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Education in Schools Essay

The Inspectorate wishes to thank the following for the use of photographs: Clonakilty Community College, Clonakilty, Co Cork Saint Mark’s Community School, Tallaght, Dublin 24 Saint Mac Dara’s Community College, Templeogue, Dublin 6W Scoil Barra Naofa, Monkstown, Cork Scoil Nano Nagle and Talbot Senior National School, Clondalkin, Dublin 22 Whitechurch National School, Whitechurch Road, Dublin 16 © 2008 Department of Education and Science ISBN-0-0000-0000-X.

Designed by Slick Fish Design, Dublin Printed by Brunswick Press, Dublin Published by Evaluation Support and Research Unit Inspectorate Department of Education and Science Marlborough Street Dublin 1 To be purchased directly from Government Publications Sales Office Sun Alliance House Molesworth Street Dublin 2 or by post from Government Publications Postal Trade Section Unit 20 Lakeside Retail Park Claremorris Co Mayo €20 Contents Foreword Executive summary xi xiii Part 1 Introduction Chapter 1 ICT in primary and post-primary education in Ireland 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3.

Introduction Background ICT policy and investment in education 1. 3. 1 1. 3. 2 1. 3. 3 1. 4 1. 4. 1 1. 4. 2 1. 4. 3 1. 4. 4 1. 5 Policy for ICT in education ICT in the curriculum Investment in ICT in education Computers in schools Other ICT equipment in schools Expenditure on ICT and technical support Other areas covered in the census 1 2 3 6 6 9 11 12 12 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 30 30 30 30 30 ICT infrastructure census in schools (2005) Summary Evaluation methods Chapter 2 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 Introduction Approaches to evaluating ICT in schools Overview and aims of the evaluation National survey of primary and post-primary principals and teachers 2. 4. 1 2. 4. 2 2. 4. 3 2. 4.

4 Survey sampling methods Survey research methods Response rate Comparison of respondents and population 2. 5 2. 6 Case-study school evaluations 2. 6. 1 2. 6. 2 Primary schools Post-primary schools Observations during classroom inspections (primary) and subject inspections (post-primary) 27 2. 7 2. 8 On-line evaluation Evaluation outputs and terms 2. 8. 1 2. 8. 2 2. 8. 3.

Outputs Junior and senior classes Quantitative terms used in this report iii ICT in Schools Part 2 Chapter 3 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 ICT infrastructure and planning in schools ICT infrastructure in primary and post-primary schools 31 32 33 37 38 41 41 42 45 45 49 53 56 57 59 59 61 64 64 66 69 70 70 72 73 75 79 80 81 90 98 99 99 101 102 102 105.

Introduction The ICT advisory service ICT and funding ICT maintenance, technical support, and obsolescence Access to computers 3. 5. 1 3. 5. 2 Access by teachers Access by students Organisation of ICT facilities in case-study primary schools Organisation of ICT facilities in case-study post-primary schools 3. 6. The use of computers in schools 3. 6. 1 3. 6. 2 3. 7 3. 8 3. 9.

ICT peripherals Software Use of e-mail 3. 10. 1 3. 10. 2 3. 11. 1 3. 11. 2 The learning platform The school web site Main findings Recommendations ICT planning in primary and post-primary schools 3. 10 The on-line environment 3. 11 Summary of findings and recommendations Chapter 4 4. 1 4. 2 Introduction The planning process 4. 2. 1 4. 2. 2 4. 2. 3 4. 2.

4 The ICT steering committee The ICT co-ordinator The ICT plan The acceptable-use policy Teachers’ professional development Using ICT in classroom and lesson planning and preparation Planning for using ICT in teaching and learning Principals’ priorities for ICT development Teachers’ priorities for ICT development Main findings Recommendations.

