sample
Haven't found the Essay You Want?
For Only $12.90/page

Effect of leadership styles in project management Essay

PROJECT MANAGEMENT >
EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES…
effect of leadership styles in project management
Charismatic authority, Construction, Fiedler contingency model

By gerryo
Oct 4, 2013
10347 Words
63 Views

PAGE1
OF 50

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
What is project management? Project Management Institute (2008) defines it as the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations which involves balancing competing demands among scope, time, cost and quality. With each project, unique tasks are completed in a specified period and contribute to the final result. In contrast, ongoing operations are continuous and do not have a designated end date of completion. People assigned to a specific project may come from different parts of an organization or even from outside the organization; after completion of the project, these people will go to other projects or back to the original functions in their organizations (Levy, 1994).

In this case, project management will take on a different form than ordinary management, since each project has its own characteristics and features. Chartered Institute of Building (2008) defined project management as “the overall planning, control, co-ordination from inception to completion aimed at meeting a client’s requirements and ensuring completion on time within cost and required quality and standard. The management of a construction project has unique features such as the relationship with the client and the inter-organization nature of the process.

The project manager is usually in the position of leading contributors over whom he has limited authority. A significant outcome of this is that each contributor will be subject to leadership form of both the project manager and the manager of his employer’s organization. Project managers will be leading a group of mature, experienced professionals, consequently, his leadership will tend to be democratic and rely on impulse and persuasion rather than authority. Project management is a relatively new concept. In the 1950s, this is now widely used in all industries, both public and private. Project management involves a methodological approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish. It is further defined as a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a specific one-time task, such as constructing a building or implementing a new computer system.

Project management requires developing a project plan, which includes defining project goals and objectives, specifying tasks or how goals will be achieved, what resources are needed, and associating budgets and timelines for completion. Projects require project management and effective project management is important to all industries. In a broader form, project management is the planning, control and co-ordination of a project from conception to completion (include commissioning) on behalf of a client; the identification of the clients objectives in terms of utility, function, quality, time and cost and the establishment of relationship between resources. It is also concerned with the integration, monitoring and control of the contributors to the project and their output, and the evaluation and selection of alternatives in pursuit of the client satisfaction with the project outcome.

1.2BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Arab Contractors (Arabic: Al Mokawloon Al-Arab) is an Egyptian construction and contracting company established in 1955 by Osman Ahmed Osman, an Egyptian entrepreneur and politician who served as Egypt’s Housing Minister under Sadat’s presidency. The company helped in constructing the Aswan Dam and helped during the 1973 war. It is responsible for many government buildings in Egypt. The company also owns a football club, Al Mokawloon Al-Arab that plays in the Egyptian League. Today, the Arab Contractors remain one of the largest Egyptian corporations, having taken part in building the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Arab contractors construct bridges, roads, buildings and anything that has to do with construction and they are pace setters in construction industry. The Arab Contractors (AC Co.) is one of the leading construction companies in the Middle East and Africa. 70,000 employees work in collaboration with their customers, partners, and suppliers in more than 30 countries. Its annual works value, according to [The Arab Contractors, 2009] record, is about 13billion Egyptian pounds, and its contribution is about half the contracting market in Egypt.

The company involves 70,000 employees, 7000 qualified engineers, 10000 technicians, foremen and superintendents, 8500 accountants and administrators, and 450000 skilled and semi skilled labors, in addition to other temporary jobs. Arab Contractors O.A.O Nigeria Limited was established in 1991 with the objective of contributing to the great developmental efforts taking place in Nigeria. Within a short period of ten years, they have the privilege of successfully completing several projects and giving employment to over 3000 Nigerians. Dams, Bridges, Culverts and Protection; Irrigation and Hydraulic Structures such as Weirs, Builders, Spillways, Ducts and Channels; Schools, Hospitals and Buildings. Project management practice is still at infancy stage in Nigeria (Odusami, Iyagba, and Omirin, 2003). Virtually all Nigerian construction professionals- architects, builders, civil engineers, estate surveyors and quantity surveyors with Nigerian construction companies, practice project management as consultancy services along with their primary profession.

Construction project is more competitive than ever before because of its important and dynamic role in the process of sustainable economic growth and development of any nation, and more than half of the gross fixed capital budget in Nigeria normally takes the form of construction output (Oke, 2006). An inadequate financial resource (capital) is pointed out as the most serious problem the industry is currently facing. Only those contractors, which can effectively manage construction projects, will be able to find ease in handling such financial delinquency. Leadership is one of those qualities that you know when you see it, but is difficult to describe. Four things stand out in this respect. First, to lead involves influencing others. Second, where there are leaders there are followers. Third, leaders seem to come to the fore when there is a crisis or special problem. In other words, they often become visible when an innovative response is needed. Fourth, leaders are people who have a clear idea of what they want to achieve and why.

Thus, leaders are people who are able to think and act creatively in non-routine situations and who set out to influence the actions, beliefs and feelings of others. Leaders need a new mix of competencies to properly shape their board and develop their subordinates to meet 21st-century challenges. Shifting cultures, rapidly changing technology and other factors will require new patterns of leadership. Therefore, leadership style becomes an important part in construction project management. Appropriate leadership behavior can affect performance in a way that makes construction projects go much more smoothly, to cause project members and subordinates to become more efficient, and improve productivity.

1.3STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The study is based on assessing the impact of leadership styles on project management pattern of ARAB Contractors Construction Company. Hence, the following problem statement is defined: How does an appropriate leadership styles on project management impact on effective or efficient construction productivity improvement on project members in Arab Contractors Construction Company? The project problem has both theoretical and practical implications. From the research perspective, it is about further result oriented success and development in better understanding of Leader-member relationship in building-construction project contracted by Arab Contractors.

Construction project management generally involves the use of skills, tools and techniques to solve routine or difficult engineering jobs. Technical skills are dependent on the education, training and experience of the person doing the job. The tools are the equipment and systems that are used to complete the work and techniques are the various specific processes such as bar charts and schedules that are used to execute projects properly together with the leadership styles implored by the project manager to achieve predefined success. Thus, this implies that critical impact assessment can make contractors and managers see the importance to be able to attach effectiveness and efficiency to construction works in other to improve productivity through using these skills.

1.4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the major influences in determining the leadership style to be used. In order to choose the right style, it is important for the leader to know the overall organizational setting, environment, and structure for project members who work in the construction company and how they impact on management performance on the progress of the construction project. A good and efficient performance is always desirable, but this does not always happen. Certain group of people responds well to certain types of leadership style, while others do not. Therefore, the objective of this study can be stated as follows: 1)To find out the extent leadership styles influence employee performance. 2)To find out how leader-employee relations affect organizational growth.

1.5RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to get information from respondent, the study would examine the following questions: 1)To what extent does leadership style influence employees’ performance? 2)How does the leader-employee relation affect organizational growth?

