The Education and Skills Bill introduces a new duty on young people in England to participate in education or training until the age of 18. The Bill follows the green paper Raising Expectations: staying in education and training, which described the perceived benefits to individuals, the economy and society of young people staying in education or training for longer. Responsibility for support services currently carried out by the Connexions service will be transferred to local education authorities (LEAs).
The Bill makes changes relating to adult skills. The Bill also provides for the transfer of the regulatory regime for independent schools in England from the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families to the Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills (the new Ofsted) There are miscellaneous provisions in relation to pupil behaviour, external qualifications, inspection of teacher training, and Schools Forums.
Also a framework power is provided for the National Assembly for Wales to legislate in relation to the inspection of pre-16 education and training. The territorial extent of the Bill varies according to the scope of the different provisions. The Bill contains provisions that trigger the Sewel Convention. Christine Gillie Social Policy Section Contributions: Ed Beale, Paul Bolton, Grahame Danby, Susan Hubble, Vincent Keter House of Commons Library.
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We welcome comments on our papers; these should be sent to the Research Publications Officer, Room 407, 1 Derby Gate, London, SW1A 2DG or e-mailed to [email protected] uk ISSN 1368-8456 Summary The Education and Skills Bill was presented in the House of Commons on 28 November 2007. At the same time Explanatory Notes, an Impact Assessment and a Memorandum of Delegated Powers were also published. The Bill, as presented, is in five parts. Some of the provisions are linked to the Government’s policies for reforming 14 to 19 education and improving the learning and skills of young people and adults.
Other parts of the Bill are on separate matters particularly relating to the regulation and inspection of independent schools and colleges. Part 1 introduces a new duty on young people in England to participate in education or training until the age of 18, and creates a statutory framework to support and enforce it with new duties on local education authorities (LEAs ), educational providers and employers. The raising of the participation age will be introduced in two stages: to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. Provision is made for LEAs to enforce the participation duty, if necessary.
They may issue attendance notices to young people who refuse to participate. New attendance panels will be created to hear appeals and to monitor the enforcement process. LEAs may also issue parenting contracts or parenting orders to parents of young people who are failing to fulfil the duty to participate. The proposals follow the green paper Raising Expectations: staying in education and training (March 2007), which described the perceived benefits to individuals and society of young people staying in education and training for longer.
While there has been wide acceptance of the principle that young people will benefit from participating until they are 18, concern has been expressed about making it compulsory. Part 2 makes provision for the transfer to LEAs of the information, advice and support services for young people currently provided by the Connexions service. This follows proposals in the Youth Matters green paper (July 2005). The funding for the Connexions service will be transferred to LEAs in April 2008.
It is intended that LEAs will continue to maintain the Connexions database so as to help them provide the right support services to young people and promote the new duty on young people to participate in education or training. Part 2 also places a duty on LEAs to arrange for the assessment of the education and training needs of a person with a statement of special educational needs (SEN) during their last year of schooling. This takes account of the change in the Bill to raise the participation age.
Other provisions in Part 2 include: a requirement for secondary schools to present careers information in an impartial way and to provide careers advice that is in the best interests of the child; an explicit duty on the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to provide proper facilities for apprenticeships for 16 to 18 year olds, and to make reasonable provision for apprenticeships for those aged 19 and over; a requirement for LEAs to have regard to journey times in preparing their transport policies for students of sixth-form age attending educational establishments; and a requirement for LEAs to co-operate with partners who are responsible for 14 to 19 education and training.
Part 3 contains provisions in relation to adult skills. The issue of maintaining a sufficiently skilled workforce to meet the economy’s needs in the face of growing global competition has become increasing prominent, particularly since the publication of the Leitch Review of Skills in 2006. In its response to the review, the Government set out a range of goals relating to workforce skills for 2020 and outlined how it intended to achieve them.
This Bill places duties on the LSC to provide a free entitlement to training for all adults in England aged over 19 up to their first full Level 2 qualification, with a similar entitlement up to Level 3 for those aged 19-25. Provision is also made to enable the sharing of data between relevant departments and the devolved administrations in order to assist in the effective assessment and provision of education and training for those aged 19 and over. Part 4 creates a wider definition of an independent educational institution in England, which includes certain part-time educational provision, to which the regulatory regime for independent schools in England will apply.