4. 3 Implementation of ICT planning 4. 3. 1 4. 3. 2 4. 3. 3 4. 4 Forward planning 4. 4. 1 4. 4. 2 4. 5 Findings and recommendations 4. 5. 1 4. 5. 2 iv Part 3 Chapter 5 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 ICT and teaching and learning in schools ICT and teaching and learning in primary schools 107 108 108 111 111 112 113 114 116 120 126 127 127 127 128 129 130 131 133 134 134 134 135 135 137 139 140 141 141 145 148 149 151 152 153 155 163 167 Introduction Teachers’ ICT qualifications and skills Classroom practice and ICT 5. 3. 1 5. 3. 2 5. 3. 3 5. 3. 4 5. 3. 5 5. 3. 6 5. 3.

7 Planning Frequency of ICT use Organisation of ICT use Focus of ICT use Use of resources and applications in the classroom Quality of provision Provision for students with special educational needs by mainstream class teachers Access to ICT Planning for the use of ICT Frequency of ICT use Focus of ICT use Use of resources and applications Quality of provision 5. 4 ICT in special education 5. 4. 1 5. 4. 2 5. 4. 3 5. 4. 4 5. 4. 5 5. 4. 6 5. 5 5. 6.

Assessment Developing ICT in the classroom 5. 6. 1 5. 6. 2 Factors that constrain the development of ICT in the curriculum Factors that facilitate the development of ICT in the curriculum Main findings Recommendations ICT and teaching and learning in post-primary schools 5. 7 Findings and recommendations 5. 7. 1 5. 7. 2 Chapter 6 6. 1 6. 2 Introduction ICT qualifications and skills 6. 2. 1 6. 2.

2 Teachers’ ICT qualifications and skill levels Students’ ICT skill levels Timetabling of dedicated ICT lessons Curriculum and content of dedicated ICT lessons School principals’ support for the use of ICT in the classroom ICT in practice in the classroom Quality of provision 6. 3 Dedicated ICT lessons 6. 3. 1 6. 3. 2 6. 4 Classroom practice and ICT 6. 4. 1 6. 4. 2 6. 4. 3 6. 5 ICT and special educational needs v ICT in Schools 6. 6 6. 7 Assessment Developing ICT in the classroom 6. 7. 1 6. 7. 2 Factors that constrain the development of ICT in the classroom Factors that facilitate the development of ICT in the classroom Main findings Recommendations.

168 168 168 170 172 172 174 6. 8 Findings and recommendations 6. 8. 1 6. 8. 2 Part 4 Chapter 7 7. 1 7. 2 Summary of findings and recommendations Main findings and recommendations 177 178 179 179 181 182 184 184 186 188 188 189 191 194 197 Introduction Main findings 7. 2. 1 7. 2. 2 7. 2. 3 Infrastructure ICT Planning ICT in teaching and learning ICT infrastructure Professional development needs of teachers ICT infrastructure in schools Planning for ICT in schools ICT in teaching and learning 7. 3 Main recommendations for policy-makers and policy advisors 7. 3. 1 7. 3. 2 7. 4 Main recommendations for schools 7. 4. 1 7. 4. 2 7. 4. 3 References Appendix vi Abbreviations.

AP AUP BOM CAD CEB CESI CPD DES ECDL EGFSN ERNIST ESI EU FETAC ICD ICT ISC LC LCA LCVP LSRT MLE NCC NCCA NCTE NPADC OECD PCSP PISA SCR SDP SDPI SDPS SDT SESE SESS SIP TIF VEC VLE WSE assistant principal acceptable use policy board of management computer-aided design Commercial Examining Board Computer Studies Society of Ireland continuing professional development Department of Education and Science European Computer Driving Licence Expert Group on Future Skills Needs European Research Network for ICT in Schools of Tomorrow Education Services Interactive (Project).

European Union Further Education and Training Awards Council in-career development information and communications technology Information Society Commission Leaving Certificate (Established) Leaving Certificate—Applied Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme learning-support resource teacher managed learning environment National Competitiveness Council National Council for Curriculum and Assessment National Centre for Technology in Education National Policy Advisory and Development Committee Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Primary Curriculum Support Programme Programme for International Student Assessment student-computer ratio school development planning School Development Planning Initiative (Post-primary).

