Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Present education system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up.
At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The present research focus on steps through which our indian education system had gone through. The basic moto of this research is to show that india has done serious efforts in education nd has shotremendous development but it is still lacking in comparison with developed nations. This study is an effort to suggest some measures for its improvement.
INTRODUCTION Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development. No country can achieve growth without substantial investment in human capital. Education improves the quality of their lives and lead to broad social benefits to individuals and society. Education including formal education, public awareness and training should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential.
The pre british indian Education system comprised of three types Elementary education Secondary education Higher education Although Higher education is seen as the producer of elite class in society which largely contribute in the system of governance. The dawn of independence saw the significance of higher education in its reach and coverage. At the time of independence, there was bleak situation of higher education in India as the three important indicator:the number of Educational institutions, the number of teachers and the students enrollment in Education.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
First objective of the research is to get a understanding of various Educational changes that have taken place in India from pre Independence era. To study various Act launched for Education growth. To Find current scenario of Education sector in India To suggest some meaningful meausures to improve our Education sector. MYTHODOLOGY The study is based upon secondary data. Data has been collected from various sources like www. world bank. in,UNESCO,UNTDA. Statistical figures are main vehicle to achieve objective.
It has studied internet research as well as policy papers and other official documents. CHANGES IN EDUCATION The changes which we are watching today due to education are may be because of various policy of government . Few of them are following: The National policy on Education 1986 had underscored the constitutional resolve to provide quality Education to all. under this policy government decided to review the growth and development of higher Education through five year plan which paid rich dividend in promoting education in India.
The Eighty sixth constitutional amendment act in December 2002,made elementary Education a fundamental right for all children in the age group of 6-14. The Government initiated the scheme of area intensive program for Educationally backward minority and scheme of financial assistance of madrasa Education as part of its revised programme of action(1992). Taking into consideration the need for technical Education so that skill is acquired, the Government took steps to open industrial training Institute, medical colleges,polytechnics. At present there are 1500 such Institutes.
National adult Education programme was taken up in 1978. The aim was to reach 100 percent literacy (age 15-35) by the year 1990. Its basic pupose was to promote small family. As a result of announcement of national policy on Education priority is given to vocationalisation of secondary Education to make Education relevant to work. A central Institute of Education technology was set up in NCERT to purchase equipment for state Institute of Educational technology. UGC was set up in 1955 for coordination and determination of standards.
UGC has taken steps to implement the recommendations of new policy on education such as autonomous colleges,centers of advanced studies in universities, establishment of education media research center and audio visual research center for the use of media and setting up academic staff colleges for training and orientation of college teachers National program for nutritional support to primary Education was launched in 1995 under which food grains is provided to children’s in primary classes. The program assures 199 gm of grain per day for attending school for at least 80 percent of total school days in a month.
Following India independence a number of rules were formulated for backward scheduled caste and scheduled tribes of India. Special reservation are also provided for scheduled caste and scheduled tribes example a reservation of 15 percent in kendriya vidyalaya for scheduled caste and another reservation of 7. 5 percent in kendriya vidyalaya fot scheduled tribe. CURRENT STATUS There were 20 universities and 496 college at the time of Independence At present universities and university level institutions-504 State universities-243 State private universities-53 Central universities-40.
Deemed universities-130 Institutions of National importance established under act of Parliament-33 Institutions established under various state legislation-5 In addition there are 25951 college including atound 2565 women college Table-1: All India Growth of institutions Year. Universities Colleges. Total 1947-48. 20 496. 516 1950-51 28. 578. 606 1960-61. 45 1819. 1864 1970-71. 93 3227. 3320 1980-81. 123. 4738 4861 1990-91. 184 5748 5932 2000-01 266 11146. 11412 2004-05 348 17625. 17973 2005-06. 355. 18064. 18419 2006-07. 367. 19000 19367 2007-08. 416. 20677 21093 2008-09. 480 22000. 22480.
2009-10 504. 25951. 26455 Source: UGC To promote higher education, college were established to provide specialized professional or vocational training. The first ever college in india was during the British rule in 1817,the CMS college kottaysm in kerela. After induction of new education policy, college education got flip and has increased manifold. Women enrolment was less than 10 percent of total enrollment on eve of Independence and it was risen to 41. 40 percent Number of teachers in 1950 were 15000 , in 1991 teachers were 272 thousand and in 2004 it was 457 thousand , in 2010 it was 699 thousand.
