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Earthquake Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Cause and Effect of Earthquakes

The ground trembles, shakes and growls. Pictures that were once hanging so beautifully on the wall smash to the ground exploding into glittery slivers of broken glass, roadways break apart, engulfing whatever was in its path, never to be seen again. For many, this would seem to be the makings of a fictional horror movie created by Hollywood with intent to frighten a person and to play with ones senses. For those who live in the areas depicted by film, this is real life, all of the fear and terror of a shaking ground comes to life and people everywhere grab those that are most precious to them and scream “Earthquake!” According to Lisa Wald (2012), “an Earthquake is what…

Earthquake Preparedness Press Release

How can my family be prepared for an earthquake? This question haunts countless residents in the Los Angeles area every day. Hopefully we here at the Earthquake Preparedness Center can shed some light on how you can protect your family. My name is Darin Fort and I am the Director of Earthquake Preparedness for Los Angeles. As with any danger, knowledge of the event is of upmost importance. Some questions that should be asked by anyone who wants to defend their home against earthquakes are: What are the origins and causes of earthquakes and what is the relation of earthquakes to plate tectonics and faults in Los Angeles? What are some historical disasters associated with earthquakes? What are the hazards…

The Effects of Natural Disasters

Natural disasters have been shaping and reshaping our planet since the beginning of time. These natural disasters have had a devastating effect on communities all around the world. No matter how far societies have come throughout history, natural disasters humble mankind with their disrupting nature. Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes. Earthquakes can rip apart the earth and destroy infrastructure along the way. Hurricanes come and rip through cities and uproot everything in their path. These are just a few of the many types of natural disasters that can devastate a society. There are many natural disasters that have reshaped regions within the world. One of these disasters that reshaped a region was the 1902 eruption of Mt….

Geomorphology: Preparation of Earthquakes

Preparation of Earthquakes 1. Building designs & locations a. Fault lines should be shown on maps for people to avoid constructing buildings above active fault lines b. If not, foundation of buildings must be extended to solid material c. High-risk areas should have low-density land use d. Steel structures built to prevent buildings from collapsing when the ground moves i. Taipei 101 has a steel pendulum that would sway & reduce resonance amplification during an earthquake ii. Tokyo’s buildings reinforced to withstand stronger earthquakes e. Shock-absorbing rubber blocks installed in buildings to absorb earthquake energy & oscillations f. Electric supplies installed in buildings in Japan & San Francisco with auto shutoffs to prevent fires g. Fireproof materials used in fittings…

Tsunami and Physical Protection Measures

What is tsunami? A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 津波, lit. “harbor wave”;[1] English pronunciation: /suːˈnɑːmi/ soo-nah-mee or/tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-nah-mee[2]) is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calving, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.[3] Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to…

Natural Disaster

Abstract The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, triggered by a massive earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, is the deadliest natural disaster ever of this kind. Aside from a massive number of casualties, this tsunami caused heavy economic damage and severe destruction to the natural environment of stricken countries. Given the significant destruction and suffering, it resulted in massive international support through financial and humanitarian aid. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis and a better understanding of the causes, the impacts and actions that could have been taken to limit the damage. Introduction The December 26 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami ranks among the ten deadliest natural disasters ever recorded thus far with a death toll…

The Violent Earthquakes

Earthquakes are a very dangerous natural disaster, if strong enough; they could destroy the best-built buildings. They are caused by a sudden shift in the tectonic plates. Earthquakes can also cause other types of disasters too. They could cause tsunamis or volcanic eruptions. However earthquakes erupt unpredictable and can kill many people unpredictable. Seismometers can detect the strength of the earthquake, which then gives a number on the Richter scale to determine how powerful it is going to be. There are many different levels of earthquakes, some can be so small that people can not even notice them, and others could be so strong that it causes the strongest buildings built to collapse. The scale goes from micro, all the…

Rio Tinto Japan

What is an important issue that your company is currently facing? My name is Dermot Vibert. I work with Rio Tinto Japan. On March 11, 2011 I was in our office when we were hit by an extremely strong earthquake. Among the many issues we faced immediately after the earthquake was what would we do on the Monday morning when we had to supposedly return to the office and recommence business. What caused this issue to arise and why is it important? – Marketing The earthquake in the afternoon of March 11 was, although it struck 520 kilometers from Tokyo, it was an extremely strong one for us in Tokyo. The buildings shook severely two or three times, and then…