1.6RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: That leadership style or pattern does not influence employee performance. H02: The leader-employee relation does not affect organizational growth.

1.7SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work is that it would explore to assess the impact of leadership style on the performance of employees in Arab Contractors Construction Company. This particular industry was chosen because of the rigour employees are made to go through in the industry in the course of meeting the targets of the management. This has affected the economic, social and private lives of the employees. It is intended to investigate whether employees’ performance is related to the leadership style adopted by the management. It is hoped that this study would contribute to the promotion of the existing frontier or boundary between human knowledge and strengthen the relationship between the management/employer and the employee in Arab Contractors. 1.8SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study will be limited to how leadership styles impacts on the performance of employees. The research work will focus mainly on leader-employee relations and how it affects the growth of the organization. The study also aims at using Arab Contractors Company for the sampling of opinions. The field survey shall be conducted at Port Harcourt Road, Owerri, in Imo State because of the construction and dualization of road that is under their present custody.

1.9LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Time is a major factor to the researcher as research of this kind requires enough time in gathering of data, but it was not given to carry out the research, distribution, collection and analysis of questionnaire. Also some personnel’s and top officials restrict information from student who desire such information in other to maintain the organizations face thereby making it uneasy for student to collect more information for their research. Finance was a stumbling block and stepping stone despite the researcher has to convey himself to different positions of workers, project manager, and other top project supervisors.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1CONCEPT OF PROJECT LEADERSHIP
Leadership is one of the most important and essential factors in good project management. Leadership can be seen as the art of influencing others to achieve desired results. Leaders guide behaviours by setting the vision, direction and the key processes; in other words, leadership has a large influence on the whole project process, including the actions of others. Leadership goes beyond being appointed “the manager.” Leadership has to do with whom the people are following. Leaders influence others’ behaviours. To become more effective, leader-managers must learn how to influence others with the intent of effectively motivating them. Leaders possess qualities that make others want to follow them. The standard definition of leadership is the process of influencing other people’s behavior toward achieving a predetermined goal. It is imperative to note that leadership is a means, not an end.

Jack Welch, previous CEO of General Electric, is reported to have called his direct reports together one day and issued a three word dictum: “Don’t manage!, Lead!” (Slater, 1998). The emphasis in the project management field on leadership as opposed to management is in recognition of the need for the special style sets that leaders posses and bring to an organization or project. Many administrators, supervisors, and even top executives execute their responsibilities without being great leaders. While many managers focus on superficial activities and worry about short-term profits and stock prices, few have emerged as leaders who foster innovation and the attainment of long-term goals. Whereas many managers are overly concerned with maintaining the status quo, those who emerge as leaders are more concerned with making important decisions, even if they are unpopular.

Project leadership is a very important style and is very crucial to the success of a project. Leading a team is not the same as managing a team. Leadership and management are two separate things but are complementary to each other. The leader sets the direction of the project while the manager executes the project according to specifications, delivery dates and the specific requirements.

Project management asks the question ‘Are we doing it right?’ While project leadership answers the question ‘Are we doing the right thing?’ These two questions may look similar but are totally different. Project leadership is also about asking questions and project management is about answering these questions. Project leadership is about deciding on the right project, knowing the project priorities and knowing how to create value. The project manager allow the leader decide on which project is important, know how to execute the project and know how to deliver the value that is to be created.

2.2LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Leadership theories can be categorized into three areas: trait-based, behavioural, and situational or contingency approach. These three categories are traditional approaches to understanding leadership. 2.2.1Trait- Based Approach

Trait theories are leadership perspectives that focus on individual leaders and attempt to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share. These are all traits that someone can learn to implement with practice, over time.

The character traits associated with leadership are identified as the following: 1. Enterprising Spirit: Enterprising spirit refers to a set of characteristics that reflect a high level of effort. It includes high demand for achievement, constant striving for improvement, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative.

2. Loyalty: Leaders who demonstrate loyalty and honesty, and are willing to admit to mistakes, display key traits that followers look for in their leaders. A leader will also increase their influence when people trust and believe his or her loyalty.

3. Leadership Motivation: Great leaders not only have an enterprising spirit, but they also want to lead. They have a high desire for power, preferring to be in position of leadership rather than that of a
follower.

4. Integrity: Integrity is measured by an individual’s actions and words. People who do not perform and do not execute what they promised are not considered good leader.

5. Self-confidence: Self-confidence is important for a number of reasons. The leadership role is challenging, and setbacks are inevitable. Self-confidence allows a leader to overcome obstacles, make decisions despite uncertainty, and instil confidence in others.

6. Knowledge: Effective leaders have a high level of knowledge about their industries, companies, and technical matters. Leaders must have the intelligence to interpret vast quantities of information. In addition to the traits mentioned above, there are other characteristics which have a significant influence on leadership, including being forward-looking, competent, inspiring, and intelligent.

2.2.2Behavioural Approach
Behavioural theories of leadership do not focus on inborn traits or capabilities; rather, the focus is on what leaders actually do. Three general categories of leadership behaviours are mentioned frequently in the literature: behaviours related to task performance; behaviours related to group maintenance, and behaviours related to employee participation in decision-making.

1. Task Performance Behaviours: Task performance behaviours are the leaders’ efforts to ensure that the teams or organizations reach their goals. Those behaviours include a focus on work efficiency, quality and accuracy, quantity of output, and adherence to regulations.

2. Group Maintenance Behaviours: These actions are taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group, focusing on people’s feelings and comfort, appreciation, and stress reduction. 3. Participation in Decision-Making: This behaviour appears during the process of making decisions, in which leaders can range from autocratic to democratic. Autocratic leadership is a form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group; democratic leadership is a form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates. Studies of how the leader’s behaviour influences employee attitudes and performance have focused on autocratic versus democratic decision styles, or on performance- versus maintenance-oriented behaviours.

2.2.3Situational or Contingency Approach
Situational theories distinguish leaders from others through the situation at-hand. Leaders adjust their decision-making, orientation, and motivational approaches based upon a unique combination of factors in their individual situations. These factors include: characteristics of followers; types of projects; organizational structures; personal preferences; and upper-level management’s influences. Leaders adjust their style of management in order to accommodate the different situations. Different situational or contingency models include: The Fielder Contingency Model

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model

2.2.3.1The Fielder Contingency Model
The first person to develop contingency model of leadership style was Fiedler. He emphasized the effectiveness of leadership style and group performance in terms of the control a leader has over situations. Fiedler concludes that the key factor in leadership effectiveness is the individual’s basic leadership style. Hence, the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire was created to analyze this style of leadership.

2.2.3.2Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model The Hersey-Blanchard’s situational leadership model is applied to measure the actual leadership style employed by managers. He further stated that it is based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and amount of socio emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader must provide given the situation and the level of maturity of the followers. Hersey and Blanchard define readiness as “the extent to which a follower demonstrates the ability (knowledge, experience, and style) and willingness (confident, commitment, and motivation) to accomplish a specific task.” Therefore, individuals are not influenced by any one way.

