Ecology is the scientific study of interaction between living systems and their environment, Ecology discovers and understands the relationship between living things and their environment. Every or all living organisms including the nonliving environment in a certain geographical location, in other words, an ecosystem is made up of biotic as abiotic factors, for instances, a pond, a forest an estuary, or grassland. Abiotic factors affect living organisms in an ecosystem. Biotic factors affect the abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Lichens on rocks aid break them down into soil. Lichens are made up of algae and fungi. Dead organisms and animal waste contribute to soil nutrients (with the help of decomposers, of course). The biosphere of all the ecosystems of the planet put together, form the biosphere.
Food chain describes a single pathway that energy and nutrients may follow in an ecosystem. There is one organism per trophic level, and trophic levels are therefore easily defined. They usually start with a primary producer and end with a top predator. Here is an instance of a food chain: phytoplankton-zooplankton-fish-squid-seal-Orca (killer whale). Producers’ plants, algae and certain types of bacteria called cyanobacteria are producers, Producers use radiant energy (sunlight) to synthesize chemical energy (sugar), and in other words, plants perform a complex set of chemical reactions called photosynthesis. Producers are also called “autotrophs” which means self-feeders, because they make their own food. The Primary Consumers-organisms that eat plants are called primary consumers, including primary consumers are herbivores, and the only eat plant material.