Earthquake Kills 22 in southwestern China

1. Type of crisis Earthquake is an example of adventitious crisis, a natural disaster “that is not part of an everyday life and is unplanned and accidental” (Varcarolis, 2006, pp 422-423). Victims of earthquakes usually suffer from trauma, panic, shock, grief, fear and mental disorganization (which could be manifested by running around aimlessly or inability to concentrate). People who suffer from such an adventitious disaster are reported to have flashbacks or nightmares connected to the event after it happened. 2. Type of stressors that contributed to the crisis Earthquakes happen suddenly and people are caught off guard with the sudden and swift destruction that it brought about to them personally (e.g., damage or loss of property and the painful loss…

Effects of Earthquake

Primary effects are the immediate damage caused by the quake, such as collapsing buildings, roads and bridges, which may kill many people. Those lucky enough to survive can suffer badly from shock and panic. Secondary effects are the after-effects of the earthquake, such as fires, tidal waves, landslides and disease. Fire – earthquakes destroy gas pipes and electric cables, causing fires to spread. Broken water mains prevent the Fires being extinguished. Fires spread very quickly in cities, especially in poor-quality housing areas where wooden buildings are common. Tsunamis – an earthquake on the sea floor or close to the coast may cause huge waves. Landslides – earthquakes often cause landslides, especially in steep river valleys and areas of weak rocks….

Societal Impacts on Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are a devastating, but undeniably inevitable part of life and society. Because of this fact, many of us tend to believe that they happen as an act of nature, purely out of the human control. We need to start realizing that this is far from the truth and it this attitude that is stopping us from learning from our mistakes. The contemporary world inaccurately labels various disasters as ‘natural’ when in fact, when looked at more closely; there is an enormous correlation between ‘nature’ and ‘society’. There are many flaws in the human preparation for natural disasters that have equated in death and injury where it could have been minimized. Although the occurrence of a disaster can happen…

Earthquake in Pakistan

Earthquake activity in Pakistan is mainly concentrated in the north and western sections of the country, along the boundary of the Indian plate and the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates. The Chaman Fault runs along Pakistan’s western frontier with Afghanistan from Kalat, in the northern Makran range, past Quetta and then on to Kabul, Afghanistan. A fault also runs along the Makran coast and is believed to be of the same nature as the West Coast fault along the coast of Maharashtra, India. An active subduction zone exists off the Makran coast. The great 1945 earthquake was centred in this region. This zone forms the boundary between the Arabian and the Iranian micro-plate, where the former subducts or dives beneath the…

Japan-2011-Earthquake-Case-Study

Japan is an island nation located in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, together comprising about ninety-seven percent of Japan’s land area. Japan is a major economic power and has the 3rd largest nominal GDP Its GDP per capita is $34,739 or the 25th highest in the world in 2011 Population is approximately 127 million people, which is the 10th largest population in the world. One of the world’s highest life expectancy at 81. 25 years of age. Ageing population with people 23% of the…

What is Earthquake

An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. The tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the earth’s crust and cause the shaking that we feel.( readanddigest.com/what-is-an-earthquake) The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake)[6][9] killed more than 8,800 people and injured more than 23,000. It occurred at 11:56 NST on 25 April, with a magnitude of 7.8Mw[1] or 8.1Ms[2] and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX (Violent). Its epicenter was east of the district of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was at a depth…

Tectonic Hazard Profiles Determine

Definition of tectonic hazard, plate movements, LEDCs, MEDCs, responses, people and governments (human responses) Hazard profile sections of report: magnitude, frequency, predictability Concepts and theories: models and diagrams Case studies: LEDC Haiti earthquake, MEDC tsunami Japan, California, China Introduction Tectonic activity varies due to geographical location and position of tectonic plate boundaries. The Earth’s crust is made up of continental and oceanic plates, which move across the surface of the planet, meeting at plate boundaries. Plate tectonics cause volcanic activity, tsunamis and earthquakes. Responses in terms of humans refers to the action taken to minimize the risk to human life and possessions. This response can range from an individual level to international level. They can be seen as modifying the…

A great earthquake

The magnitude 8. 8 earthquake that occurred a month ago in Chile, as well as the impending tsunami along the Pacific Rim is the product of a fortuitous event. These are events which cannot be foreseen or which though foreseen are inevitable. The quake struck at 3:34 a. m. in central Chile. The capital Santiago is about 200 miles from the epicenter and Concepcion, Chile’s second-largest metropolitan area, is roughly 70 miles from the quake’s center. A magnitude of 8. 0 or greater is classified as a great earthquake which results to communities being destroyed. The 8. 8 magnitude earthquake in Chile has killed lesser people compared to the 7. 0 magnitude that struck Haiti on January 12 that killed…

