The purpose of the paper is to look at early intervention in the first grade. The paper will discuss what early intervention at first grade is all about with close scrutiny of the various methods that are used in early intervention at schools and the effect of the intervention. It also shade light on the use and value of early intervention at first grade with respect to students performance later in the education. The introductory part of the paper will give an explanation about early intervention at first grade, whom it affects and the parties involved.
The statement of the problem will illustrate the nature of the research proposal in terms of stating exactly what the problem is. It will also explain why early intervention at first grade is a problem of research and whether or not it is researchable. The literature review section will elaborate the context of the problem while discussing the related issues that readers are most likely to raise, their differing views, methodology and results. The objectives of the research will also be looked at in detail.
These will stipulate the various aims or goals that the research needs to address and will be followed by the hypothesis section that will try to answer the stipulated objectives of the research proposal. The research methodology will then be followed by the expected outcomes or results, the discussion of the results and the paper in general. Introduction. Early intervention in the first grade is a situation where children are subjected to or put in a schedule that allows them to have the relevant exposure and experience in the process of acquainting themselves with school before they get to the real school life environment.
Children between the age of three and the age at which they are expected to join the beginners level are the ones targeted by the various institutions and organization offering such programs (Deese & Ellen 2003). There is need to implement such programs as they help the children is preparation and anticipation of what they expect the moment they begin their first grade programs. Interventions at early age are necessary in that they help in situations where the children’s right have been violated and more so where some children have been denied the go ahead of joining the first grade programs on different accounts.
In Pennsylvania for instance, there is an Act which legitimatizes children who are between three years and the age of joining the beginners program to have access to early intervention programs. Several procedures have been established by different circulars on the way forward to achieving the set objectives of the early intervention programs. Statement of the problem. It is evident that there is a problem concerning early intervention in the first grade. The issue here is to address the problems that come along with early intervention procedures and programs.
This has been a problem in that several children are locked out of the programs simply because they are thought to be underage (Lakein, 2004). Some have been denied the opportunity of getting to first grade at a certain age. The problem can actually be researchable as it touches on every person’s life be it the child’s or the parent’s life. If researched properly, the findings and recommendations will be tabled and put into effect by the relevant authorities.
Literature Review. Early Intervention. In the year nineteen ninety, an Act was established in Pennsylvania concerning early intervention and its transition. The circular had the sole purpose of clarifying the procedure to be followed during the transition process of children’s education. It focused on the procedures required by the authorities in the transition process from early intervention programs that are preschool in nature to the first grade and the kindergartens.
The transition was required to be in such a way that it did not interrupt the school going program and that all children will be eligible for the program especially those who were not provided with the procedures for transition. It also guarded against instances of children’s rights being violated by certain people and institutions of learning (Deese & Ellen 2003). The smooth transition of the children to the district programs from early intervention was also the objective of the Act. This was to be done not only by the schools but also the parents’ choices were to be taken care of by the circular.
In February, a body was appointed and vested with the mandate of one, identifying all the children who were almost the age of kindergarten in their residential districts, making parents aware that those children who were about the age of joining kindergarten that their children would be required to continue with early intervention for a period of another year, creating awareness to the many families about the process of transition, holding meetings to discuss the process of transition and also confirming whether or not parents were ready to register their children in the residential districts or that of the school that the children would join the following year (Lakein, 2004). The other role of the circular on Basic Education was to make sure that schools did evaluations and came up with education programs that were individualized and that they adhered to the laid down timelines (Lakein, 2004). It also ensured that children who had left their schools for other schools continued to be offered services by their former schools as they wait for the appeals and court hearings in case their parent disagreed with the individualized programs in the district schools.
Such circulars were important in that they helped children in achieving the education in a manner that is properly structured in terms of education programs and curricula. Parents also had the chance of having their views and opinion heard in matters concerning their children’s education lifestyle and process. Reasons for Early Intervention. Research has shown that learning in schools and in general life, is more rapid in the preschool years. Intervention at this stage is extremely necessary as the child needs to start developing his/her education early enough. It care is not taken in terms of teaching the child at this early stage, it might be difficult for the child to get a particular skill or phenomenon at the later stage in life (Lakein, 2004).