2.3CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE
Leadership styles and project management are two distinctly different yet
complementary skills. Both are necessary for today’s changing and complex business environment. While project management skills ensure that processes such as planning, scheduling, estimating, budgeting and staffing are working effectively, leadership styles provide the driving force that creates project success. Leaders have a project vision and know how to align people with their goals. They provide the structure, as well as motivation, to tune team performance and inspire their team to achieve project objectives. Leadership styles vary according to organizational structure, people, environment, and task. Leaders promote loyalty among subordinates by keeping an open mind, being self-aware, and being inquisitive. Awareness is important in working effectively with diverse groups and individuals, regardless of personal bias. Anger and frustration indicate a closed mind.

The effective leader asks questions with a genuine interest in learning more, rather than as a probe to expose a mistake or fault. Employee inquiries should be conducted with genuine interest and with demonstrated respect. Even more important is listening to the feedback, so that appropriate action (if necessary) may be taken. The leadership style an individual uses is often a reflection of the individual’s attitudes about workers, their competence, and how to get work done. Different situations will require different styles of leadership in order to maximize the productivity and well-being of subordinates. Leadership style as observed by Goleman (2002) is crucial to success of a project and construction project delivery. Leadership according to Benator (2003b) is a process and not a one-time, fire and forget evolution. To be an effective leader, there is a need for one to continually exercise good leadership skills. You don’t need to be perfect, but you should always strive to apply sound leadership principles to your leadership efforts.

Good leadership is designed to accomplish an organizational goal or mission, i.e. leading a project team and managing project to a high quality, on time and within budget conclusion with a customer who is happy with that conclusion. Giritli and Oraz (2003) opined that different approaches have led to various classifications of leadership styles. Leadership style is in general of two types: the first one is the employee-centered type, described as democratic or participative, and the second one is the task- centered type, described as autocratic or authoritarian. Organizations have paid attention to leadership styles of their people who occupy managerial positions, holding the belief that leadership is an important factor in achieving business success (Giritli and Oraz 2003). 2.4PROJECT MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP STYLES

These are basically leadership behaviours exhibited in project management by project managers in coordinating and controlling the way projects are being carried out in industries. They include both the classic and non-classic styles: Autocratic leadership style

Bureaucratic leadership style
Charismatic leadership style
Democratic or participative leadership style
Laissez-faire leadership style
Paternalistic leadership style
Servant- leader leadership style
Task- oriented leadership style
Transactional leadership style
Transformational leadership style

2.4.1Autocratic Leadership Style
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power.

This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.” It has no place in a leader’s repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.

2.4.2Bureaucratic Leadership Style
This provides a blueprint of how an entire organization should operate. It stresses the need for a strictly defined hierarchy governed by clearly defined regulations and line of authority. According to Max Weber (1920) this leadership style is appropriate for work involving serious safety and risk or where large sum of money are involved.

2.4.3 Charismatic Leadership Style
From Mindtools (2009), a charismatic leader injects a reasonable amount of enthusiasm and motivation into the project team members as a solution to the problem or loss of confidence in project team leader by project team members. It is energetic in driving others forward. However, a charismatic leader tends to believe more in himself than in their team members. This implies that if the leader quits job, the organization might collapse, this call for a long term commitment in his responsibility.

2.4.4 Democratic or Participative Leadership Style

This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness; rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.

This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything; this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit; it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.

2.4.5 Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

In this type of leadership style, the leader assumes little responsibility and relinquishes authority to the group with little or no problem-solving support, and communication is horizontal (among peers). Self-starters thrive in this environment without leader interference.

2.4.6 Paternalistic Leadership Style
Paternalism has at times been equated with leadership styles. Yet most definitions of leadership normally state or imply that one of the actions within leadership is that of influencing. Thus paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done. According to Mindtools (2009) paternalistic leadership stresses a fatherly influence in the relationship between the leader and the project member and it reflect in watchful care for the comfort and welfare of the employees.

2.4.7 Servant- Leader Leadership Style
From Greenleaf (1970) point out this term to describe a leader not often recognized as such. Where someone, at a level within the organization, leads simply by meeting the need of team members, he is said to be a servant leader. They often achieve power on the basis of their values and ideas.

2.4.8 Task- Oriented Leadership Style
Mindtools (2009) says that highly task-oriented leaders will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor. Therefore task-oriented leaders care less about the welfare of their team members.

2.4.9 Transactional Leadership Style
Transactional leaders communicate with their subordinates to explain how a task must be done and let them know that there will be rewards for a job done well (Avolio et al.1991). Different types of behaviour inherent to transactional leadership have been identified: contingent reward, management by exception (active) and management by exception (passive).

2.4.10 Transformational Leadership Style
Transformational leaders do more with followers and colleagues than transactional leaders do (Avolio et al. 1991). Instead of a simple exchange and agreement, transformational leaders provide a vision and a sense of mission, inspire pride, and gain respect and trust through charisma (Bass et al. 1990). Transformational leaders exhibit various types of behaviour such as: idealised influence, inspirational motivation and individualized consideration. Leaders of this style have high ethical and moral standard.

2.5 CHOOSING A LEADERSHIP STYLE

The rule to remember when selecting the best leadership style for any situation is that past performance affects the present and future, and that subordinates’ behaviors affect the leader, just as the leader’s behavior affects subordinates. The best leadership style is the one in which subordinate and task, as well as the leader and environment, are cohesive. By analyzing past performances, such as subordinates’ abilities and motivation, the present situation and future possibilities become clearer. This integrative model may be used to determine the best leadership style. Step 1: Determine the nature of the task to be performed. Is it well structured or changing?

Is it ambiguous, challenging, overwhelming, or meaningful? Step 2: Evaluate subordinates’ abilities and motivation. Are the workers motivated? Are they willing to take responsibility for, and control over, their work?

Step 3: Evaluate leadership characteristics affecting the chosen style of leadership. Is the leader self-confident and a good communicator? Is the leader knowledgeable, and does he/she possess expert personal power? Are leader-member relations good?

Step 4: What leadership background is influencing the chosen leadership style? What is the position power? Will the leadership style be dictated by a superior?

2.6 LEADERSHIP STYLE PROBLEMS
Mindtools (2009) said that the problems found in an organization is as a result of leadership style inadequacies and further illustrated that leadership style problems are those problems caused by the shortcomings of leadership styles in an organization. Leaders should therefore watch out for problems that could emanate from the following: Inadequate implementation of plans.

Poor planning and assignment of duties.
Loss of confidence in leaders by followers.
Insubordination or chaos.
Low rate of team member/ staff turnover.
Lack of motivation and inadequate reward system.