San Francisco 1906 Earthquake

Over the many decades the economic standing of the United States, specifically California, had fluctuated due to many unforeseen factors. One huge factor that cannot be anticipated, and often causes drastic effects on the economy, are geologic disasters. The state of California is notorious for having earthquakes that shake up the state quite often and leave the affected area with a substantial amount of damage. The 1906 earthquake of San Francisco was the largest geologic disaster known to the nation at the time it occured. Destroying about 80% of the city, this earthquake also caused an enormous amount of fires to break out throughout the city. Not only did the state of California have to build up funds to reconstruct…

Haiti Earthquake

January 12, 2010 became the moment of tragedy for the population of Haiti: an earthquake of terrible force stroke the small island, killing and injuring thousands of people. The earthquake turned into a devastating power, destroying everything in the epicenter and miles beyond. It was the most powerful earthquake in Haiti in more than 100 years. Now, several months after the tragic event, Haitian authorities still work to restore the economic and social stability in the region. Earthquakes are difficult to predict – the Haiti earthquake did not have any warning signs or foreshocks. It was equally unexpected and powerful. The aftershocks that followed confirmed the complexity of the natural processes that usually occur during earthquakes. The terrible earthquake that…

The Hazards Presented by Volcanic and Seismic Events

Hazards are anything that could cause damage to humans or buildings. Many volcanic and seismic events happen that cause hazards to humans. Often the world’s poorest people are hit the worst, however wealthier countries can also be adversely affected. The Kobe earthquake in Japan 1995 struck at 5.45am. Many people were asleep in bed, causing the hazard to be increased because the people were unaware. Although many Japanese buildings were of aseismic design, the roofs of their houses were designed to withstand typhoons and so were very heavy. When the earthquake struck many people were crushed in their sleep. Also every year on 1st September Japan has national earthquake preparedness day to remember the 140000 that died in the Tokyo…

The Impact of Earthquake Hazards

Discuss the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors (40 marks). It is impossible for anybody to argue that human factors do not have an effect on the impact caused by earthquake hazards; however the extent of the effect is debatable depending on the situation. This can depend on many different aspects, for instance the level of development in the relevant country, the standard of infrastructure, the magnitude and location of the quake and lastly what time the quake occurs. In order to properly assess whether the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors, it is necessary to look at a range of case studies which will provide a balanced overview. For instance…

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake & Sanaysay

A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions(including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.[3] Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in…

The role of risk management

Abstract: This essay is mainly about the role of risk management in addressing any potential risk to the organisation that may cause a lot of losses. Management’s mission is to predict the risk before disaster strikes, which require to study all the information and the details provided by the risk management team. In addition, what are the mistakes that had been committed in some of the examples mentioned in this essay? and did they learn from their mistakes?. Finally, development of communication must be promoted between risk management sector and top management and activating the role of participation in making the right decision. Word Count: 1500 words Risk management is basically a planning tool to manage risks, by evaluating and…

Earthquake in Japan

On March 11, 2011, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded hit Japan’s eastern coast. It killed hundreds of people as it made its way through the streets and fields, sweeping away boats, cars and homes. Its magnitude was 8.9, releasing a 23-foot tsunami and then provoking more than 50 aftershocks for hours. This horrific event resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and devastated entire towns. The amount of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami was excessive, with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami. Thousands of families were left without electricity. Many nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake. Cell phones and landline services suffered major disruptions so many people weren’t…

Natural Hazards and Disasters

A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster. In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural Hazards (and the resulting disasters) are the result of naturally occurring processes that have operated throughout Earth’s history. Effects of Hazards Hazardous process of all types can have primary, secondary, and tertiary effects. Primary Effects occur as a result of the process itself. For example water damage during a flood or collapse of buildings during an earthquake, landslide, or hurricane. Secondary Effects occur only because a primary effect has caused them. For…

Balagtasan

The Dynamic Crust, Earthquakes and the Earth’s Interior Why is the Earth’s crust described as being dynamic? Crust- solid rock outer zone of Earth The crust is part of the lithosphere. The Earth’s crust is dynamic which means constantly changing. Earthquakes Volcanoes Crustal movements along fault zones Other evidence indicates that parts of the Earth’s crust have been moving to different locations for billions of years. Describe pieces of evidence that suggest minor changes in the Earth’s crust. Displaced & Deformed Rock Strata Sedimentary rocks appear to form in horizontal layers. However, observations of the Earth’s surface indicate that the original formations of rock have changed through past movements. Tilting Earth movement resulting in a change in the position of…