School Development Planning Support (Primary) special-duties teacher Social, Environmental and Scientific Education Special Education Support Service Schools Integration Project Telecommunications and Internet Federation Vocational Education Committee virtual learning environment whole-school evaluation vii ICT in Schools Tables Table 1. 1 Table 1. 2 Table 1. 3 Table 2. 1 Table 2. 2 Table 2. 3 Table 2. 4 Table 3. 1 Table 4. 1 Table 4. 2 Table 4. 3.

Table 4. 4 Table 4. 5 Table 4. 6 Table 5. 1 Table 5. 2 Table 5. 3 Table 5. 4 Table 5. 5 Table 5. 6 Table 5. 7 Table 5. 8 Table 5. 9 Funding of ICT in education policy initiatives Student-computer ratio (SCR) in each school sector in given years Proportion of schools having at least one fixed and one mobile data projector Comparison of survey sample.

and population, primary schools Comparison of survey sample and population, post-primary schools Number and level of lessons observed, post-primary schools Quantitative terms used in the report Awareness and use of NCTE and ICT advisory services among teachers Teachers’ attendance at NCTE and ICT advisory service training courses Professional development preferences of post-primary teachers, by subject Teachers’ use of internet resources in planning and preparation for teaching Primary principals’ views on the strategic development of ICT Post-primary principals’ views on the strategic development of ICT Teachers’ priority areas for the development of ICT Proportion of primary teachers who rated their proficiency in ICT skills as either “intermediate” or “advanced”.

Proportion of primary teachers who rated their ability in each of three ICT tasks that facilitate teaching and learning as either “intermediate” or “advanced” Inspectors’ observations on the use of ICT to facilitate teaching and learning in classrooms Teachers’ use of software and the internet to facilitate learning Most frequently used applications in the teaching of individual curricular areas Applications used by members of special-education support teams to promote the development of skills.

Most frequently used applications to promote the development of individual learning priority areas Comparison of inspectors’ ratings of the quality of ICT provision in supporting children with special educational needs in mainstream and special-education support settings Table 5. 10 Table 6. 1 Table 6. 2 Table 6.

3 Sample of inspectors’ comments on the quality of ICT use in special-education support settings Proportion of post-primary teachers who rated their proficiency in ICT skills as either “intermediate” or “advanced” Proportions of post-primary teachers who rated their ability in each of three ICT tasks that facilitate teaching and learning as either “intermediate” or “advanced” 144 Timetabled dedicated ICT lessons in post-primary schools 149 142 133 132 131 130 113 117 117 111 109 12 13 14 24 25 29 30 36 83 88 93 100 100 102 Inspectors’ comments on the quality of use of ICT observed in teaching and learning 123 viii Table 6. 4 Table 6. 5 Table 6. 6 Table 6. 7 Table 6. 8 Table 6. 9.

Commonly taught topics in dedicated ICT lessons Principals’ descriptions of how ICT is used in some subjects Principals’ views on the impact of ICT on teaching and learning Location of lessons observed during subject inspections ICT resources available in the classrooms of lessons observed Use of the internet and software in teaching and learning 151 153 154 155 155 161 Diagrams Fig. 2. 1 Fig. 2. 2 Fig. 2. 3 Fig. 3. 1 Fig. 3. 2 Fig. 3. 3 Fig. 3. 4 Fig. 3. 5 Fig. 3. 6 Fig. 3. 7 Fig. 3. 8 Fig. 3. 9 Fig. 3. 10 Fig. 4. 1 Fig. 4. 2 Fig. 4. 3 Fig. 4. 4 Fig. 4. 5 Fig. 4. 6 Fig. 4. 7 Fig. 4. 8 Fig. 4. 9 Fig. 4. 10 Fig. 4. 11 Fig. 4. 12 Fig. 4. 13 Fig. 5. 1 Fig. 5. 2 Fig. 5.

3 Survey response rates Mainstream lesson observations in primary schools Subjects reviewed at post-primary level Teachers’ ratings of NCTE and ICT advisory services Access to computers by primary teachers Access to computers by post-primary teachers Access to computers by fifth-class students Access to computers by fifth-year students Frequency of use of ICT peripherals by primary teachers Frequency of use of ICT peripherals by post-primary teachers Provision and use of e-mail address by subject taught, post-primary schools.