2.7 EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES
From the review of literatures, some criteria have been identified as being
important in the evaluation of leadership styles effectiveness, which are: Efficient planning and assignment of duties.
Proper and timely implementation of plans.
Attainment and retaining of confidence in the leader.
Ability to control chaos and insubordination.
More in team member turnover and response.
Proper motivation and adequate reward system.
The above are being used to quantify the effectiveness of leadership styles adapted to any job condition and therefore the effectiveness and efficiency of the project manager and team members/ employees as the case requires.

CHAPTER THREE
3.0RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter attempts to enhance the need of reliability and unprejudiced nature of data collected during the course of this study. According to this research, the study will be discussed under the following headings: Research design

Population of the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Instruments of data collection
Method of data presentation
Method of data analysis

3.1RESEARCH DESIGN
Design is the pattern of procedures used in the collection and analysis of the data that is essential to help solve the problem in a manner which differentiate between the cost of getting various level of accuracy and the expected result of data related with each level of correctness is made best use of. Hence, the design was pivoted towards the collection of data for hypothesis, testing and explaining the relationship among variables.

3.2POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population studied is the totality of the persons or organization involved, who have the capacity, ability and desire of becoming not only a project team member but also in a hierarchical leadership level to gain experience and develop new styles in leadership. But for the purpose of ease and accessibility, the research work was focused on Arab Contractors Construction Company Nigeria which constituted the population studied. However, it was not possible to study the company entirely, the researcher adopted a survey method and as such their place of stay in Owerri municipal at Port Harcourt Road was selected for the study.

3.3SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
By sampling we mean selecting some of the elements from the population and from the selected elements we may cross tabs conclusions about the entire population. The sampling is done because it reduces the cost, increases accuracy of result and increase the speed of data collection. The size of the sample depends on various factors. These include cost, how much confidence in the result is desired, how much error can be tolerated and data about the population Spool.

Since the population assessing the impact of leadership styles of project management of project members in Arab can be taken as finite using a sample size of thirty six (36) for confidence level of 95% and error equal 0.05. The sampling technique adopted was that of probabilistic and randomization sampling techniques of selected members and managers. 3.4INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION

The instrument of data collection for this research work was through distributed questionnaires and oral interviews. 3.5METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources which were adopted in this research work. 3.5.1PRIMARY SOURCES: Data in this category were collected mainly though visits, personal participation and observation and distribution of questionnaires to the construction company under study, while minimizing the incidence of unfairness about the subject under research. 3.5.2SECONDARY SOURCES: Secondary data in this research work were collected through the review of related literature; the relevant literatures were obtained from books, journals, magazines, and newspapers.

Consequently, Owerri state library was consulted and related works of authors and researchers who had earlier written on the similar topic. More so, in this era of globalization, information from the internet was of great importance in the review of literature and in framing the working hypothesis and questionnaire design. 3.6METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

In this research the data gained from the questionnaires were analyzed and interpreted. A focus on data analysis is a process that begins with careful planning, followed by data collection, data description using numerical summaries, data analysis, and, finally, interpretation of results by Peck, Olsen and Devore [2006]. Freund and Perles [2007] stated that data becomes knowledge only after it has identified a set of descriptions, relationships, and differences that are of use in decisions making. Results were considerate most meaningfully and were explained by using two kinds of statistic methods as regression analysis, numerical statistic and descriptive statistic.

The numerical statistics are purposed to examine, characterize the sample being as frequencies, the mean (average), maximum, minimum, and simple percentages with regression after which comparisons were done to determine effectiveness in achieving the desired objectives which provide descriptive information of a set of data. In contrast, descriptive statistic helps to establish relationship among variables and comparison conclusions, the researcher has utilized this statistic to test hypothesis of the study. Besides, Sinsombronthong [2008] the analysis methods, these have to been clearly in statistic variables, level of significant and descriptive statistic. The following sections will detail the results of the analysis.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0RESULT PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1DATA PRESENTATION

The survey is designed to solicit opinion and input from those in construction field and project management concerning leadership and leadership style. Questions centered on importance of leadership style, the kind of leadership style people should adopt and the most commonly used style. Statistical table format using frequency distribution was the base method of data analysis and as a result, converted into percentages for ease in analysis. The respective presentation table shows the analysis of each question in the questionnaire and afterward described with further
explanation. 4.2GENERAL INFORMATION FROM RESPONDENTS

TABLE 4.1
Showing Gender of Respondents
Gender
No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
Male
32
88.9
Female
4
11.1
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

From the analysis shown in the table it is observed that males plays more important role in the construction industry and are predominant in the workforce with an 88.9% pool in the total of 36 respondent that were contacted which is over and above the 11.1% shown by the female construction engineers. TABLE 4.2

Displaying Marital Status of Respondents
Status
No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
Married
26
72.2
Single
10
27.8
Total
36

100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

It is observed that from the construction company under study, there is a high percentage of married personnel’s, making up 72.2% of the total while the remaining 27.8% are singles. TABLE 4.3
Showing Age Distribution of Respondents
Range (Years)
No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
21-30
9
25
31-40
17
47.2
41-50
6
16.7
Over 51
4
11.1
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

Table 4.3 above depict the variety of age difference of individuals in the study, that 25% (9) of the respondents were within the age of 21-30years, 47.2% (17) of them are between the range of age 31-40years, also 16.7% (6) was accounted for from the total respondent between 41-50years, while 11.1% (4) were within `and/or above the range of age over 51years which was the least in the survey.

TABLE 4.4
Showing Years of Experience of Respondents
Range (Years)

No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
1-5
11
30.6
6-10
9
25
11-15
7
19.4
16-20
4
11.1
Over 21
5
13.9
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

Table 4.4 above depict that 30.6% (11) of the respondents have experience between 1-5years which is the largest percentage in the industry, 25% (9) of the respondent are within the range of years of experience 6-10years. Moreover 19.4% (7) had experience for quite a time in the industry from 11-15years. The next respondents 11.1% (4) were between 16-20years of experience which was the least from the result above and finally, 13.9% (5) are the top managers who have worked for a long time thereby have much experience over 21years. TABLE 4.5

Showing Academic Qualification of Respondents
Qualification
No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
OND

13
36.1
HND
6
16.7
Bachelor’s Degree
10
27.8
Masters Degree
5
13.9
Doctorate Degree
2
5.5
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
Table 4.5 above shows the different levels of education the respondents have attained while in the industry. 36.1% (13) of the respondents were of the level of academic qualification OND and it shows they are more of those in the field of work that constitute of team members who are essential parts to successful project execution. 16.7% (6) of them are few workers and few leaders with current educational qualification of HND. 27.8% (10) were graduates that are either hierarchical leaders who have used IT courses and programs to boost their current status or workers that are still willing to get in more into the system with Bachelors’ Degree. 13.9% (5) are more of experienced leaders in the industry who have also worked in other industry before they currently find themselves in the company under study with Masters Degree. 5.5% (2) are the least number in the survey and are senior management staffs that have Doctorate degree, due to the nature of the topic, the exhibit the leadership styles basically used in the industry under study. TABLE 4.6

Showing the Various Categories of Staff That Was Interviewed Staff Category

No. of Respondent
Percentage (%)
Project/ Deputy Director
5
13.9
General Manager
3
8.3
Project/Deputy Manager
4
11.1
Assistance Project Manager
1
2.8
Site Manager
1
2.8
Engineer
2
5.6
Site Engineer
3
8.3
Employee/ Member/ Worker
17
47.2
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
Table 4.6 above illustrate that 13.9% (5) of the respondents are project director and project deputy directors, 8.3% (3) of the respondents are general manager, 11.1% (4) of the respondent are project/ deputy manager, only 2.8% (1) respondent was an assistant project manager with also same percentage and value for the site manager of the industry under study from the distributed questionnaires. 5.6% (2) of the respondents fall within the category of the project engineers, 8.3% (3) of the respondent belong to site engineer while the greater percentage 47.2% (17) are the field workers who through organized team effort bring to actualization, project completion success.

