When selecting an interactive multimedia training program, the points that should be taken into consideration are basically that they training programs has excellent training audios and videos so that they build the interest of the trainees and that they enjoy their training session through the use of interactive media. Secondly, the interactive media training should be designed in such a way that it does not show the work tasks boring and tiresome to the workers, instead the multimedia should be able to enhance the level of work interest and motivation of the trainees.
Moreover, the IM training program should be able to develop better interpersonal and interactive skills of the trainees so that they are able to communicate with clients, suppliers, managers and other stake holders with much more ease and confidence. (Butteriss, M. , 1998) The IM program should provide the trainees with internet facilities so that the trainees can learn over the internet while at home even.
The IM program should include tutorials and practical so that the trainees are not only made to sit on the computer but are also able to practice the skills in reality. Such an IM training program would extensively enhance the confidence and training skills of the trainees and they would feel they have learnt a lot from the training and will value the IM program as a learning treasure. Question 2 Define a role play and in doing so, be sure to identify and explain the five different types of role play (effective training in HR world).
Role play is basically a traditional training method through which trainees are given a chance to change their behavior and attitudes by interacting with others and by developing better interpersonal skills. Role play allows the trainees to gain experience regarding their own feelings and behavior and as well as the behavior and feelings of other trainees. Moreover, it enhances the social attitude of the trainees and they start socializing more with their co-workers, which is a positive sign for their work motivation levels.
In this traditional training method, there are basically five types of role plays under which different trainees are given a chance to act. First comes, Structured Role Play for this role play the name says it all that is, this role play is designed and structured well in advance for the trainees. For example, if the manager wants his trainees to adopt no smoking and no drinking behavior at work then he will structure the role play in such a way that the trainees would completely quit smoking and drinking at work by learning new structured attitudes and behavior.
Secondly, Spontaneous Role Play is the opposite of structured because it tends to develop spontaneously around the behavior and attitudes of the employees and encourages them to form their learning behavior according to it. Thirdly, Single Role Play this training technique of single role play is targeted towards each individual trainee separately. They are made to behave, act and form their attitudes according to the different single role plays assigned to them. (Evans, C. , 2003)
Then comes, Multiple Role Play which is designed for multiple trainees to learn and form their interpersonal skills, attitudes and behavior at the same time. Lastly, Role Rotation which develops around a number of trainees who are made to switch their acting roles between one another. For example, if one trainee has formed his behavior according to the requirement then he will pass it on to the other trainee and will have himself engaged in another trainee’s role in the meantime. Role rotation keeps working in a circle. (Butteriss, M. , 1998) Question 3 What is active listening and why is it necessary?
Active listening is also a major part of effective training because it requires the trainees to listen to the trainers actively and enthusiastically so that they are able to learn faster and more effectively. Active listening can also be called as a training technique because without this technique effective training is incomplete. Trainees who follow active listening are able to catch up faster with the skills and they are more easily influenced by the trainers, which helps extensively in modifying their behavior and attitudes according to the organizational needs.
(Clawson, J. G. & Conner, M. L. , 2004) It is extremely necessary to implement active listening in the training program so that the trainees clearly hear the instructions of the trainers and prevent themselves from any injuries or health and safety issues. For example, if a trainee does not follow active listening then he is most likely not to hear the exact instructions of his trainer due to which he might operate the dangerous machinery in a wrong way and injure himself. Question 4 What is transfer of training and what are the factors that impact transfer of training?
Transfer of training is basically putting the skills developed in the training into the actual workplace. For example, if a worker has been taught how to operate difficult machinery of the organization in the training program then after he has completed his training session, he would have to transfer his training skills into the actual work place by starting his job of operating machinery. This is a very essential task because if the worker is unable to transfer or implement his training skills in the real work place then the entire training process would go to waste.
(Clawson, J. G. & Conner, M. L. , 2004) Transfer of training has the impact of three main factors, which are training the attributes of the trainees, the design and implementation of the training program and the workplace environment. The organization has to carefully deal with all three of these because if the in the beginning careful attention is not paid in the recruitment and selection of employees then inefficient and low motivated employees can be hired who would not benefit from the training program and will not transfer the training as effectively they should.
Secondly, the design and implementation of the training program should be completely focused on the goals and objectives of the organization so that the trainees form their behavior according to the requirements of the organization. Lastly, the transfer of training can be effective only if the trainees are informed well in advance about the workplace environment and complexities. If the trainees are brought to the work environment without any knowledge then they will be confused and would not be able to use their training skills as effectively as they should. (Evans, C. , 2003)
Question 5 Explain the four types of evaluation outcomes identified in the text. After effective training has been implemented then the success of the training has to be evaluated through different evaluation outcomes. First of all, Reaction Outcome is used through which the extent of the learning program is estimated. This outcome is used to influencing and encouraging the trainees to the learn to the maximum extent. Secondly, Learning Outcome tries to evaluate training outcome by finding out how much behavior and attitudes of the trainees can change on the job after they have acquired the training.
