At home, at work or at school, in a restaurant or in a fast-food take out. Batangueños can choose from an ever-increasing variety of foods. Grocery stores offer an abundance of imported products, along with frozen meals that can be ready in minutes to satisfy the needs of time-crunched households. Fresh fruits and vegetables once considered exotic are now available throughout the year. In the midst of this array of choices comes the question of what Batangueños eat.
Batangueños tend to make their own food choices based on cost of food and availability of fast food. They lack knowledge of healthy food choices that may affect eating habits and nutritional status negatively. Even environmental factors also contribute to adoption of unhealthy eating habits among Batangueños. The mushrooming of shopping malls, convenience stores, vending machines and fast food outlets has created an alarming situation for people to practice unhealthy eating habits.
As Batangueños basis for food is availability, their overlook the importance of good eating habits. Thus poor eating habits are a major public health concern among Batangueños. This prompts the researchers to determine how and what Batangueños consume and what factors affect their eating styles. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study can be a learning paradigm for Batangueños to enhance their knowledge about eating habits. This will allow them discover more facts whether eating habits really affect their health or not. The purpose of this research is for them to gain a better understanding of eating habits. The research is especially relevant as it contributes to a deeper comprehension of Batangueños’ eating habits. The study benefits HRM students as they are the ones who are more exposed and concerned about food. This helps them the wary of the eating habits their possible consumers possess.
Through this study the factors affecting eating habits can be further evaluated and interpreted. It also benefits parents especially mothers, who cook for their family as they become more aware of how and what their children eat. They will also learn to guide their children in terms of the food that they eat and can also watch over their eating habits. This is also beneficial to the future researchers, who probably are HRM students, as it will guide them to require the Eating Habits of Batangueños.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The study covers Batangas City which is politically subdivided into 105 barangays. For the year 2011, the projected population of Batangas City based from CY 2010-2011 POPCEN of the National Statistics Office (NSO) is 312,109 with a population growth rate of 2.13%. Brgy. Sta. Rita Karsada has the biggest population with 17,699 while Barangay 17, an urban barangay has the smallest population of 106.
Urban population is 172,161 while rural population is 139,948 representing 55% and 45% respectively of the total city population. However the research covers all barangays of Batangas City Proper. The study doesn’t cover children age 14 years old and below, instead it encompasses those Batangeños from 16-65 years old and above. The study would be more comprehensive, meaningful and far-reaching if it covers more areas which would serve as basis for comparison. This, however, would require more time, money, and manpower, which the researchers do not have.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adolescence. It means age of majority and the period most closely associated with the teenage years. In this study it refers to the group interviewed regarding their eating habits. Adulthood. It is commonly thought of as beginning at age 20 or 21. It includes middle age (commencing around age 40) and old age (from about age 60). In this study, it refers to people interviewed about their eating style. Batangas City. It is the largest and capital city of the Province of Batangas, Philippines. Batangas City is currently classified as one of the fastest urbanizing cities of the Philippines.
In this study, Batangas City used as the target city of the researcher. Batangueños. In this study, Batangueños refer to those people who live in Batangas City and will serve as the respondents. Eating Habits. In this study, eating habits refer to why and how people eat, which foods they eat, and with whom they eat, as well as the ways people obtain, store, use, and discard food. It also includes individual, social, cultural, religious, economic, environmental, and political factors that all influence people’s eating habits. Etiquette. It is a code of behaviour that delineates expectation for social behaviour. In this study etiquette refers to how and what styles Batangueños have on eating.
Food Choice. It investigates how people select the food they eat. In this study, it looks into the way Batangueños choose their food. Respondents. It refers to the one who responds; one who maintains, thesis in reply; one who answers in various legal proceedings. In this study it refers to the people lives in Rural and urban place in Batangas city. Rural. It is a geographic area that is located outside the cities and towns. In this study rural means the same. Urban. It is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. In this study, urban means the same.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter presents the literature and studies related to the present research which the researchers review to answer the problems of the research study. Conceptual Literature Filipinos love to eat they eat three meals a day and two snacks in between. Some will eat a Segundo almuerzo (second breakfast) around 10:30, plus a merienda, or mid-afternoon snack. Rural folk eat their main meal at midday, while city dwellers emphasize the evening meal. The diet of poor families is usually rice, fish, vegetables, interspersed with starchy snacks. At fiesta time, most of the families try to eat meat.