4.3DATA COLLECTION AND BASIC ANALYSIS
The first two steps for a formal survey are defining the survey objectives and determining who will be sampled. The participants are all square of workers in the understudied industry. For several of the questions, respondents are asked to state whether they strongly agree or disagree with a particular statement; other questions are designed to solicit input with regard to identifying key leadership styles. The following describes the questions asked in the survey and includes an analysis of the data. 4.3.1RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 1

Q1.Leadership styles are necessary in completing projects successfully. Respondents are asked whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree or have no opinion on the above statement.

TABLE 4.7
Role of Leadership styles in Project Success
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
33
91.7
Agree
2
5.5
Disagree
1
2.8
No Opinion

0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table, 91.7% (33) interviewees strongly agree. 5.5% (2) agree and only one (2.8%) disagree with this statement; thus, the majority of respondent strongly believe or believe that leadership style is necessary and a key factor of success in project management on the understudied industry. 4.3.2RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 2

Q2.It is important for a leader to have formal leadership training to be successful. TABLE 4.8
Leadership Training
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
19
52.8
Agree
3
8.3
Disagree
14
38.9
No Opinion
0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table, 38.9% (14) disagree, which shows that a large number of respondents do not think training is important, 52.8% (19) strongly agree while 8.3% (3) agree, which makes more than half of the interviewees understand that leadership training is important and necessary for people who want to be a successful leader. 4.3.3RESPONSE/ANALYSIS QUESTION 3

Q3.I feel that successful project managers possess different leadership styles. TABLE 4.9
Possessing different Leadership Style
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
26
72.2
Agree
3
8.3
Disagree
6
16.7
No Opinion
1
2.8
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

From the table above of the respondents, 72.2% (26) people in the survey strongly agree successful project managers possess different leadership styles and 8.3% (3) agree with the statement, for a total of 80.5% (29). 16.7% (6) people disagree with the statement while 2.8% (1) have no opinion. Leadership styles can help people run a project more easily, but they are not guarantees for project success. While project managers might be successful with leadership styles, they will definitely fail without those styles. If more styles are acquired, project may have greater time-savings, reduced total cost or lead to great profit. 4.3.4RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 4

Q4.I feel extremely satisfied with my job in a leader-employee/member relationship created in working with and for a project manager. TABLE 4.10
Job Satisfaction
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
8
22.2
Agree
15
41.7
Disagree
11
30.6
No Opinion
2
5.5
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table, only 22.2% (8) of people strongly agree, 41.7% (15) agree to the question from the survey, 30.6% (11) disagree while 5.5% (2) persons have no idea of what to decide upon. Not much people were satisfied with the project managers and a large number of interviewees are not satisfied. There may be several reasons for this level of dissatisfaction. A good leader is supposed to be respected by his or her followers. However, the reality is that almost two third of the project managers are not considered successful leaders. While they may be able to complete a project, they may not inspire faith or confidence in their abilities from their subordinates thereby not being convinced by their actions, which may stem from a lack of more leadership styles. This phenomenon is commonplace in the construction industry.

4.3.5RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 5
Q5.It is best to create an environment where project team members partake in decision- making process in your organization. TABLE 4.11
Team Members’ Participation
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
17
47.2
Agree
9
25
Disagree
10
27.8
No Opinion
0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table above, 47.2% (17) of the interviewees strongly agree that everyone in the project should participate in the decision- making process, 25% (9) of the respondent agree to the statement while 27.8% (10) disagree with the question; identifying the reason for this level of disagreement is relevant for this research. Therefore, some interviews were conducted to clarify this phenomenon. Respondents stated that considering time as an essential factor in determining whether decision should be made as a team or by the project manager; if every decision is made by all the team members, time would be wasted. Since the longer the project lasts, the more money it will cost, if efficiency is a key factor in each project, not everyone should participate in the decision- making process.

However, this does not mean leaders should make all decisions alone. Instead, respondents suggested that representatives from the team should be selected to assist in the decision- making process. The researcher also found out that the respondents response was almost all the same. Making a comparison based on different interviewees, the percentage rates are nearly the same. From these we can see that the cognition from different experts now are becoming more similar which will make the globalization trend continue. 4.3.6RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 6

Q6.Please choose five most important leadership styles you think a leader should possess below. Autocratic leadership style
Bureaucratic leadership style
Charismatic leadership style
Democratic or participative leadership style
Laissez-faire leadership style
Paternalistic leadership style
Servant- leader leadership style
Task- oriented leadership style
Transactional leadership style
Transformational leadership style

TABLE 4.12
Ranking of Important leadership Styles
Leadership Styles
Quantity Chosen by People (36)
Rank
Autocratic leadership style
31
1
Charismatic leadership style
25
2
Task- oriented leadership style

20
3
Democratic or participative leadership style
20
3
Transformational leadership style
14
5
Servant- leader leadership style
13
6
Transactional leadership style
11
7
Bureaucratic leadership style
5
8
Paternalistic leadership style
2
9
Laissez-faire leadership style
1
10
Source: Field Study September, 2011
Each style is considered important by the survey respondents. The five most important and significant leadership styles leaders should have, according to the survey respondents include: autocratic; charismatic; task- oriented; democratic or participative; and transformational leadership style. It is deduced from the ranking above that the above leadership styles could be adopted in improving the performance of workers or employees in the understudied industry. 4.3.7RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 7

Q7.Which of the leadership styles you feel that suit specific working conditions. Question seven was designed to know the need of respondents towards the pattern of leadership style to be used in accomplishing
projects. TABLE 4.13

Style Suitable for Specific Working Conditions
Working Conditions Leadership Style
Frequency
Percentage (%)
One style for all working conditions
2
5.5
Different styles for different working conditions
33
91.7
No specific style for any working condition
1
2.8
No Opinion
0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table above, the respondents that need different leadership styles for different working condition are of the greater percentage 91.7% (33), 5.5% (2) suggest that only one style should be used for all working conditions, while 2.8% (1) respondent suggest that no specific style for any working condition. This survey result shows that, different styles should be exhibited for any working condition to be used in any type of construction project. 4.3.8RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 8

Q8.Which leadership styles does your organization practice? This question is designed to solicit the opinion of respondents for the styles the construction industry under study implores as their mostly used in their respective projects. This question does not provide multiple choices as they are required to state their opinion without being directed by the researcher.

