Dealism Idealism is the metaphysical and epistemological doctrine that ideas or thoughts make up fundamental reality. Essen? ally, it is any philosophy which argues that the only thing actually knowable is consciousness (or the contents of consciousness), whereas we never can be sure that ma? er or anything in the outside world really exists. Thus, the only real things are mental en?? es, not physical things (which exist only in the sense that they are perceived) Progressivism Progressivist believes that individuality, progress, and change are fundamental to one’s educa? on.
Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to their lives, progressivist centers their curricula on the needs, experiences, interests, and abili? es of students. Progressivist teachers try making school interes? ng and useful by planning lessons that provoke curiosity. In a progressivist school, students are ac? vely learning. The students interact with one another and develop social quali? es such as coopera? on and tolerance for di&erent points of view.
Essen? alism It is an educa? onal philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the tradi? onal basic subjects thoroughly and rigorously. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to ins? ll students with the “essen? als” of academic knowledge, enac? ng a back-to-basics approach. Essen? alism ensures that the accumulated wisdom of our civiliza? on as taught in the tradi? onal academic disciplines is passed on from teacher to student. Such disciplines might include Reading, Wri? ng, Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Mathema? cs, Science, Art, and Music. Moreover, this tradi? onal approach is meant to train the mind, promote reasoning, and ensure a common culture.
Realism Realism, at its simplest and most general, is the view that en?? es of a certain type have an objec? ve reality, a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguis? c prac? ces, beliefs, etc. Thus, en?? es (including abstract concepts and universals as well as more concrete objects) have an existence independent of the act of percep? on, and independent of their names.
Reconstruc? onism Social Reconstruc? onism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social ques? ons and a quest to create a be? er society and worldwide democracy. Reconstruc? onist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of educa? on.
Existen? alism It is based on the view that humans de3ne their own meaning in life, and try to make ra? onal decisions despite exis? ng in an irra? onal universe. It focuses on the ques? on of human existence, and the feeling that there is no purpose or explana? on at the core of existence. It holds that, as there is no God or any other transcendent force, the only way to counter this nothingness (and hence to 3nd meaning in life) is by embracing existence.
Pragma? sm Pragma? sm is a rejec? on of the idea that the func? on of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Instead, pragma? sts consider thought to be a product of the interac? on between organism and environment. Thus, the func? on of thought is as an instrument or tool for predic? on, ac? on, and problem solving.
Pragma? sts contend that most philosophical topics— such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their prac? cal uses and successes rather than in terms of representa? ve accuracy Perennialism Believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlas? ng per? nence to all people everywhere.
They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach 3rst about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people 3rst, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics 3rst, not voca? onal topics.