It basically shows how much each individual trainee has eventually learnt from the training techniques. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of the training by proving how much the workers have learnt and how much better they work now. Then comes Behavior Outcome which is a very significant evaluation outcome because it shows how positively the behavior and attitudes of the workers have changed after the training. Moreover, through positive and structured behavior outcomes of the workers, the goals and objectives of the organization can be fulfilled more easily.
Now the organization can achieve success levels more easily with the desired behavior of the workers. Then, Organizational Results is the last evaluation outcome which indicates the entire changes brought in the behavior of the workers and how these changes brought about a successful U-turn in the overall productivity, sales and grievances rates. Through the organizational results, the exact effectiveness of the training program can be evaluated through the significant rise in productivity and profitability of the organization. (Lewis,P. , 2003)
Question 6 Describe the cost benefit evaluation and cost effectiveness evaluation methods of evaluating whether training was ? worth it.? Cost benefit evaluation is basically the evaluation of the costs and benefits of a certain course of action. For example, in our case effective training can be accurately evaluated through the use of cost benefit analysis. The analysis can be done by estimating the costs spent in the training program and the benefits (organizational results) achieved afterwards in the form of high sales, profit and production levels.
It has been seen that the costs are incurred immediately but the benefits are achieved over the long run and due to this many organizations use the cost benefit analysis system of pay back period, which calculates how much return the organization will gain over a certain period. Through the cost benefit analysis, it is very easy to find out whether the training was effective and worth it or not because if the costs exceed the benefits it clearly means that the training was not worth it and vice versa.
Now coming to cost effectiveness which is quite similar to CBA also measures the costs of training in relation with the evaluation outcomes. Cost effectiveness is implemented by judging the costs of various training programs, the organization should implement only that training program which is not that costly to implement but tends to give guaranteed positive outcomes in the long run. Therefore, through both the techniques of cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis, an organization can completely evaluate whether its training program has been worth it or has been a flop and has wasted the organizations money.
Question 7 What is the value of orientation training? How can you make sure it is effective? Orientation is basically giving the employees an over view of their tasks in advance so that they have a clear idea about their tasks before they start their jobs. Orientation training is basically guidance which is given to employees at the start of the job so that they are well aware of the complexities related to their work. Research proves that effective training is incomplete without orientation training because orientation is the first step without it employees cannot be trained effectively.
After orientation training has given the employees an over view of their tasks, only then the employees are given the proper work training. Secondly, orientation training has a lot of value because it reduces the costs of the organization extensively. For example, if new employees are not given orientation training then they might not know the company safety and security procedures and might land themselves into danger which results in injuries.
Therefore, with the help of orientation training organizations can easily avoid extra health and safety costs of employees that occur due to unexpected injuries. (Lewis,P. , 2003) We can make sure that orientation training is effective through different evaluation methods which will be discussed in question 5. Moreover, the effectiveness of orientation training can be evaluated through performance appraisals which will give a clear picture of the success of the training.
For example, if a worker has been taught something through orientation training and the manager wants to make sure that the training is paying off, then he can go for the worker’s performance appraisal which will show in detail how well the working has learnt from the orientation training and how much more his work efficiency and effectiveness has increased. (Clawson, J. G. & Conner, M. L. , 2004) Question 8 Identify and describe the 5 dimensions of culture according to Hofstede. Before proceeding with Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions, we first of all need to understand what exactly culture is.
Culture is basically the different type of values, behavior and attitude that people of different countries and societies have developed in their lifetime. For example, people from Muslim countries are most likely to have different ways of life and different perspectives and values as compared to the people of Western Countries. Some have traditional values while others have modern values and these differences can be described as cultural differences. First of all, Power Distance Index (PDI) indicates that different societies with different cultures have different types of inequality and power dimensions.
Hofstede states that inequality exists in the entire society, that is, from the ordinary citizens to the leaders as well. Secondly, Individualism (IDV) which is another fundamental cultural issue states that every society faces two concepts, which are individualism and collectivism. Individualism means that people in the society only are only bothered about their own individual selves or about their immediate family while collectivism means that people are more closely linked to others in the society instead of their own selves.
They have strong extended family and friends relations to take care of. Thirdly, Masculinity (MAS) which is yet another cultural dimension of Hofstede basically explains that men and women play different roles of according to their different masculine and feminine natures. For example, in feminine countries women tend to be more caring & modest while in the masculine countries their behavior changes and becomes assertive and competitive. Then comes, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) explains that people from different cultures have different perceptions about uncertainty.
Some countries avoid unstructured situations and uncertainty through law and order and other safety and security measures while other countries accept uncertainty by accepting everything philosophy or view that comes in their way. Lastly, Long-Term Orientation (LTO) is also a core cultural dimension which goes on to explain that some people have long term values and beliefs while others have temporary short term cultural values and beliefs. References
Butteriss,M. , 1998, Re-inventing HR- Changing Roles to Create the High Performance Organization, Wiley.. Clawson, J. G. & Conner, M. L. , 2004, Creating a Learning Culture: Strategy, Technology, and Practice, Cambridge University Press. Evans,C. , 2003, Managing for Knowledge – HR’s Strategic Role Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edn. Butterworth-Heinemann. Lewis,P. , 2003, Employee Relations: Understanding The Employment Relationship,Financial Times Managment