Some survey participant did not answer this question as they are not much acquainted with much detail about the industry under study and are just starters in the field. The other aspect of the respondent that has worked in the understudied industry gave the following answer below which includes: Autocratic, charismatic and task- oriented leadership styles. 4.3.9RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 9

Q9.What leadership styles can be adopted in improving employees’ performance and productivity; eliminate chaos and insubordination in your organization? Question 9 does not provide multiple choices; instead the interviewees are expected to outline their personal inputs. The respondents that couldn’t participate from the previous survey question were made to understand some of the already existing styles in play, which led to their enlisting of other styles that should be inculcated into the already existing ones which includes; transformational, servant- leader; participative and transactional leadership styles. This shows that more leadership styles should be practically used in projects to suit and help in different working conditions for effectiveness, productivity and success. 4.3.10RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 10

Q10.I feel leader- employee relation affects organizational growth. TABLE 4.14
Leader- Employee relation as a Function for Organizational growth Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
17
47.2
Agree
9
25
Disagree
9
25
No Opinion

1
2.8
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table above, it is clear that the relationship that exist between the leader and the employee tend to affect the growth of the organization, as 47.2% (17) strongly agree, 25% (9) agree, 25% (9) disagree to this view while only 2.8% (1) had no opinion. 4.3.11RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 11

Q11.I feel leadership style impact on the performance of workers. TABLE 4.15
Impact of leadership style on workers performance
Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
12
33.3
Agree
14
38.9
Disagree
8
22.2
No Opinion
2
5.6
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the table above, 33.3% (12) strongly agree that leadership style has impact on the performance of workers, 38.9% (14) also agree to the fact that leadership styles have a great effect on the output of workers. 22.2% (8) do not accept the fact while 5.6% (2) say they have no idea on what to give as an opinion. This give a significant percentage from the survey result on the value leadership style add to the way workers work.

4.3.11.1TEST OF HYPOTHESES
In order to test the validity of the working hypothesis, the descriptive statistical test and regression statistics analysis was employed. In testing the two hypotheses, the researcher used response/ analysis question 10 and 11, categorizing the respondents to this question according to the four Likert Scale of strongly agree, agree, disagree and no opinion respectively. 4.3.11.2STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

H01: That leadership style does not influence employee performance. H02: The leader-employee relation does not affect organizational growth. TABLE 4.16

Q10 Leader- Employee relation as a Function for Organizational growth Q11 Impact of leadership style on workers performance

Questions
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
No Opinion
Total
Q10
12
14
8
2
36
Q11
17
9
9
1
36

Total
29
23
17
3
72
Source: Field Survey September, 2011

TABLE 4.17
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS RESULT

Question 10

Question11

Mean
9
Mean
9
Standard Error
2.645751
Standard Error
3.265986
Median
10
Median
9
Mode
#N/A
Mode
9
Standard Deviation
5.291503
Standard Deviation
6.531973

Sample Variance
28
Sample Variance
42.66667
Kurtosis
-0.28571
Kurtosis
1.5
Skewness
-0.86392
Skewness
0
Range
12
Range
16
Minimum
2
Minimum
1
Maximum
14
Maximum
17
Sum
36
Sum
36
Count
4
Count
4
Confidence Level (95.0%)
8.419961
Confidence Level (95.0%)

10.39383

TABLE 4.18
SUMMARY OUTPUT FOR REGRESSION ANALYSIS QUESTION 10

Regression Statistics

Multiple R
0.927753786

R Square
0.860727087

Adjusted R Square
0.79109063

Standard Error
2.41856618

Observations
4

ANOVA

Df
SS
MS
F

Significance F

Regression
1
72.30107527
72.30107527
12.36029412
0.072246214

Residual
2
11.69892473
5.849462366

Total
3
84

Coefficients
Standard Error
t Stat
P-value
Lower 95%
Upper 95%
Lower 95.0%
Upper 95.0%
Intercept
1.064516129
2.560675423

0.415716931
0.717976186
-9.95318097
12.08221323
-9.95318097
12.08221323
X Variable 1
0.440860215
0.125396815
3.515720995
0.072246214
-0.09867873
0.980399163
-0.09867873
0.980399163
TABLE 4.19
SUMMARY OUTPUT FOR REGRESSION ANALYSIS QUESTION 11

Regression Statistics

Multiple R
0.953206248

R Square
0.908602151

Adjusted R Square
0.862903226

Standard Error
2.41856618

Observations
4

ANOVA

Df
SS
MS
F
Significance F

Regression
1
116.3010753
116.3010753
19.88235294
0.046793752

Residual
2
11.69892473
5.849462366

Total
3
128

Coefficients
Standard Error
t Stat
P-value
Lower 95%
Upper 95%
Lower 95.0%
Upper 95.0%
Intercept
-1.06451612
2.560675423
-0.41571693
0.717976186
-12.0822132
9.953180967
-12.0822132
9.953180967
X Variable 1
0.559139785
0.125396815
4.458963214
0.046793752
0.019600837
1.098678733
0.019600837
1.098678733

4.3.12RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 12
Q12.I feel that leadership style is a function of project employee/ team productivity. TABLE 4.20
Leadership Style as a Function of Employee/ Team Productivity Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree
20
55.6
Agree
12
33.3
Disagree
4
11.1
No Opinion
0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
A large number of 55.6% (20) respondents strongly agree that high productivity of project employee/ teams is resulted from the type of leadership style. 33.3% (12) agree to the view while 11.1% (4) share a different view by disagreeing to the survey question, which implies that they have personal feelings about team productivity not relating to leadership style. 4.3.13RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 13

Q13.What factors can hinder cordial leader- employee relationship? This question is designed to find out respondents opinion toward things that can be a barrier in the relationship between a leader and his employee. A lot of answers were given of which some were selected, typical answers are described below.

They include: uncommitted team members; disrespect for authority, unclear goals and senior executive direction; unrealistic schedules, goal and resource change; communication breakdowns; inability to inspire and coach; lack of participation and listening, and not being proactive. The above opinions should be looked into in other to prevent future breakdowns and loss of working as a team, since one person cannot finish a project alone. 4.3.14RESPONSE/ ANALYSIS QUESTION 14

Q14.The various styles used in your organization help in time- cost tradeoffs (which require minimizing time and maximizing cost). TABLE 4.21
Time- Cost Tradeoffs Resulting from Different Leadership Styles Used Variables
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree
9
25
Agree
26
72.2
Disagree
1
2.8
No Opinion
0
0
Total
36
100
Source: Field Survey September, 2011
From the survey result, the projects construction cost and duration for the construction explains the fact that 25% (9) strongly agree to the view, 72.2% (26) which is of greater percentage add up to accept the view of the different styles used being an aid to time- cost tradeoffs in project completion, while the least percentage 2.8% (1) disagree to the view of the above question.