The primary school web site: teachers’ responses The post-primary school web site: teachers’ responses Contents of ICT plans, primary schools Contents of ICT plans, post-primary schools Staff ICT training in primary schools within the previous three years Staff ICT training in post-primary schools within the previous three years Principals’ and teachers’ views on ICT training requirements, primary schools Principals’ and teachers’ views on ICT training requirements, post-primary schools Use of computers for lesson preparation Resources provided by mainstream primary teachers using ICT Use of the internet in planning and preparation for teaching, by subject Scoilnet visits by teachers.

The most popular sections of Scoilnet among teachers Teachers’ ratings of Scoilnet Teachers’ views on what Scoilnet should contain Use and related proficiency of applications in teaching Extent to which mainstream teachers plan for the use of ICT Organisation of teaching and learning during use of ICT 23 28 29 34 41 42 43 44 54 54 58 62 62 77 77 81 82 86 87 90 91 93 94 95 96 97 110 112 113 ix ICT in Schools Fig. 5. 4 Fig. 5. 5 Fig. 5. 6 Fig. 5. 7 Fig. 5. 8 Fig. 5. 9 Fig. 5. 10 Fig. 5. 11 Fig. 5. 12 Fig. 5. 13 Fig. 5. 14 Fig. 6. 1 Fig. 6. 2 Fig. 6. 3 Fig. 6. 4 Fig. 6. 5 Fig. 6. 6 Fig. 6. 7 Fig. 6. 8 Fig. 6. 9 Fig. 7. 1.

Frequency of ICT use to promote learning in curricular areas Frequency of ICT use among mainstream and special class teachers to facilitate development of skills Frequency of use of individual internet resources by internet users Inspectors’ rating of the quality of use of ICT in teaching and learning Students’ proficiency in individual tasks Level of ICT support for students with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms Level of access by students with special educational needs in special-education support settings.

Extent to which special-education support team members plan for the use of ICT Inspectors’ observations of the use of ICT to facilitate teaching and learning in special-education support settings Frequency of ICT use in special-education support settings to facilitate development of skills Inspectors’ ratings of the quality of use of ICT in teaching and learning observed in special-education support settings Proficiency and use of applications in teaching Students’ use of computers Students’ ICT skill levels Use of ICT in the planning and preparation of observed lessons Main uses of ICT in teaching and learning in the subjects inspected, as reported by teachers.

Frequency of use of computers in teaching Settings in which ICT is used in classrooms Use of the internet and applications, by subject area Inspectors’ rating of the quality of use of ICT in teaching and learning observed International student-computer ratios from PISA 2003 114 115 119 122 125 126 127 128 128 129 132 143 146 147 156 157 158 159 162 164 179 x Foreword.

Information and communication technology has brought profound changes to almost all aspects of our lives in recent years. It has transformed activities as basic as how we work, communicate with each other, treat illnesses, travel, shop and enjoy our leisure time. The pace of change shows no sign of slowing: indeed, the development of ICT and its applications to areas such as the integration of media, are continuing at even faster rates than heretofore. In a relatively short period of time, ICT skills have become as fundamental to living a full life as being able to read, write and compute. Ireland has been a leading player in the development of the ICT industry.

We have been a leading exporter of ICT hardware and software, and many of the key businesses in the industry have important bases here. Like other countries, we have also recognised that if our young people are to live full lives in a world transformed by ICT, they need to have opportunities to acquire and develop ICT skills from an early age. Since the late 1990s, we have made considerable investments in ICT infrastructure in schools, and in training for teachers and other professionals. Until now, little national research evidence has been published on the impact that the new technologies have had on schools and especially on teaching and learning.

This report examines the extent to which ICT has been used in schools at both primary and post-primary levels and, more importantly, assesses the impact that ICT has had on teaching and learning, including the ways in which ICT is used to support the learning of students with special educational needs. The evaluation shows that while much progress has been achieved in the roll-out of ICT in schools, considerable challenges remain.