That regime, currently contained in the Education Act 2002, is restated in Chapter 1 of Part 4. The regulatory framework for ‘independent educational institutions’ is changed so that the Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills (the new Ofsted) and not the Secretary of State is the registration authority. The function of approving non-maintained special schools is also transferred from the Secretary of State to the Chief Inspector. Sixth-form pupils in nonmaintained special schools are given a right to opt out of religious worship. (Pupils in mainstream maintained schools already have this right under the Education and Inspections Act 2006.
) The Bill also seeks to amend section 347 of the Education Act 1996 to remove in England the category of approved independent school for the placement of a child with a statement of SEN, and to remove the requirement for LEAs in England to seek consent to place pupils with statements of SEN in non-approved independent schools. Other changes in Part 4 include the introduction of a new management standard for independent educational institutions, and changes relating to fees for registration and inspection. Part 5 includes miscellaneous provisions in relation to pupil behaviour, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) and the approval of external qualifications, the inspection of teacher training, and the constitution of Schools Forums.
Also Part 5 creates a framework power for the National A ssembly for Wales to legislate in relation to the inspection of pre-16 education and training. The Bill extends to England and Wales. Many of the provisions apply to England only. A number of new or expanded powers are conferred on Welsh Ministers. (These are set out in table 1 of the Explanatory Notes to the Bill. )
Five clauses that relate to sharing information extend to Scotland and trigger the Sewel Convention. Two clauses relating to the remit of the QCA extend to Northern Ireland. This research paper outlines the key provisions of the Bill, and provides background on them. It is not intended to be a comprehensive account of the clauses. A detailed clause by clause account is given in the Explanatory Notes to the Bill.
Library contacts: Christine Gillie : raising the participation age, Connexions service, special educational needs, post-16 transport, regulation and inspection of independent schools, pupil behaviour and attendance and Schools Forums Paul Bolton: statistics on the above Ed Beale : apprenticeships, training and adult skills Grahame Danby: data processing Susan Hubble: financial support for students and external qualifications Vincent Keter: employers and business CONTENTS I Part 1 of the Bill: duty to participate in education or training (England).
A. B. Introduction Background 1. History 2. Participation of 16 and 17 year olds in education, employment and training 3. The green paper and the case for change 4. Responses to the green paper C. D. Overview of the proposed system for raising participation 7 7 8 8 8 12 15 20 Suitable provision and enabling young people to participate: the ‘four building blocks’ 23 The Bill 1. Key provisions 2. Comment 31 31 35 38 38 38 40 41 42 43 43 E. II
Part 2 of the Bill: Support for participation in education or training: young adults with learning difficulties and young people in England A. Provision of support services (Connexions Service) 1. Background 2. The Bill B. C. D. E. F. Assessments relating to learning difficulties Careers education Apprenticeships Provision of transport for persons of sixth form age: journey times Co-operation as regards provision of 14 to 19 education and training 44 45 45 47 49 III Part 3 of the Bill: Adult Skills A. Background 1. The Leitch Review of Skills 2. Current measures to address adult skills 3. House of Commons Education and Skills Committee report: Post-16 Skills 51 B. The Bill 1.
Reaction IV Part 4 of the Bill: regulation and inspection of independent educational provision in England A. Current arrangements for regulation and inspection of independent schools Consultation proposals Response The Bill 53 54 55 55 57 61 63 64 64 65 66 68 69 69 70 B. C. D. V Part 5 of the Bill: miscellaneous provisions A. B. C. D. E. F. Pre-16 education and training:
Wales Maintained schools in England: behaviour and attendance External qualifications Inspections of teacher training in England Schools Forums General provisions VI VII Data processing Appendix I: Reaction from specific organisations to the green paper, Raising expectations: staying in education and training 73 Appendix II: relevant documents 85 VIII.
RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 I A. Part 1 of the Bill: duty to participate in education or training (England) Introduction In March 2007 the Government’s green paper Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16, proposed that the minimum age at w hich young people should leave education or training should be raised to 18.
1 The participation age would be increased in two stages: to age 17 from September 2013, and to 18 from September 2015. The green paper set out a detailed package of measures for consultation. Alongside the green paper the Government published an Initial Regulatory Impact Assessment on the estimated cost of the proposals.