4.4DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Based on the findings of the study, it was discovered that four (4) more leadership styles were expected to be adopted from the already three existing leadership styles and proven to be effective in enhancing effective and efficient team/ employee member productivity and performance in actualizing great success in project task. They include: Autocratic, charismatic, task- oriented, transformational, democratic (participative), servant- leader and transactional leadership styles, whereby any one can be applied at any type of working conditions to suit both the project manager and the workers. Other leadership styles were wholesomely rejected. Things that could hinder leader- member relationship were meant to be resolved and sorted out among the organizational heads. The findings also proved the large extent in which leadership style influence employees’ performance and affect the growth of an organization.

This proves the fact of the second hypothesis that leadership style impact on the performance of employees’ or workers in Arab contractors. The respondents agreed that representatives from the team should be selected to assist in the decision- making process. The findings also revealed that not only one person can successfully accomplish a project by himself but also need other team members who are also relevant in a successful project completion process. From the findings of the study, a recommendation of an effective leadership style mix was made with the first five ranked leadership styles, which include: Autocratic – Charismatic – Task-Oriented – Democratic (participative) – Transformational leadership styles. a) Autocratic leadership style which is also known as authoritarian that retains authority and responsibility, assigns people to clearly defined tasks, and communicates downward. This style stresses prompt, methodical, and predictable performance.

b) Charismatic leadership style that inject huge dose of enthusiasm and motivation into the project team as a solution to the problem or loss of confidence in project team leader by project team members.

c) Task- Oriented leadership style to give the team members a sense of satisfaction and achievement. d) Democratic or Participative leadership style to delegates much of his or her authority but retains total responsibility, work is assigned on a group decision-making basis, and communication flows upward and downward. Participation is a key for personal enhancement.

e) Transformational leadership style to contribute to change, prompt for highest level of motivation and commitment among followers, and are able to create an organizational vision so vivid that it elicits followers’ loyalty and trust.

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

The basic purpose of this research study was to assess the impact of leadership styles on project management in the construction industry within a certain geographic location in Imo State which in this case was Arab Contractors Construction Company Nigeria. The survey result was focused on leadership styles in completing projects successfully, leadership trainings, possessing different leadership styles, job satisfaction, team heads involving in the decision making process, five most important leadership styles, problems in leader- member relationship, impartation of leadership on workers performance and team productivity, with over greater percentage of respondents replying that the focus should be high or very high. Five leadership styles were ranked best to be adopted together with the already existing which includes: Autocratic, Charismatic, Task-Oriented, participative or democratic and transformational, while the first three styles were what most of their manager that has worked in the industry for a long time practice. Some subordinates or team members after being interviewed on the autocratic leadership style gave a less strong response if I were possible to dessert the autocratic leadership style, but it was not possible because the organization had long gone in that practice.

Leader- member relationship was assuredly needed toward the completion of the project task together with job satisfaction. Some of the other notable results from this study are that the majority of the construction professionals in the managerial position are of the view that although they control the decision making process the decision making should be made only after taking suggestions and ideas from the workers. These professionals vehemently disagreed to the opinion that communication should be top-down thereby challenging the authoritarian type of leadership. It is quite interesting to see that these professionals in the managerial position viewed that all the decisions need not always come from the construction managers or from people in managerial positions.

Moreover, the study of the behavior of workers was viewed and determined from the ‘followers readiness level’ which matched with the leadership styles exhibited by managers to a conclusion that leadership would be more effective and the problems resulting from unaccepted behaviours should be avoided. Leadership training was also an essential in the study. A projects’ completion can be used to effectively measure the productivity of project team member and serve as a
yardstick for measuring project success

5.2CONCLUSION
Leadership styles vary according to organizational structure, people, environment, and task. Leaders promote loyalty among subordinates by keeping an open mind, being self-aware, and being inquisitive. Awareness is important in working effectively with diverse groups and individuals, regardless of personal bias. Anger and frustration indicate a closed mind. The effective leader asks questions with a genuine interest in learning more, rather than as a probe to expose a mistake or fault. Employee inquiries should be conducted with genuine interest and with demonstrated respect.

Even more important is listening to the feedback, so that appropriate action (if necessary) may be taken. The leadership style an individual uses is often a reflection of the individual’s attitudes about workers, their competence, and how to get work done. Different situations will require different styles of leadership in order to maximize the productivity and well-being of subordinates.

5.3RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made:

1. The leadership training and development programs should be offered to continually redesign and meet the changing needs of the organization and developmental needs of management employees, supervisors, engineers, site engineers and project managers who support organization structure in achieving organizational goals.

2. Leaders and project managers should adopt all the most selected leadership styles to evolve new patterns and styles for different working conditions.

3. The understudied industry should take a second look to mode they use autocratic leadership style to enhance productivity, effectiveness and efficiency despite it helps to accept change and new directions in project plans.

REFERENCES
Ali, A.J. (1993). “Decision-Making Style, Individualism, and Attitudes Toward Risk of Arab Executives”, International Studies of Management & Organization. Vol. 23  No. 3, pp. 53-73. Al-Jafary, A. and Hollingsworth, A. (1983). “An Exploratory Study of Managerial Practices in the Arabian Gulf Region”, Journal of International Business Studies.  Vol. 14 No. 2, pp.143-52. Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Application, the Free Press, New York, p. 11-18. Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1994). Improving Organisational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership, Sage Publishing Co., Thousand Oaks, CA, p 55-9. Benator, B & Thumann, A. (2003). Project Management and Leadership Skills for Engineering and Construction Projects, Indian, The Fairmont Press, p 23-9. Blanchard, K. and Wakin, E. (1991). “Managing Different Styles for Different People: Give Employees Feedback, Not Criticism”, Today’s Office, Vol. 26 No. 3, August, pp. 20-3.

Campbell, D.J., Bommer, W. and Yeo, E. (1993). “Perceptions of Appropriate Leadership Style: Participation versus Consultation across Two Cultures”, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 10 No. 1, April, pp. 1-19. Chan, A. T., & Chan, E. H., (2005). Impact of Perceived Leadership Styles on Work Outcomes: Case of Building Professionals. Journal of Construction Engineering And Management, 131 (4), Pp 413 – 422.

Chartered Institute of Building (2008). Project Management. Retrieved May 12, 2008 From http://www.ciob.org.uk/
Chimeziri, Uzoma V (2010). “The Effect of Leadership Style in Project Team Productivity”. Owerri, Imo State, Project work 2010.
Dahhan, 0. (1988). “Jordanian Top Managers: Characteristics, Activities and Decision- Making Style”, Humanities & Social Science, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 37-55. Ephraim Yuchtman and Stanley E. Seashore: (Dec. 1967), ‘A Systems Resource Approach to Organizational Effectiveness’, The American Sociological Review, Pp. 891-903.