The report presents findings and recommendations that will be of interest to teachers, principals, school support services, curriculum developers and policy-makers. I hope that it will inform debate and policy decisions on how we can ensure that young people have the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary to benefit from the opportunities presented by this powerful technology in the years ahead. Eamon Stack Chief Inspector xi ICT in Schools xii Executive summary xiii ICT in Schools Executive summary.

An evaluation of the infrastructure, planning and use of information and communications technology in teaching and learning was conducted by the Inspectorate in primary and post-primary schools during the school year 2005/06.

The objectives of the evaluation were: • to examine the extent to which ICT was used in primary and post-primary schools • to evaluate the impact of ICT on teaching and learning • to assess the ICT skills of students at selected points in the education system and to obtain their views on their experience of ICT in their schooling • to obtain the views of principals and teachers on their ICT skills and their opinions of the impact and future role of ICT in education • to make recommendations for policy development regarding ICT in schools. xiv Executive summary.

The evaluation methods comprised: • a national survey of primary (234) and post-primary (110) principals • a national survey of primary (1,162) and post-primary (800) teachers • case-study school evaluations by inspectors (32 primary schools, 20 post-primary schools) • observations during classroom inspections (77 primary schools) • observations during subject inspections (111 post-primary schools) • a follow-up on-line survey of teachers in case-study post-primary schools. Summary of main findings The findings and recommendations are summarised here and are elaborated in chapter 7. Infrastructure • The student-computer ratio (SCR) in Irish schools is 9. 1:1 at primary level and 7:1 at post-primary level.

Information available from the OECD suggests that countries that have taken the lead in the provision of ICT in schools are aiming for or achieving a SCR of 5:1. • In the main, schools make effective use of the grants provided by the DES for developing their ICT systems. However, schools generally spend considerably more on ICT than the sums made available through these grants schemes. • The lack of technical support and maintenance is a significant impediment to the development of ICT in schools. • At primary level, computer rooms are generally a feature of the larger schools. However, access by students to computers was found to be superior where the computers were located in the classrooms.

At the post-primary level there is a greater permeation of computers in specialist rooms than in general classrooms. • Schools were found to use a limited range of ICT peripherals, mainly printers, scanners, and digital cameras. Digital projectors were found in post-primary schools.

At primary level, interactive whiteboards were present in a small number of schools. • Schools that made dedicated computer facilities available to teachers reported that it led to the use of more high-quality and creative teaching resources in classrooms. xv ICT in Schools Planning • Responsibility for ICT in a school can lie with an ICT steering committee, the principal, the deputy principal, an ICT co-ordinator, or a combination of these personnel.

Greater efficiency is achieved where a named person has responsibility for ICT within a school and where their role is clearly defined. • The majority (71%) of primary schools surveyed, but fewer than half (46%) of post-primary schools, were found to have a written ICT plan.

These plans tend to concentrate more on infrastructural issues than on how ICT can be used to enhance teaching and learning. • Most schools (83% of primary schools, 87% of post-primary schools) were found to have an acceptable-use policy (AUP). This is a product of the requirements of the Schools Broadband Access Programme and the safety-awareness initiatives of the NCTE.

It is also an indication of the seriousness that schools attach to the risks associated with the use of the internet. • The majority of teachers make some use of ICT in lesson planning and preparation. Newly qualified teachers are more likely to use ICT for this purpose than their more experienced colleagues. However, fewer teachers were found to plan for the use of ICT in teaching and learning. At the post-primary level, planning for the use of ICT in teaching varies between subjects.

The programmes for Transition Year, LCVP and LCA specifically encourage planning for the use of ICT in teaching and learning. Teachers of these programmes regularly reported that their involvement also encouraged them to use ICT in their teaching with other class groups.

• School principals and teachers identified the provision and maintenance of hardware in schools and the provision of professional development opportunities in ICT as being strategically important for the development of ICT in their school. Generic programmes of professional development, because of their wider appeal, were found to have a greater take-up among teachers than topic-specific programmes.