However, according to Food and Nutrition Research Institute and the Department of Science and Technology, Pinoys are headed to worsening health conditions and problems. This is attributed to the eating habits of Filipinos that particularly change over time. Since few provincial households own a refrigerator, ingredients are customarily either fresh or salted. Housewives go to the market daily to buy their immediate requirements.
Leftovers rarely remain after a meal. Extra food is eaten by servants, helpers, and hangers-on and scraps go to the dog or pig. Food isn’t served in courses; people like the complete meal lay out before them so that they can eat simultaneously from all dishes—soup, meat, and vegetables—at random. Cooks provide condiments, flavorings, and dipping sauces to be used at the diner’s discretion. Food is eaten with a fork in one hand and a spoon in the other, knives are seldom used. Rural Filipinos prefer to use their hands. Some upscale native restaurants in Manila serve food this way “kamayan-style”. (Global Gourmet, 1994-2013)
According to Adela Jamorabo – Ruiz et al., author of the book Basic Nutrition for Filipinos 6th Edition, teenagers generally choose food for taste and gratification. It is mainly adults (and older teenagers) who realize that eating habits can make a big difference to long-term health. Teenagers will usually eat three meals a day, because skipping meals will leave them hungry and tired. However, those three meals probably won’t provide enough nutrition for normal growth; hence they will eat 2–4 snacks a day in addition to the meals, especially if they are involved in sport.
In young adults, healthy eating habits help them maintain a healthy lifestyle. Making healthy food choices is harder than expected, because the majority of their food choices are based on pleasure. In fact eating is such an enjoyable experience than they choose to eat foods that taste good, rather than eating foods that make them feeling good. Adults also enjoy food so much that they eat more than their bodies actually need.
However, there are people who are busy working or doing certain activities who cannot watch their health that much, especially students who are busy with school works. These people have difficulties in developing good eating habits. Despite their hectic schedule, it is always a must to eat properly. According to Rampersaud, Pereira, Girard, Adams, Metzi (2005) from the University of Florida, breakfast is the most important meal of the day. It would support the body and mind of the people in dealing with daily activities. The consumption of breakfast may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. It begets the right amount of eating breakfast, which has a good effect in the performance of the students. (Ruiz et al., 2010)
According to Susan Markel M.D (2008) that a people’s brain would not able to function well without all of the nine necessary amino acids with a diet that is well balanced. Eating breakfast, lunch and two healthy snacks a day would make them learn so much more when their minds were not alert on their stomach alone. Whether male or female, certain factors influence eating habits regardless. Their cultural upbringing is one. Some cultures view eating as a major social activity. Socio economic status is another important influence for eating. Families with less money might have smaller meals, downplay eating or eat smaller meals more frequently. Food allergies or medical conditions also influence food choices.
Level of education is another determinant in the types of food eaten. New International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation research suggests women are more likely than men to be taking advantage of and eating foods to maintain overall health and wellness as well as for more specific benefits like improved feelings of fullness and digestive health. The new insight comes from further study of this 3rd annual IFIC Foundation Food & Health Survey, which examines what consumers are thinking and doing about their food, nutrition and health. According to Wendy Reinhardt Kapsak, MS, RD, Director of Health and Nutrition at the IFIC Foundation, “There are real distinctions between what women and men do and think about the foods they consume.” She adds that it is that groups have different priorities and circumstances that influence what they do in regards to their nutritional habits. (Cuevas, 2007)
According to Debra Waterhouse, author of the book, “Outsmarting the Midlife Fat Cell,” reports that women make food choices based on whether they believe the food is a good choice for losing weight or a bad choice. The author says 66 percent of women eat this way. In general, women are healthier eaters, consuming more fiber and fruits and vegetables. The stereotype of men as big eaters or as “meat and potato” guys is a common one, but when men live up to it, the result may be damaging to their health. According to Brown University’s health services, four of the 10 leading causes of are directly related to diet. They are heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes. Healthy eating habits will help prevent these problems and others.