Fellow, R., Liu, A., & Miu Fong, C. (2003). Leadership Style and Power Relations in Quantity Surveying in Hong Kong. Construction Management and Economics 21, 809–818.
Giritli, H., & Oraz, G. T. (2003). Leadership Styles: Some Evidence From the Turkish Construction Industry. Construction Management and Economics 21, 253–256. Goleman, D. (2002). Primal Leadership. Retrieved December 1, 2008,
from http://www.manage.com/methods_goleman_leSadership_styles.html. Halepota, H. A. (2005). Motivational Theories and Their Application in Construction. Cost engineering. March, 2005.

Kim, A.K and Maubourgne, R.A., (1992). “Parables of Leadership”, Harvard Business Review, p.123.
Lee-Kelley, L. & Loong, K. (2003). Turner’s Five-Functions of Project-Based Management and Situational Leadership in IT Services Projects. International Journal of Project Management 21, 583–591.
Likert, R. and Likert J.G. (1976). New Ways of Managing Conflict, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Lok P. and Crawford, J. (1999). “The Relationship Between Commitment and Organisational Culture, Subculture, Leadership Style And Job Satisfaction in Organisational Change And Development”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 365-373.

Maheshwari, B.L. (1980). Decision Styles and Organisational Effectiveness, Vikas Publishing, New Delhi. pp. 21-47.
Ministry of Planning (2005). United Arab Emirates Economic Report, available at: www.uae.gov.ae/mop/
Muna, F. (1980). The Arab Executive, St Martin’s Press, New York, NY. Vol 22, No. 2, 2005. pp. 1-9.
Oshagbemi, T. (2004). “Age Influences on the Leadership Styles and Behaviour of Managers”, Employee Relations, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2004, pp. 14-29. Odusami, K. T., Iyagba, R. R., & Omirin, M. M. (2003). The Relationship Between Project Leadership, Team Composition and Construction Project Performance in Nigeria. International Journal of Project Management 21, 519–527. Rad, A.M.M. and Yarmohammadian, M.H (2006). “A Study of Relationship Between Managers’ Leadership Style and Employees’ Job Satisfaction”, Leadership in Construction Industry Journal, Vol.19 No.2, pp. xi-xxviii.

Rehman, A.R.M. and Kalita, Prasanna (2009). ‘Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness: A Case Study on Leadership Styles in Jorhat Electrical Circle’, VANIJYA, Dibrugarh University Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 19,
pp. 15-21. Toor, S. & Ofori, G. (2006). In Quest of Leadership in the Construction Industry: New Arenas, New Challenges!, Conference proceedings published by British University in Dubai. pp. 22-8.

Whyte, I. (1988). “Factors Influencing the Choice of Leadership Style”, Construction World, Vol. 6 No. 8, August, pp. 57-8.
Yousef, D.A. (2000). “Organisational Commitment: A Mediator of the Relationships of Leadership Behaviour with Job Satisfaction and Performance in A Non-Western Country”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 6-28. Verma, D.P.S. and Jain, Kamlesh (2000), ‘Leadership Styles of Indian Manager’, the Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol 53, No.4 PP. 38-39.

www.epmbooks.com
www.mindtools.com
www.wikipedia.com
APPENDIX
School of Management Technology,
Department of Project Management Tech.,
Federal University of Technology Owerri,
P.M.B. 1526,
Imo State.
12th Sep., 2011.

Dear Respondent,
I am a final year student of the above department undertaking a research on “Assessing the impact of Leadership Style on Project Management: A case study of Arab Contractors Construction Company Nigeria.” This is a fundamental part of my project work; your heartfelt opinion is sought concerning the subject matter and will be appreciated if you sincerely answer the questions contained therein. GUIDE

This questionnaire is divided into two sections, one section deals with personal data of the respondent while the other deals with questions related to the study. You are required to carefully study each question and tick [  ] or fill in the gap in the appropriate place in favour of your choice.
NOTE: Be assured that all information provided will be treated with utmost confidence and will be used for the purpose of the study. Yours faithfully,

Onyenwe Gerald Obinna.
QUESTIONNAIRE
SECTION A
1. What is your name? —————————————————————– 2. Sex?[ ] Male[ ] Female
3. Marital status[ ] Married[ ] Single
4. Age? [ ] 21-30yrs [ ] 31-40yrs [ ] 41-50yrs [ ] over 50yrs 5. Years of experience[ ] 1-5yrs [ ] 6-10yrs [ ] 11-15yrs [ ] 16-20  [ ] Over 21yrs
6. Academic qualification [ ]OND [ ] HND [ ] Bachelors Degree  [ ] Masters Degree [ ] Doctorates Degree
[ ] others (specify) ———————————– 7. Category of staff[ ] Project/Deputy Director[ ] General Manager  [ ] Project/Deputy manager[ ] Site Manager
[ ] Assist. Project Manager[ ] Engineer
[ ] Site Engineer[ ] worker/ employee

SECTION B
1. Leadership style is necessary in completing projects successfully. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 2. It is important for a leader to have formal leadership training to be successful. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 3. I feel that successful project managers possess different leadership styles. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 4. I feel extremely satisfied with my job in a leader-employee/member relationship created in working with and for a project manager. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 5. It is best to create an environment where project team members partake in decision- making process in your organization. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 6. Please choose five most important leadership styles you think a leader should possess below. [ ] Autocratic leadership style[ ] Bureaucratic leadership style [ ] charismatic leadership style[ ] democratic leadership style [ ] Laissez-faire leadership style[ ] paternalistic leadership style [ ] Servant-leader leadership style[ ] Task-oriented leadership style [ ] Transactional leadership style[ ] Transformational leadership style 7. Which of the leadership style you feel that suit specific working conditions [ ] One style for all working conditions

[ ] Different styles for various working condition
[ ] No specific style for any working condition
[ ] No opinion
8. Which leadership styles does your organization practice? ———————————————————————————————————————————————– 9. Which leadership styles can be adopted in improving employees’ performance and productivity, eliminate chaos and insubordination in your organization? ——————————————————————————————————————————— 10. I feel leader-employee relation affects organizational growth. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 11. I feel leadership style impact on performance of workers [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 12. I feel that leadership style is a function of project employee/ team productivity. [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion 13. What factors can hinder cordial leader-employee relationship? ——————————————————————————————————————————————– 14. The various leadership styles used in your organization help in time- cost tradeoffs (which require minimizing time and maximizing cost). [ ] Strongly Agree[ ] Agree[ ] Disagree[ ] No Opinion Thank you for your assistance.


Essay Topics:


Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address

We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own

Courtney from Study Moose

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/3TYhaX