2 (These projections have been reviewed and revised and are now published in the Impact Assessment that accom panies the Education and Skills Bill – see below). In July 2007 the Government published a report of the consultation on the green paper’s proposals. While it noted that there had been wide acceptance of the principle that young people would benefit from continuing to develop their skills formally until they were 18, it also noted that there was concern about making participation compulsory. 3 Also in July 2007, the Government published World Class Skills: Implementing the Leitch Review of Skills in England. 4 This set out the Government’s plans to improve the skills of young people and adults.
The Government’s Draft Legislative Programme, published on 11 July 2007, announced that a bill would be introduced to ensure that young people stay in education or training until age 18, and to provide new rights to skills training for adults.
5 In his Fabian Society lecture on 5 November 2007, Ed Balls, the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, described the Government’s proposals, and published a further document – From policy to legislation. This explained how the Government intended to proceed, and what aspects of the policy required legislation. 6 Also on 5 November 2007, the Government published its strategy for reducing the proportion of young people not in education, employment or training. 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16, Cm 7065, March 2007: http://www. dfes. gov. uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/6965-DfESRaising%20Expectations%20Green%20Paper. pdf Initial Regulatory Impact Assessment for Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post16, DfES, March 2007:
http://www. dfes. gov. uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/RIA%20[FINAL]%20word%20version. pdf Raising Expectations: Consultation Report, DCSF, July 2007: http://www. dfes. gov. uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/Raising%20Expectations%20Consultation%20R eport. pdf http://www. dfes. gov. uk/skillsstrategy/uploads/documents/World%20Class%20Skills%20FINAL. pdf http://www. cabinetoffice. gov.uk/reports/governance. aspx Raising Expectations: Staying in education and training post 16: From policy to legislation, DCSF, November 2007:
http://www. dfes. gov. uk/14-19/documents/Raising%20Expectations. pdf Reducing the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) by 2013, DCSF, 5 November 2007: http://www. dfes. gov. uk/14-19/documents/NEET%20%20Strategy. pdf 7 RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 The Education and Skills Bill was presented in the House of Commons on 28 November 2007. 8 Explanatory Notes9, an Impact Assessment10, a Memorandum of Delegated Powers11 and a Short Guide 12 were also published. B. 1. Background History
The Education Act 1918 raised the compulsory school leaving age from 12 to 14. It also made provision for all young people to participate in at least part-time education until they were 18 but this provision was not implemented. The end of the First World War was followed by a period of austerity; public expenditure cuts dubbed the ‘Geddes axe’ 13 meant that the aspiration of increasing participation was not achieved. The Education Act 1944 made provision to raise the school leaving age to 16 but this was not implemented until 1972. 14 The 1944 Act also re-enacted the 1918 provision to extend participation at least part-time until the age of 18 but again this was not implemented.
The school leaving age has remained at 16 since 1972, although the leaving date was amended in 1997. 15 2. Participation of 16 and 17 year olds in education, employment and training At the end of 2006 around six out of every seven 16 and 17 year olds were provisionally estimated to be in some form of education or training. The large majority were in fulltime education, others were in Government supported Work Based Learning (WBL)16, Employer Funded Training 17 or other types of education and training including part-time courses.
The latest data are summarised below: 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Education and Skills Bill, Bill 12, Session 2007-08: http://www.publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200708/cmbills/012/08012. i-v. html Education and Skills Bill Explanatory Notes: http://www. publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200708/cmbills/012/en/index_012. htm Impact Assessment of the Education and Skills Bill, DCSF, 29 November 2009:
http://www. dfes. gov. uk/publications/educationandskills/docs/impact_assessment. pdf Memorandum of Delegated Powers, DCSF, 28 November 2007 (an electronic copy was not available at time of writing but a hardcopy was available from the Vote Office) DCSF, Short Guide to the Education and Skills Bill: http://www. dfes. gov. uk/publications/educationandskills/docs/BillNarrative.
doc after Sir Eric Geddes who chaired a committee set up to suggest economies SI 1972 No 444 The 1997 change introduced a single school leaving date – the last Friday in June in the school year in which a young person reaches age 16: DfES Circular 11/97, School Leaving Date for 16 Year Olds, September 1997 http://www. teachernet. gov. uk/management/atoz/S/schoolleavingdate/index. cfm? code=furt Includes Advanced Apprenticeships, Apprenticeships, Entry to Employment and NVQ Learning.