According to Monique Barb (2008) that there are lots of young people are observant in the new products on the market. People don’t choose the food by its taste but by commercial, because of the commercialized products we cannot focus on what to buy because people are attracted to it. Nutrition affects health. Diet is also essential in determining a person’s ability to function well in mental and physical activities. People should take a balance amount of foods equipped with nutrients to keep the body functions in order.
Good eating habits should be taught at the early stages of life. Selecting food is nutritious in early school years would have a great impact in peoples’s future eating habits. Households make food choices based on numerous factors, such as taste, convenience, nutrition, and price. Low-income households spend a larger share of their income on food than do higher income households (Blisard and Stewart, 2007); one might expect food stamp households, therefore, to be especially influenced by price. If this is the case, lowering the price of a healthful, but under consumed, food or increasing the price of an over consumed food may be an effective strategy in improving the eating habits of low-income households.
Some proposed changes to the Food Stamp Program are intended to encourage healthful food choices by influencing the relative prices of foods. For example, a proposal to offer food stamp participants a bonus based on the amount of fruits and vegetables they purchase could be considered to effectively lower the price of those foods (Guthrie et al., 2007)
According to Lowenberg et.al., 1979, author of the book Food and People, people eat according to learned behaviors regarding etiquette, meal and snack patterns, acceptable foods, food combinations, and portion sizes. Etiquette refers to acceptable behaviors. For example, for some groups it is acceptable to lick one’s fingers while eating, while for other groups this is rude behavior. Etiquette and eating rituals also vary depending on whether the meal is formal, informal, or special (such as a meal on a birthday or religious holiday).
A meal is usually defined as the consumption of two or more foods in a structured setting at a set time. Snacks consist of a small amount of food or beverage eaten between meals. A common eating pattern is three meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) per day, with snacks between meals. The components of a meal vary across cultures, but generally include grains, such as rice or noodles; meat or a meat substitute, such as fish, beans, or tofu ; and accompaniments, such as vegetables. Various food guides provide suggestions on foods to eat, portion sizes, and daily intake. However, personal preferences, habits, family customs, and social setting largely determine what a person consumes.
(Lowenberg et.al., 1979)
According to Mendoza et.al., (Unpublished Thesis) proper eating is also a part of table etiquette. Examples of this are practices like: The hand that is not being used to carry food to the mouth is kept on the lap, it is never proper to rest an elbow on the table. Individual bites of food are cut as they are to be eaten, and bread is broken into small pieces before it is eaten. Soup is eaten by dipping the spoon toward the outer edge of the bone away from the person, but soft desserts are eaten by scooping the food toward the person. Beverages should never be drunk when the mouth is full, nor should they be gulped. Talking should be done only when the mouth is empty of food, and chewing is done only with the mouth closed. (Still, 2002).
According to Dalawampu et.al., (Unpublished thesis) eating begins when the hostess lifts her fork. Food is chewed with the mouth closed, and talking does not begin until is food is swallowed. Fish bones and fruits or olive pits can be removed with the hand, but partially chewed pieces of truly unpalatable or too-tough food can be carefully stowed in the napkin as the mouth is dabbed. Any food that may end up on the face may be removed by dabbing, not wiping, the mouth corners and lips, and this is also a good practice before speaking or drinking.
(Brown 2005) According to Zacas et.al., 2001 author of the book Annual Editions: Nutrition In each culture there are both acceptable and unacceptable foods, though this is not determined by whether or not something is edible. For example, alligators exist in many parts of the world, but they are unacceptable as food by many persons. Likewise, horses, turtles, and dogs are eaten (and even considered a delicacy) in some cultures, though they are unacceptable food sources in other cultures. There are also rules concerning with whom it is appropriate to eat.
