on he’s bones; this is because he was putting more stress on them than usual which resulted in them getting thicker. Also exercise had an effect on he’s joints because the joints now became more flexible and he wasn’t getting anymore pains during or after exercising which was an improvement for him. A short term effect that Andre was capable of noticing is that his muscles was getting more flexible as he continued to exercise, this prevented him from getting any injuries, also it helped he’s performance.
Another effect is the range of movement; this is because as he continued to exercise his body got used to the stress it was being put under which led to the synovial fluid becoming less viscous. Additionally for the long term effects, Andre’s muscles was capable of tolerating lactic acid; this effect was noticed when Andre stopped complaining about the stitches he got in his legs while exercising. He stopped complaining because his muscles were using fat as a source of fuel when there wasn’t any oxygen available for the muscles. Also Andre’s muscles weren’t getting bigger but it was increasing in its strength; this is because of the training methods used for his six week training programme.
-Effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system
When Andre was exercising, a lot of he’s energy was getting used up quickly. This energy is gained from the oxidising glucose; this means that not only oxygen must be delivered by the blood but it has to deliver glucose too. This resulted in Andre’s heart having to work twice as hard in order to pump more blood around the body. As Andre continued to exercise his heart muscle and cardiovascular system became more efficient which resulted in him improving he’s endurance because he was capable of running longer as more blood was circulating the body quicker than before. Additionally a short term effect which affected Andre while he was exercising is that he was gasping for more oxygen which led to him inhaling more oxygen than usually which caused carbon dioxide to be exhaled rapidly.
Plus another short term effect that was noticeable was his heart rate which increased rapidly; this is because he was exercising harder than he normally does, also he was doing these exercises for a long period of time. Whereas the long term effect which was noticeable was the way Andre’s heart rate was decreasing quickly; this was because his heart was getting used to the regular exercise, also his heart was getting healthier and fitter. Another effect is that Andre was capable of increasing his aerobic capacity as his body adapted to the regular exercise which resulted in his heart and lungs becoming more efficient.
-Effect of exercise on the respiratory system
Andre’s respiratory system is affected by exercise because when he was actually doing the different exercises, his muscles needed more oxygen and for carbon dioxide to be produced so that he’s heart can work quicker and he would be capable of breathing faster and deeper to let the carbon dioxide exit quicker and the oxygen enter and be pumped around quicker. A short term effect that was noticeable is when Andre’s breathing rate increased; this is because of the chemoreceptors which are found the blood vessels and sensed a sudden rise of the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
This also caused the depth of Andre’s breath increased. Another short effect is the increase in tidal volume; this is because Andre is breathing more as more air passes through the lungs. In addition to that, the long term effect has also had an effect on Andre for example he has increased the vital capacity which means that the lungs are capable of supplying more oxygen to the muscles with vital nutrients and this results in the lungs to expand. Also he’s oxygen diffusion rate has increased due to the more oxygen which is absorbed by the alveoli and then circulated around the body.
Before the training programme Andre’s fitness level was not poorly but it wasn’t at he’s best though and in order for him to improve on he’s cardiovascular endurance, I created a six week training programme in which involved different exercises and training methods that he should use to improve on this skill. Also before he started this training programme, I tested Andre on some tests which are:
Multistage fitness test Stage 5.9This result shows that Andre is not at he’s best fitness level because after this test was conducted he was struggling to breathe and he kept commenting that he’s legs was in pain. 35 metre sprint 5.25 SecondsThis result shows that Andre’s is just below average, and therefore he is unfit as he did not even reach the average stage of this test for someone at he’s age. Illinois agility test 17.3 SecondsThis result shows that he bad with he’s coordination as he only reached the average result because this was he’s best result after trying this test 3 times.
After the training programme Andre could clearly see that he’s fitness level has improved because he could now run for a longer time as he worked hard to improve he’s cardiovascular endurance. After Andre’s training programme, I conducted the same tests before he started the training programme and this are the results for them:
Multistage fitness test 35 metre sprint Illinois agility test Stage 6.5 4.82 Seconds 15.2 SecondsComparing both pre and post tests, I can clearly see that there is a change between the level of fitness Andre is working at; this shows me that he’s good with training programmes as he was capable of following the 6 week training program which led to him not only improving he’s on he’s multistage fitness test but also he’s 35 metre sprint and agility test.
Advantages and disadvantages of the tests:
-Multistage fitness test
The Validity of the test is that there are published VO2 max score equivalents for each level reached the correlation to actual VO2 max scores is high. The Reliability of the test would depend on how strict the test is directed for example the coach can be very strict by not allowing the athletes to make any mistakes, also it depend on how the athlete is motivated to do the test. Furthermore, the advantage of this test is that it can be performed in large groups of athlete. Also the test really tests the athletes compared to other tests of endurance capacity. These are advantages because it ensures that the athlete knows exactly how healthy and fit they are and they can use that to their advantage. However, the disadvantage of this test is that the athlete would be less motivated and won’t practice for the test; this therefore can have an influence on the athletes overall score. Also the test should be done indoors to avoid environmental conditions which could possibly have an effect on the score of the athletes.
-35 metre sprint
Reliability is greatly improved if timing gates are used. Also weather conditions and running surface can affect the results, and these conditions should be recorded with the results. If possible, set up the track with a crosswind to minimise the effect of wind. Also the validity of the test refers to how the test is actually measured; this test provides means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete’s physical development. Furthermore, the main advantage for this test is that it measures the speed and acceleration of an athlete in any particular sport.
This is an advantage because if every athlete done this test then they would know their own speed and for an athlete this would help them on how to improve more on their speed level. Additionally, there are several disadvantages for this tests for example the poor reaction time and starting techniques, also the timing errors. These are disadvantages because they all have a large impact on the result of the test., so therefore this test can be done as many times as possible but there wouldn’t be a correct result as the athlete would be extremely exhausted.
-Illinois agility test
The validity of the test refers to how the test is actually measured; this test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete’s physical development. Also the reliability of the test would depend on how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test. Furthermore, the advantages of this test is that it’s very easy to set up and conduct as not a lot of equipment’ are required, also it can be conducted anywhere e.g. sports hall, playground. Whereas, the disadvantage is that an assistant is required to administer the test.
The strength of the tests is that we done them in pairs; this allowed us to measure one another which was good as we got to see how our partners were performing and if they were excelling or not. Also these tests allowed us to know our actual fitness level and what we would need to do in order to increase our fitness level and the way we perform. Whereas, when conducting the tests, I think that areas for improvement is to have better heart rate monitors; this is because the ones that we were using something didn’t work which caused the work to be inaccurate as we have to guess the heart rate of the participants.
Also the facilities could have been better; this is because we had to use the cage, astroturf, and sports hall but 2 of these areas weren’t always free whenever we wanted to use them. Additionally, the weather was really cold; this had an effect on the overall performance of the athlete as they could not concentrate due to the bad weather condition as we had to do all of the exercises outdoors including the tests. Plus the tests results would have been better if he had done them at Brunel University because they have the correct facilities and monitors that would give accurate results.
-Adams, M., Barker, R., Gledhill, A., Lydon, C., Mulligan, C., Phillippo, P. and Sutton, L. (2010). Sport level 3 Book 1 BTEC National Pearson Educational limited.
-Interval training – http://www.intervaltraining.net/[Assessed on 26/03/12] -Brian Mac – http://www.brianmac.co.uk/conintrn.htm[Assessed on 26/03/12] -2003 – 2012 Conjecture Corporation – http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-continuous-training.htm[Assessed on 26/03/12] -BBC – http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/health_and_fitness/4270714.stm[Assessed on 26/03/12]
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