Teaching and learning • Only 30% of primary teachers and 25% of post-primary teachers rated their ability as either “intermediate” or “advanced” with regard to using teaching and learning methods that are facilitated by ICT. Recently qualified teachers had a higher perception of their ICT skills than more experienced teachers.

• At the primary level, the inspectors reported evidence of the use of ICT to facilitate teaching and learning in 59% of the classrooms visited. However, the inspectors observed ICT actually being used in only 22% of the lessons observed. Nearly a quarter of all inspections showed a competent or optimal level of performance in relation to the use of ICT in the classroom. xvi Executive summary • Where ICT is used in primary classrooms it predominates in core curricular areas, such as English and Mathematics, and in Social, Environmental and Scientific Education (SESE). • The evaluation found that many fifth-class students in primary schools do not have the competence to complete basic tasks on the computer.

While most students reported being able to perform many of the most basic computer tasks, such as turning a computer on and off and opening or saving a file, more than 30% reported that they were not able to print a document or to go on the internet by themselves. Almost half (47%) reported not being able to create a document by themselves. The majority did not know how to create a presentation (72%), use a spreadsheet (86%), or send an attachment with an e-mail message (88%). Competence in the use of ICT is limited for the most part to basic ICT skills, centred on the use of word-processing. • Only 18% of the post-primary lessons observed by the inspectors involved an ICT-related activity.

Students’ interaction with the technology was observed in only about a quarter of these instances. The most common ICT-related activity observed was the use of a data projector to make a presentation to a class group. Inspectors judged that effective integration of ICT in teaching and learning was occurring in approximately half of the lessons in which the use of ICT was observed (i. e. in approximately 11% of all lessons observed).

• Dedicated ICT lessons at the post-primary level are more prevalent among first-year classes, and are provided less frequently as students progress towards the Junior Certificate. The majority of schools concentrate on providing students with such lessons in their Transition Year, in the LCVP, and in the LCA.

• High levels of integration of ICT were found at the post-primary level in the science and applied science subjects and in subjects in the social studies I group. 1 Subjects were also identified that rarely made use of ICT, the most notable being Irish. • The evaluation found that fifth-year students in post-primary schools had the confidence to perform many basic computer operations by themselves, for example saving, printing, deleting, opening and editing a document.

However, it also found that they generally needed some assistance to perform more complicated tasks, such as moving files, copying files to external storage devices, and writing and sending e-mail. A relatively low proportion of these students reported being able to create a multimedia presentation.

Students required most help with attaching a file to an e-mail message, constructing a web page, or dealing with computer viruses. While the post-primary inspectors generally commented positively on the students’ ICT work that they observed, they were also concerned that the tasks undertaken by the students were largely word-processing and presentation tasks.

1 Social Studies I group includes History; Geography; Art, Craft, and Design; and Music. Social Studies II group includes Religious Education; Physical Education; Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE); and Social, Personal and Health Education (SPHE). xvii ICT in Schools • ICT is widely used to facilitate the provision by schools of special education.

Generally, ICT is used more frequently by members of the special-education team rather than by mainstream class teachers. The emphasis in students’ engagement with ICT in special-education settings is mainly on the support of literacy. Support for ICT • The level of awareness among teachers of the ICT advisory service is generally low, with fewer than half the respondents at both the primary and the post-primary level reporting an awareness of it. Awareness is higher, however, among ICT co-ordinators than among other teachers. • The use of the ICT advisory service is also low. At the primary level only 22% of all respondents reported having used the service, while at the post-primary level the corresponding figure was 15%.

Summary of key recommendations for policy-makers and policy advisors • The level of ICT infrastructure in schools needs to be improved. Specifically, Ireland should be working towards equipping not just all schools but all classrooms with an appropriate level of ICT infrastructure. Consideration should be given to equipping all classrooms with a computer for use by the teacher, broadband internet access with adequate bandwidth, and a fixed data projector and screen for use by the teacher in presentations. Furthermore, to ensure appropriate access to ICT by students, Ireland should strive to reduce its student-computer ratio (SCR) from the present 9.

