Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83).
The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review.
Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood.
However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many studies in developed countries used formula feeding as a control. Future research on the relationship between breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding or rapid weight gain and obesity are warranted in developing countries. The focus of interventions to reduce risk of obesity in later life in developing countries could include: improving maternal nutritional status during pregnancy to reduce low birthweight; enhancing breastfeeding (including durations of exclusive and total breastfeeding); timely introduction of high-quality complementary foods (containing micronutrients and essential fats) but not excessive in protein; further evidence is needed to understand the extent of weight gain and length gain during early childhood are related to body composition in later life.
Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Asthma: Is There a Link? A Systematic Review of Recent Epidemiologic Evidence Asthma and overweight/obesity prevalence are both increasing worldwide. Overweight/obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for developing asthma. The aim of this review is to present and evaluate recent publications that help answer the question: “Is increased body weight (at least overweight status) related to asthma in children?” A systematic review of epidemiologic literature was carried out using the MEDLINE database. Epidemiologic studies on young human subjects (ie, infants, children, and adolescents), published in English during the period 2006-2011 were included. A comprehensive literature search yielded 434 studies for further consideration.
Forty-eight studies fulfilled the review’s eligibility criteria. Two researchers applied the MOOSE Guidelines for Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies on all identified studies. Current evidence supports a weak yet significant association between high body weight and asthma. New information indicates that central obesity in children increases asthma risk. Also, the link between high body weight and asthma may be stronger in nonallergic asthma. There are mixed results about the importance of sex. Although the nature of the association between overweight/obese status and asthma remains unclear, prospective studies point that high body weight precedes asthma symptoms.
These data add weight to the importance of preventing and treating a high body weight against asthma outcomes. Available research in children has not studied adequately the influence of weight change (either gain or loss) on asthma symptoms, an area of clinical importance. Beyond energy control, the role of diet as a possible inflammatory stimulus warrants further investigation. Limited data seem to favor the promotion of breastfeeding in attenuating the overweight/obesity-asthma relationship. Finally, future research should include weight intervention studies assessing various measures of body fat in relation to well-defined asthma outcomes.
Depression and obesity: Confirming the link. (2013, Harvard Health Publications.Harvard Health Letter., 38, 3. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1269798117?accountid=10559 Cohen, A. K., Rehkopf, D. H., Deardorff, J., & Abrams, B. (2013). Education and obesity at age 40 among american adults. Social Science & Medicine, 78, 34. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1269784863?accountid=10559 Papoutsakis, C., Priftis, Kostas N,M.D., PhD., Drakouli, M., Prifti, S., Konstantaki, E.,
Chondronikola, M., . . . Matziou, V. (2013). Childhood Overweight/Obesity and asthma: Is there a link? A systematic review of recent epidemiologic evidence. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(1), 77. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1281851210?accountid=10559
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