Human nature is the product of one’s environment. Change the environment to change the behavior. Reinforce good behavior, punish bad behavior Conservation of cultural heritage preserves the wisdom of the achievements of humankind. Behavior evolves within the conditioning influence of the institutional system, tradition is the repository of a collective social intelligence. Constructivism is an educational methodology which asserts that learners should be taught in a way that allows them to construct their own understandings about a subject.
The purpose of the teacher is not to cover material but to help the child “uncover” the facts and ideas in a subject area. Essentialists believe that children should learn traditional basic subjects. (Reading, Writing, Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Math, Science, Art, and Music. ) Generally teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex. Schools should transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Focus is on basic skills.
Existentialism rejects the existence of any source of objective, authoritative truth about metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Do not accept any predetermined creed or philosophical system and from that try to define who we are. Aim for the progressing of humanity. Use independent thinking. It engages the student in central questions of defiming life and who we are. Answers imposed from the outside may not be real answers. The only real answers are the ones that come from inside each person, that are authentically his or her own.
For the existentialist, there exists no universal form of human nature; each of us has the free will to develop as we see fit. “Stimulate learners to achieve a more vital and fuller identification with the Absolute Mind or the Macrocosm… Students come into a gradually expanding mental awareness that leads to self-definition based on a comprehensive understanding or perspective of the universe. ” (Gutek, p21) Liberalism focuses on the individual. Ideas come from experience. Sensation and reflection create learning. Behavior Modification Conserve/preserve heritage.
Constructivism Essentialism Willaim C. Bagley Arthur Bestor Existentialism Idealism Plato Liberalism John Locke Marxism Karl Marx Marxism promotes socialism, as opposed to capitalism where one class oppresses another. Education is use d to change society. Naturalism Rousseau The child should develop in the natural way s/he is designed, guiding the process Perennialism Perennialism Robert M. Hutchins Perennialists believe that one should teach the things of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person.
Philosophy is improtant to study. Studens should learn principles, not facts, teach scientific reasoning, not facts. Teach first about humans, not machines or techniques.. Perennialism focuses first on personal development. Prepared for ED828 Educational Philosophies and Change Jean Marrapodi • Capella University • September 2003 Construct new ideas Back to the Basics What is real? Striving for the ideal Blank slate of individual experience All for all Natural development of the child Like perennial flowers, great principles repeat Educational Philosophies.
Philosophy Pragmatism Philosophers Beliefs Key Thought John Dewey Scientific problem solving, experiential learning Progressivism William Kilpatrick Realism Aristotle “Ideas were to be judged by their consequences when acted on; truth was a warranted assertion, a tentative statement based on the application of hypotheses to solving problems; logic, following the scientific method was experimental; values were experienced within the context of ethical and aesthetic problems and issues charged by the unique features of particular situations.
” Gutek, p 77. Progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Teachers provide not just reading and drill, but also real-world experiences and activities that center around the real life of the students. Discovery follows the scientific method: 1. Become aware of the problem. 2. Define the problem. 3. Propose hypotheses to solve it. 4. Test the consequences of the hypotheses from one’s past experience. 5. Test the most likely solution.
“Cultivate human rationality, the human’s highest power, through the study of organized bodies of knowledge…encourage human beings to define themselves by framing their choices rationally, to realize themselves by exercising their potentiality for excellence to the fullest, and to integrate themselves by ordering the various roles and claims of life according to a rational an hierarchical order. ” Gutek, p 41 Education should examine, define the problems and change the social structure of society. Rebuilding Society George S. Counts Social Reconstructionism.
“Learn by Doing! ” Rationally real Theistic Realism Thomas Aquinas Similar to realism, but God is central God in the core Totalitarianism Adolph Hitler Totalitarianism is a political system in which a citizen is totally subject to state authority in all aspects of day-to-day life. Government controls education. Total dependence on government Utopianism Robert Owen A perfect society can be achieved through the education of the young. Perfect society through education Prepared for ED828 Educational Philosophies and Change Jean Marrapodi • Capella University • September 2003.