Number of students enrolled in 1950 was 0. 1 million , in 1991 it was 4. 9 million,in 2004 it was 9. 95 million and in 2010 it reaches to 14. 6 million. EVIDENCE As India’s higher Education system is one of the world largest, enrolling nearly 22 million students in more than 46000 institutions. The changing landscape of higher education should be noted by key administrator, particularly government should be aware of the opportunity for institutions to nurture entrepreneurial growth and establish partnership with various organization to address community needs.
India’s government currently plays a command and control role in higher Education. Under government oversight, public universities set curricula, determine courses offering, administer exam and grant degrees. But in 12th five year plan government key policy for economic development theory 2017 proposes a steer and evaluate role that allows a greater degree of self regulation and enforces higher level of accountability across the education system institutions The Economic development through Education is clearly evident in market ,demand for service which have pace.
Today development of Education in India has attained new level essentially after the independence of country. India is developing nation and it has been expanding in every field. Development of Education in India brought about a transformation and the concept of Education got modified. India got well known Educational institutions such as IITs,IIMs,AIIMS,, ISB,ISI. India’s higher Education system is the third largest in world after China and Uk. The Development of Education has traveled a longway and thus Indian Education system introduced certain advantageous system such as online Education in India.
Online Education is a system of Education training which is delivered primarily via the Internet to students at remote location. Online Education enables the students to opt for many online degrees or courses from various university In the modern times, students are provided with extensive scope and courses to choose from and they enjoy the opportunity of selecting the required field. The system of distance Education in India is becoming increasingly popular. The student choosing distance learning process are benefitted with modern pattern followed.
Development of Education in India ensures that all Indian citizens will receive Education in spite of financial constraints or unavailability of college and school. In addition the non formal Education is launched which is about acknowledging the importance of Education, learning and training which takes place outside recognized Educational institutions. It is the process of learning throughout life.
PROBLEMS Undoubtedly India has made a vast improvement in education sector but stilk it lacks in some or the other way like 1)The enrollment rate in India had shown progress of gross enrollment rate in higher education to 17. 2 percent over the years yet it was short as per the world standard as seen,the Country was behind China 19 percent and UK 60 percent and USA 82 percent 2)
The teacher strength in institutions of higher education was far from adequate. 3)Gross enrollment has increasd but were not matching anywhere with developed countries 4)Wide variations are seen in rural and urban areas 5)Regional disparities are also visible. 6)Education given is irrelevant according to job market 7)Innovation and creation are missing from the field 8)Education is seen as a object of providing immediate skills and tools, not means for future growth 9)By far one of the most pressing problem is that unavailability of money or inadequate funding of Indian Education system.
RECOMMENDATIONS Our Education system still in this era faces many problems. funny thing is that from colonial times, few things have changed. we have established IITs,IIMs and other Institute of excellence. Students now routinely score 90 percent marks still find difficult to get into college of their choice.
we live in a country where the people see Education as means of climbing the social and economic ladder. Some of the useful measures to improve our education system are following: 1)Private capital should be allowed in Education to reach at excellence level and compete with developed nations 2)Personalize education should focused as one size does not fit all humans. So Education should be given according to its demand. 3)Implement massive technology infrastructure for Education 4)Focus on skill based technology according to modern era 5)Reward creativity, original thinking, research and innovation.
6)Redifine the purpose of Education system 7)Take mediocrity out of the system 8)Policy makers in India should continue to develop and implement an accreditation system that can over time become a key measure of quality. 9)An Effort is needed to gradually phase in methods to link funding to quality measure. 10)Raising the level of Education, to be competitive like developed nations. 11)Identify the need of business and industry, then supply Education to fulfill their demand REFERENCES Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2001). Selected Educational Statistics 2001-2002, Government of India, New Delhi.
Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2001). Annual Report, 2003-2004, MHRD, Government of India, New Delhi. Shukla, Snehlatha, et. al (1998). Attainment of Primary School Children in India, NCERT. Strides in Education in India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Registrar General and Census Commissioner. (2001). Census of India 2001. Provisional Population Totals Paper-I of 2001, Controller of Publications, New Delhi. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education 2000-01 to 2002-03, Government of India,New Delhi.