(Zacas et.al., 2001)
There are several religions which have dietary habits based on their scriptures. For example, Islamists and Jews refuse to eat pork because Moses was told by God that these animals are unclean. There is also the fact that these animals have cloven hooves to take into consideration. For similar reasons, Jews will not eat any type of shell fish, or creatures with fins or scales. Hindus won’t eat cows as they are considered sacred for several reasons. Cows are important as milk producers, as work animals or beasts of burden.
The primary reason is that all life is sacred and because they also believe in reincarnation, the cows’ spiritual process of evolution will be altered. The cow may be reborn as a human in a later life. Buddhists are completely vegetarian as they also believe in reincarnation. The eating of any living creature will alter its spiritual evolution. To a certain extent some Christian clergy, particularly contemplative monks and nuns will not eat meat or fish of any kind as one of the many acts of self-denial they impose upon themselves.
(Religion and Spirituality Category [email protected]) According to Scott Christ most people who live in low-income areas have eating habits that are unhealthier than those of the general population. According to the Rudd Report published by Yale University in 2008, low-income individuals, minorities and people living in rural areas suffer the highest rates of preventable, diet-related diseases that are linked to unhealthy eating habits. (Christ, 1999)
According to Tara Carson, eating slowly the fast-paced American lifestyle tends to speed up mealtimes and decrease awareness. Eating mindlessly is the primary reason so many Americans have an unhealthy relationship with food, according to Dr. Jan Chozen Bays, a paediatrician and Zen teacher and author of “Mindful Eating.” Slowing down while eating and paying attention to the body’s reaction to foods can help us meet our bodies unique needs successfully. Old habits can be difficult to change; however, so starting simply should be the goal.
Try eating one meal per week slowly, and once this habit is added to your routine, it may impact the other meals you eat, according to “Psychology Today.” Another reason to eat slowly is that it takes about 20 minutes for your stomach to signal your brain that you have consumed enough food. In other words, eating more slowly gives your body a chance to tell you when you are full, before you overeat, reports “Vegetarian Times.” (Jillian Micheal-article)
As a young adult, healthy eating habits help you maintain a healthy lifestyle. Making healthy food choices is harder than expected, because the majority of our food choices are based on pleasure. In fact, eating is such an enjoyable experience that they choose to eat foods that taste good, rather than eating foods that make them feel good. They also enjoy food so much that they eat more than their bodies actually need.
According to Chrstine Langlois, the eating habits of teenagers are often rather strange, and teens take many nutritional risks. They may miss family meals and fill up on fast food; they may skip breakfast and experiment with meal supplements. Some girls cut calories to lose weight; some boys pack in calories to gain weight: In brief, they’ve turned a corner and realized that they can do whatever they want with their bodies. But don’t point out to your son that he’s living on grease. A parent’s direct criticism of what a teen eats is not usually effective. Your job is to provide a variety of nutritious foods and then back off. Teens should be allowed to decide what and how much to eat. During adolescence there are many changes taking place as a child’s body turns into that of an adult and their nutritional needs increase.
Throughout adolescence a teenager’s iron needs increase significantly. When girls begin to menstruate their dietary iron intake must increase to compensate for the loss of iron in their menstrual blood. At this time boys also need more iron because of their rapid growth and increase in blood volume. Around the age of 19, when growth slows, a female’s iron needs are almost double that of males. Calcium is also important throughout the teenage years, necessary for building strong bones and ensuring good health and wellbeing later on in life. It is essential that teenagers include at least three serves of dairy food a day to maintain an adequate calcium intake. Adolescence is a period when peer pressure can affect teenage eating behaviour and they may start skipping meals or possibly under-eating or over-eating.