These early intervention procedures and measures have an impact on the parents and the children as well. A child who is considered ans being an exceptional case may cause the family to feel isolated socially, disappointed, stressful, frustrated and even feel helpless. This combination of negative attributes may affect the well being of the family and to some extend affect the development of the child in question. Some families find themselves in situations of divorce and even suicidal situations in cases where their children are either handicapped or physically challenged. This creates a stigma in the minds of other people and create a negative impression to the concerned families (Lakein, 2004).
Interventions at early stages will result to improved attitudes by the parents towards their children and towards themselves. Parents are also likely to improve and increase on their children’s information and skills in terms of devoting more time to leisure activities and teaching schedules for them. Parents who believe that their children have a brighter future in terms of education, need such early interventions so that they can provide good learning environment for their children and also offer the necessary support required by their children. The other reason for early intervention is that through it, a society or community for that matter will be in a position to reap benefits that are maximum.
The increased educational benefits and development of the child and the reduction in the over dependence of the child on the educational institutions together with the ability of the child’s family to be in terms with them despite their exceptional nature coupled with the increased chances of the child to employment, are factors issues that offer social and economic benefits. Beneficiaries of Early Intervention. Beneficiaries of this program include children who are attending school or even younger children who are thought to be at risk of lacking education or at risk of being handicapped including any other need considered as special and would affect the development of the child.
Families of children who are affected also benefit from early intervention as they help to lessen the effect of the condition. The other beneficiaries of the program are the teachers in the various institutions. Teachers stand to benefit a great deal in that they come across children who are already molded and are ready for their next level of education. Such programs could be based at home, based in hospitals, based at centers, even be a combination of all of them (Berruetta, 2005). The program also benefits those who are in their tender ages, that is, from birth to their school going ages. Inasmuch as this is true, there are so many reasons as to why the program should begin at the earliest age possible.
Research has shown that there is qualitative and quantitative evidence that intervention at the early ages increases the child’s development and also boosts the child’s educational gains. It is also evident that early intervention helps in improving the family’s functionality and harvest long-time gains and benefits for the society at large. The results of early intervention to the child include; the child needing less education that is special and also other services for rehabilitation in terms of education and social well being later on in life (Pauk, 2007). Early intervention has also shown that students are less likely to be retained in their grades for along period of time.
The children get promoted at the required stage and time and do not waste a lot of time in their grades. Outcomes of previous researches. According to Berrueta (2005), research was carried out in Perry Preschool on physically challenged children. The research showed that the children were consistent in their performance at the age of 19. The students had a positive attitude to schooling and most of them completed their high school education and went ahead to join institutions of higher learning to pursue their careers. This landed them employment compared to other children who did not have the chance and opportunity to attend preschool programs.
Previous research outcomes have also shown that handicapped and disabled children scored higher marks when it came to arithmetic, languages and reading tests. The early interventions led to a reduction to up to fifty percent in the quest for education services that are specialized. It also led to less and less antisocial behaviors within and outside the schools compared to other students who did not attend the program. It is through the research that is came out clear that cases of under-achievement in children who are gifted and talented may be curbed and taken care of by early intervention and identification through appropriate methods and programs (Pauk, 2007). The approach to early Intervention.
The approach to early intervention has been captured in different fields such as education, health, psychology, neuroscience as well as criminology. The approach is based on the need of improving and promoting community and family relationships and experiences during their children’s childhood periods. Children’s development during the first years of their lives is crucial in the laying down of a foundation of learning, health and behavior outcomes. This postulation is the foundation on which the importance of intervention at the early stages and prevention at early ages stands (Berruetta, 2005). The most important and effective intervention approaches will always tend to deal with the child’s problems earlier on in life and prevent the problems before they are embedded in the child.