Young people who received training in the previous four weeks, includes non-WBL apprenticeships. 8 RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 Education, employment and training status of 16 and 17 year olds in England, 2006 16 year olds number % of population 17 year olds number % of population 16 and 17 year olds number % of population Full-time education Work Based Learning Of which also in full-time education Employer Funded Training Other education and training Total education and training Not in any education or training Of which also not in employment Source: 516,900 37,700 1,300 15,000 25,600 593,800 68,400 42,800 78.
1% 5. 7% 0. 2% 2. 3% 3. 9% 89. 7% 10. 4% 6. 5% 428,600 51,600 1,200 26,700 32,000 537,600 122,000 62,700 65. 0% 7. 8% 0. 2% 4. 0% 4. 9% 81. 5% 18. 5% 9. 5% 945,500 89,300 2,500 41,600 57,600 1,131,400 190,400 105,500 71. 5% 6. 8% 0. 2% 3. 1% 4. 4% 85. 6% 14. 4% 8. 0%.
Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England: 2005 and 2006 and Participation in Education and Training by 16 and 17 Year Olds in each Local Area in England: 2004 and 2005, DCSF Overall participation rates were higher for 16/17 year old females at 88% compared to 83% for males.
The gap was nearly 10 percentage points for full-time education participation, but young men were more likely to be in one of the training categories. These figures are based on the academic year age of young people, i. e. their age at the start of the academic year. Therefore 16 year olds are in their first year after the end of compulsory education.
The data are estimated as at the end of the calendar year, hence some of these young people will have had their 17th/18th birthdays. Among the one million 16 and 17 year olds in full or part time education in 2006, 426,000 were in further education/specialist colleges, 366,000 were in maintained schools, 130,000 in sixth form colleges and 82,000 in independent schools. The overall number in full-time education has increased by 14% over the last decade; the largest proportionate increases were at sixth form colleges (22%) and at maintained schools (19%). There was relatively little difference in the type of education attended by 16 and 17 year olds. A slightly higher proportion of 17 year olds attended further education colleges at the expense of maintained schools.
18 Trends in participation by broad status are summarised in the table at the end of this section. In the early 1950s (when the school leaving age was 15) fewer than one in five 16 year olds and fewer than one in ten 17 year olds were in full time education in England and Wales.
Immediately before the leaving age was increased to 16 (1972) these figures had increased to around one in three 16 year olds and one in six 17 year olds. The 16 year olds’ participation rate reached 50% in the mid 1970s; the 17 year olds’ rate reached this level in the early 1990s. 19 At the end of 2006 78% of 16 year olds and 65% of 17 year olds were in full time education in England. 20 Both were record highs. 18 19 20.
DCSF SFR 22/2007, Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England: 2005 and 2006 and Participation in Education and Training by 16 and 17 Year Olds in each Local Area in England: 2004 and 2005 Statistics of Education 1962 part one, Ministry of Education; Education and training statistics for the United Kingdom 2006 and earlier, DfES DCSF SFR 22/2007F 9 RESEARCH PAPER 07/87.
a. 16 and 17 year olds not in education or training The earlier table showed that there were an estimated 190,000 16 and 17 year olds not in any education or training (NET), 106,000 of whom were not in work and hence not in any education, employment or training (NEET). The NEET rate among 16 and 17 year old males was 9. 5% compared to 6. 4% for females. 16 year olds had a lower NEET rate than 17 year olds (6. 5% v 9. 5%). Around 60% of those in the NEET category were classed as unemployed21, the rest were economically inactive.
22 While there is a particular focus of attention on young people who are not in education, employment or training (the ‘NEETs’), the Bill proposes a duty on those in employment to participate in some training or education – hence it is also relevant for the ‘NETs’. The latest similar sub-national data collected is for the end of 2005.