1:1 in primary schools and 7:1 in post-primary schools. International evidence suggests that countries that have taken a lead in this area are aiming for or achieving a ratio of 5:1 or less in all schools. • Improvements in ICT infrastructure will need to be supported by the introduction of a national ICT technical support and maintenance system for schools. Schools also need to be provided with the capacity to regularly upgrade their own ICT infrastructure. • The pedagogical dimension of the ICT advisors’ role in an education centre could be more appropriately provided by the relevant school support services, in liaison with the ICT school coordinators.

The technical dimension of the ICT advisors’ role could be provided in a number of ways, including for example, by having a commercially supplied ICT maintenance and support for schools. With an effective IT maintenance system in place, the pedagogical role of ICT coordinators within schools could be enhanced and supported with appropriate training. xviii Executive summary • Support services should give priority to the integration of ICT in teaching and learning. There is an opportunity for such services to work more closely with schools, and with school ICT coordinators in particular, to determine staff training needs and assist in organising appropriate professional development courses for teachers.

Support service personnel should aim to be proactive in providing examples of how ICT can be used to facilitate teaching and learning in any programmes provided. Furthermore, course organisers should take greater account of the wide range of ICT abilities and experiences commonly found in groups of teachers and should provide differentiated ICT learning experiences for course participants. • Additional guidance should be provided to schools and teachers of students with special educational needs so that the needs of learners may be matched more appropriately with the technology available. • There needs to be an increased emphasis on the application of ICT in teaching and learning in teacher education at pre-service, induction and continuing professional development stages.

It is recommended that teacher education departments in third-level colleges should provide student teachers with the skills necessary to effectively use ICT in teaching and foster in them a culture of using ICT in their work. Consideration should also be given to extending and expanding significantly the current range of professional development courses available for teachers.

A major focus of such an initiative should be on how ICT may be integrated fully in the teaching and learning of specific subjects and curricular areas. The ICT Framework for Schools, which the NCCA will issue in the near future, will be a further assistance to schools in this regard. Key recommendations for schools • Schools and teachers should regularly review the use of ICT in their work.

In particular, they should strive to ensure greater integration of ICT within teaching and learning activities in classrooms and other settings. • Teachers should exploit the potential of ICT to develop as wide a range of students’ skills as possible, including the higher-order skills of problem-solving, synthesis, analysis, and evaluation. • Principals should encourage and facilitate suitable ICT training for teachers. Schools should liase with relevant support services and should endeavour to establish mechanisms to facilitate the sharing of good practice among members of the staff.

• Schools should endeavour to provide all their students with an appropriate and equitable level of experience of ICT at all class levels: at the primary level and at both junior and senior cycle at the post-primary level. xix ICT in Schools • Schools should plan for the maintenance and upgrading of their ICT systems. • Computer rooms, where they exist, should be used to maximum effect.

Staff members and students should be provided with adequate access to the internet. Post-primary schools in particular should aim to increase the permeation of ICT in general classrooms. • A designated staff member should be responsible for ICT development. An ICT plan should be developed, using a consultative process, and an appropriate-use policy (AUP) should also be established.

• Teachers should endeavour to integrate ICT more in their planning and preparation for teaching. • Schools need to ensure that ICT is used to support students with special educational needs in the most effective and appropriate way. Schools need to ensure that they match students’ needs to the most appropriate technology available, and that ICT is used to support not only the acquisition of literacy but the widest range of students’ needs.

• Schools should exploit the benefits to be had from ICT in their assessment procedures and also in their administrative practices. xx Chapter 1 ICT in primary and post-primary education in Ireland Part 1 Introduction 1 ICT in Schools • Part 1 Introduction 1. 1 Introduction

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an accepted element in all our lives and has a central role to play in education. Since the appearance of the first Government policy on ICT in education in 1997, a substantial investment has been made in ICT facilities and training in Irish schools.

In Ireland, as in other countries, the debate about ICT in education concentrates on the potential impact of ICT on teaching and learning and on the measures that need to be adopted to ensure that the potential of ICT to enrich students’ learning experience is realised. This Inspectorate report presents the findings of a major evaluation of the impact of ICT on teaching and


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