Early intervention could tackle and prevent ills that are social to the community such as illiteracy, unemployment and crime which are assumed to have been caused by lack of early intervention at the child’s early age. Such approaches could be carried out at any level sch as at the family level, individual level and the community level as the effects and results are all bu the same. Service such as training parents on the various skills of dealing with the child, visiting pregnant mothers and also those with new born babies, education concerning family relationships, counseling services of the family, supporting families with young and tender children among others should be provided at all times through early intervention. Research Questions. The research proposal is aimed at establishing the benefits of early interventions in the first grade.
The benefits will be looked at in terms of whom they benefits, how they benefit and the outcome of the benefits. There will also be the question of how early interventions have helped children desist from social evils in their later lives. This will be justified by previously conducted researches on the same. The paper will lastly address the question of the impact of early interventions on the society and the community at large. Statement Hypothesis. This section will try to answer the objectives of the research paper. There are obvious benefits that can be attributed to early interventions to both the children parents and the community in general.
Early interventions have helped children shape their lives in terms of behavior, education and social aspects. Research methodology. The research will be made possible by the aid of research methods that will be deemed useful. The research shall deploy both the qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis as there will be need to analyze both numbers, figures as well as statements. Data collection methods and techniques will involve the use of primary and secondary data. Primary data will be collected by use of questionnaires and interviews. Secondary data will be collected from journals, books and other scholarly materials that will be deemed fit for the research.
Participants in the research will include children in the kindergartens, teachers of various schools that offer the early intervention program, the government officials who are in charge of the educational programs and other relevant authorities. The research shall use instruments and materials such as questionnaires, tape recorders, tape translators among others. Tape recorders are reliable tools for data collection as they can keep information for long and can be used in case there is clarification in future. The design of the study. The study was designed in such a way that it involved all the relevant parties. Children were conducted through interviews which were recorded using tape recorders. This methods was deemed relevant to the children as they were free to give information as a result of enjoying being taped and heard afterwards from the tape recorders.
The first phase of the data collection will take about three weeks to five weeks after which the in information will be gathered, compiled and analyzed. The questionnaires will be used on teachers and government officials who will be given one month to fill them and thereafter they will be collected for compilation and analysis. The next step will be data compilation and analysis which will take about one month and an extension another two weeks just in case the process takes a lot of time than expected. Data interpretation will then take two weeks as it is not a demanding exercise as compared to data analysis. Data collection methods. Questionnaires and Interviews.
Questionnaires will be used because of the many advantages they have over other methods of data collection. They are easy to understand and interpret because the language used is simple and easy to read. They also have an advantage in that they allow the respondent to give views and opinions without the fear of either being heard or looked at by the interviewer. The main disadvantage with the questionnaires is that they bound to give the impression that the interview is not serious and that the questions can be answered in any way as the respondent feels fit. This method will be used because it is appropriate for children and other government officials who might not be willing and comfortable to use questionnaires.
The main disadvantage is that interviews might instill a sense of fear and panic among children and other respondents for fear of being victimized there and then by the interviewer. Conclusion/Discussion. It is evident from the literature review that early intervention in the first grade is important for child development and the community as well. Many children who go through the program of early intervention are found to be sharp in their academics, alert, focused and even end up maintaining their academic standards in their later education levels (Berruetta, 2005). Early intervention helps to shape the future of many children as they are made to understand and molded into better students at a very early age of their lives.
The research will therefore be expected to make known the importance of early intervention in schools and other places as well. The outcome of the research will also be expected to make more and more schools and institutions embrace the need for early intervention and put up facilities to support the programs (Pauk, 2007). References. Berruetta, C. (2005). Early Intervention in schools. New York: McGraw Hill Deese, J. & Ellen, K. (2003). The importance of Early Intervention. Washington: Sage Publishers. Lakein, A. (2004). Early Intervention Programs and their effects to children. New York: Peter H. Wyden, Inc. Pauk, W. (2007). Interventions at Chilhood: An Analysis of what it means. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.