This only looked at education and Work Based Learning (WBL) and showed that the total proportion of 16 and 17 year olds not in either category was lowest in London (16%), the South East (18%) and the South West (18%) and highest in Yorkshire and the Humber (23%) and the East Midlands (21%). 23 More recent data from Connexions, which is not directly comparable, gives NEET rates at the end of 2006 which vary from 5. 6% in the South East and 6. 0% in the South West to 10. 5% in the North East and 9.
2% in Yorkshire and the Humber. 24 b. Trends The table at the end this section summarises trends in NET and NEET rates. These are also illustrated in the charts below. 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1985 NET NEET 16 year olds 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1985 17 year olds NET NEET 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 There was a break in the series in 1994 and there have been some recent more minor inconsistencies. However, some trends are clear. The NEET rate among 16 year olds fell in the early 1990s and increased steadily for much of the last decade to a high of 8.
1% in 2005. The provisional fall to 6. 5% in 2006 takes it to its lowest level for almost a decade. The NET rate for 16 year olds fell by a larger amount in the late 1980s and 21 22 23 24 ILO definition of unemployment DCSF SFR 22/2007 ibid. NEET Statistics – Quarterly Brief, DCSF 10 RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 early 1990s as there was a general shift from employment and WBL to full-time education. This rate increased from 9. 2% in 1994 to 14. 3% in 2001, but has since fallen to 10. 3% in 2006. The NEET rate among 17 year olds fell by around half between 1984 and 1994 to 7. 7%. This rate has increased more recently to 10. 9% in 2005 before dropping back to 9.
5% in 2006. The NET rate fell from 44% in 1984 to below 20% in 1993 as there was a major shift from employment to full-time education. The scale of this was even greater than that seen among 16 year olds. The level of this rate increased from the late 1990s onwards to almost 22% before falling back to below 18% in 2006. Trends in education, employment and training status of 16 and 17 year olds in England Percentages (a)(b) 1985 Full-time education Work Based Learning Employer Funded Training (c) Other Education and Training Total Education and training Total Not in any education or training Of which also not in employment Notes: 1990 51. 1 19. 1 7.
5 3. 5 79. 7 20. 3 8. 0 1995 65. 6 11. 6 4. 0 4. 3 84. 7 15. 3 6. 7 2000 65. 6 9. 5 3. 7 4. 9 83. 5 16. 5 7. 1 2001 64. 8 8. 4 3. 9 5. 2 82. 1 17. 9 8. 4 2002 65. 4 7. 9 4. 0 5. 2 82. 4 17. 6 8. 2 2003 66. 0 8. 1 4. 1 5. 2 83. 2 16. 8 7. 7 2004 67. 2 7. 9 3. 8 4. 9 83. 6 16. 4 8. 3 2005 2006p 69. 2 7. 4 3. 5 4. 5 84. 5 15. 5 9. 5 71. 5 6. 8 3. 1 4. 4 85. 6 14. 4 8. 0 39. 7 16. 1 9. 2 4. 5 68. 2 31. 8 11. 0 There was a break in the series in 1994 due to changes in the source of further and higher education data. (a) Participation estimates may be slightly underestimated for 16 year olds between 1999 and 2000 and 17 year olds between 2000 and 2001.
(b) There is a discontinuity from 2002 onwards whereby participation in additional institutions are included for the first time. This increases the full-time education rate by around 0. 1 points and the any education or training rate by around 0. 4 points (c) Includes other part-time education not included elsewhere and full- or part-time education in independent further or higher education institutions. Source: Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England: 2005 and 2006 and Participation in Education and Training by 16 and 17 Year Olds in each Local Area in England: 2004 and 2005, DCSF c.
International comparison of enrolment in education 16 year old enrolment rate in secondary education, 2005 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% FRA GRE AUS SWE NOR KOR OST LUX IRE BEL ICE SWI 0% US POL SLO JAP UK ITA POR OECD MEX ESP CZ FIN NED DEN NZ TUR OECD data on enrolment by age look at the actual age of pupils/students, the rates calculated are different from those given earlier. In 2005 94% of 16 year olds and 80% of 17 year olds were in ‘secondary’ 25 education in the UK. The 16 year olds’ rate was three percentage points above the OECD average, the 17 year olds’ rate three points below.