Currently around 20 percent of children and adolescents in Australia are obese and this is due mainly to a lack of physical activity and high fat diets. Behaviours such as extreme dieting, binge eating and bringing up food on purpose also affect more teenagers than adults and more girls than boys (nine girls to every one boy). Many adolescents see themselves as being too fat, while some, particularly males, see themselves as too thin. About 34 percent of females and 13 percent of males report dieting to lose weight. Anxiety, worry, loneliness and difficulty in managing family relationships are all factors that can lead to a refusal to eat or to excessive eating. Stress and boredom often result in the compulsive eating of certain foods, called “bingeing”. (Adolescent Eating Habits-article 2005)
The researchers find that students eat fewer cookies as a group when their friends eat no cookies compared to when their friends consume couple of cookies. Even when the friends split up, people continue to eat fewer cookies alone if they just watch their friends avoid eating the cookies. The study demonstrates the potentially powerful influence of friends and social norms over eating behaviors. It would have been interesting to see if people also eat much more food if their friends are asked to, say, eat all the cookies that are served to them. When both parents work outside the home and the kids have activities after school and on weekends, it’s challenging to get everyone around the table at the same time.
Frenetic schedules not only contribute to the popularity of fast food fare and take out, but also impact the amount of time that families get to spend together. Instead of using mealtimes as a chance to bond and communicate, the emphasis shifts to chewing down as fast as possible in order to be somewhere else. This diminishes the enjoyment of flavours, textures and aromas, influences food choices outside the home and makes big holiday dinners stressful because no one is accustomed to sitting still for so long. The time between eating with friends and eating alone is just a few minutes in this study. Perhaps having dinner with friends who eat fewer sweets could reduce solo binge eating later at night. Or maybe this would actually increase the urge to binge eat later at night.
Eminent vegetarian Albert Einstein (1879-1955), widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century and a lifelong promoter of peace, said, “Nothing will benefit human health and increase chances for survival of life on Earth as much as the evolution to a vegetarian diet.” On a similar note he stated, “Our task must be to widen the circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty.” And on the day he became a vegetarian, Einstein wrote in his diary, “So I am living without fats, without meat, without fish, but am feeling quite well this way. It always seems to me that man was not born to be a carnivore.” However, anthropologists and sociologists have identified many non-biological influences on food choices and food behavior.
When Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is applied to food habits, eating for survival evolves into eating to satisfy the need for security, then for belongingness, then for self-esteem, and finally for self-actualization. According to George Ohsawa, whenever there is too much yin or too much yang in the food consumed, there are imbalances in the body, thus producing illnesses. For instance, too much salt in the diet is very yang. This is because there is unusually high sodium in blood stream compared to the water inside the cells which has less sodium and this stresses the body to release water from the cells to bring about a balance. This process causes a strain on the kidneys and damages them in the long run since it has to flush out excess sodium.
According to Macrobiotics principles, there is really no complete Yang or complete Yin food; everything is relative, just like in real life where nobody is totally good or bad. So a dish prepared can be more Yins compared to another, but Yang compared to yet another dish. But really there are foods that are predominantly Yang or Yin. Some examples of Yang or contractive food are salt, sea vegetables, seeds. Salt will remove water from the cells and make it contract, move towards the centre; thus, it is yang. Seeds are tightly bound life force, and thus very contractive, again Yang. Some examples of yin or expansive foods are sugar, water, fruits and spices.
Since the respondents are composed of male and female in different Barangays, surely they have different choices regarding their eating habits. As shown in figure 1 the study will use the relationship of the independent variable and dependent variable. The independent variable discusses the profile of Batangueños according to age, gender, religion, and type of employment, civil status, and family income while the dependent variable discusses what and how Batangueños eat.
Conceptual Framework of eating habits of Batangueños
Independent variable Dependent variable
There is significant relationship in eating habits of batanguenos when the respondents are grouped according to profile. SYNTHESIS
The proponents believe that each and every literature and study stated in this research is similar to the present study. The proponents relate and
differenciate the research based on the similarities and disparity of eating habits of Batangas city proper.
The different articles discussed that everyone has own differences in etiquette and eating habits. It tackles researches that have similarities to the present study like those according to Food and Nutrition Research Institute and Department of Science & Technology, Microbiotics Principle, American Dietetic Association, Adela Jamorabo-Ruiz, Wendy Reindhart Kapsak, Debra Waterhouse, Huffington, National Institutes of Health, Still, Brown, Guthrie, Albert Einstein, and George Ohsawa.