The UK’s relative position is shown opposite. Source: Education at a Glance 2007, OECD. Table C2. 3 25 This is based on the assessed academic level using international classification which at their highest level split education into primary, secondary and tertiary.
It does not mean these pupils are in secondary schools. 11 GER HUN RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 Although the UK’s participation rate for 16 year olds was above the OECD average it was still below that of most other countries as the average was skewed downwards by much lower levels in Turkey and Mexico.
The UK ranked 18th out of 29 states included in the 16 year olds measure and 20th on the 17 year olds rate. 17 year old enrolment rate in secondary education, 2005 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% SLO 0% KOR HUN NOR CZ GER SWE BEL POL FIN JAP OST OECD POR GRE MEX DEN NED TUR AUS ICE SWI ESP FRA LUX IRE NZ US UK Some of the countries ranked Source: Education at a Glance 2007, OECD. Table C2.
3 below the UK have relatively high enrolment rates in non-secondary education, 26 but direct comparisons cannot be made due to a lack of comparable data on enrolment on these types of education in the UK. 27 3. The green paper and the case for change The green paper, Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16, described the perceived benefits to individuals and society of young people staying in education and training for longer.
28 It proposed a detailed package of measures for consultation. These were summarised in the DfES press notice launching the green paper: • From 2013, young people should remain in education or training after 16 – this means the first pupils to be affected would be those entering secondary school in September next year.
Young people would be required to work towards accredited qualifications at school, in a college, or in “on the job” training or day release; Apprenticeships will be significantly expanded so that they are available to any qualified young person who wants one; Participation should be full time for young people not in employment for a significant part of the week and part time for those working more than 20 hours a week;
Better advice and guidance for young people to enable them to access the provision that’s right for them; A high quality, accurate registration system to keep track of the education options a young person has chosen and to make sure they don’t drop out; Building on the Education Maintenance Allowance we will consider new financial support measures to ensure young people from low income • • • • • • 26 27 28 Tertiary and post-secondary non-tertiary Education at a Glance 2007, OECD.
Table C2. 3 Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16, Cm 7065, March 2007: http://www. dfes. gov. uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/6965-DfESRaising%20Expectations%20Green%20Paper. pdf 12 ITA RESEARCH PAPER 07/87 backgrounds get the support they need to overcome any barriers to participation. To make sure the right provision is in place the new requirement would not be implemented until 2013 by which time the new Diplomas will be a National Entitlement.
This will give young people a choice of A levels, GCSEs, the International Baccalaureate, the new Diplomas, Apprenticeships, and accredited in work training. Young people would be supported to re-engage if they drop out through integrated Youth Support Services. Any enforcement process would be used only as a last resort if a young person refused to re-engage. 29 Chapter 2 of the green paper set out the evidential basis for raising the education and training participation age. This referred to research showing that young people who stay on in education and training after 16 are more likely to gain further qualifications by 18 than those who go into employment without training or drop out altogether.
Individuals with qualifications earn more than those without. In addition to higher wages, betterqualified individuals have improved employment prospects and an increased likelihood of receiving workplace training. There are also wider benefits associated with higher qualification levels, such as improved health and better social skills. The green paper noted evidence on the relationship between higher levels of skills and qualifications and economic performance and productivity. It highlighted evidence suggesting that up to one fifth of the UK’s output per hour productivity gap with Germany and an eighth of the gap with France results from the UK’s relatively poor skills.
The green paper also noted the wider benefits to society from increased participation. It stated that those who participate are less likely to experience teenage pregnancy, be involved in crime or behave anti-socially. The green paper refers to a study that looked at Offender Index data between 1984 and 2001 which showed that an additional year of compulsory schooling decreases conviction rates for property crime, and that it has also been estimated that compulsory schooling lowers the likelihood of committing crime or going to prison. 30 The green paper went on to outline t e combination of measures taken so far to h encourage increased participation.
These include changes to the 14 to 19 curriculum and the introduction of new specialist diplomas with an emphasis on applied and practical learning; changes to the curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds to allow greater flexibility and personalisation of learning; an expansion of work-based learning; from September 2007 a ‘September Guarantee’ of an offer of an appropriate learning place for every young person leaving school at 16; improvements in information, advice and guidance for young people to help them make choices; and financial support through educational maintenance allowances.