The aim of this project is to:
* Learn about the system life cycle and how it is implement in the real life situation * understand how a database management system work and how to apply this knowledge to manage information system * implement the six phase problem-solving procedure of the system cycle for examining the bus E-ticketing system to select the best system * Learn about Systems analysis and design procedures and how it can be used in solving problems.
* After completing this project students should be able to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them. Student should be able to do all six phases:
* Phase 1-Preliminary Investigation: define the problem, suggest alternative solutions and prepare short report.
* Phase 2-Systems Analysis: Gather and analyze data using data flow diagram or systems flowchart.
* Phase 3-Systems Design: design alternative systems, select the best system, and write a report
* Phase 4-Systems Development: Create database with appropriate fields, forms, queries and reports
I would like to thank the following people who contributed towards making the project successful: * God – for providing me with wisdom, strength and intellect power to aid me to complete this project. * MR. Lal (Computer Teacher) – for guiding me on how to do this project. * My parents – for providing me with funds and giving moral support to make this project a successful one. * All students and friends who have answered my questionnaires
In compiling this research work the following research tools were used under the two research methods, that is:
Ten questionnaires were distributed to the Staffs of the bus company and the questionnaires were collected back and analyzed.
Internet was accessed to collect relevant information about research topic.
Table of content
Computer is considered as one of the widely used technologies available in nearly all organization nowadays. However a lot of effort is required before a computer system is setup. The process required for this consideration is called the “SYSTEM ANALYSIS and DESIGN”. System Analysis and Design is an organizational process of developing and maintaining systems. It helps in establishing a system project plan, because it gives overall list of processes and sub-processes required for developing a system. The phases involved in system life cycle are as follows: * Preliminary investigation
* Systems analysis
* Systems design
* Systems development
* Systems implementation
* Systems maintenance
The advantages of system analysis is that is can save the company money because it can reduce errors and the requirements of IT for fixing problems. Another advantage is that without system analysis project management methods could be hard to perform, whereas system analysis enables better management methods. The fact that the system is so easy to pass on to others makes it another advantage. Companies can easily share with employees the proper way to perform the system analysis. Furthermore, the disadvantage of system analysis and design is firstly the complexity of understanding the procedures carried out in the cycle, secondly the need for special training for users and lastly time and money the biggest problem with the SAD is that it takes a great deal of time, when a business takes so much time to analyze the project, it may make it difficult to create the information system by a desired end date. Moving on, system analysis and design Is widely used in industrial projects to ensure a solution is reached which fulfills the requirements of the user, the same technique has been used in implementation of a cricket bowling system which has been designed to recreate any bowling delivery.
Phase 1: PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
In preliminary investigation phase, the problems are briefly identified and few solutions are suggested. A proposed project is investigated to determine the need for a new information system. This is usually requested by an end user or manager who wants something to be done that is not presently being done. In phase 1 the system analyst is concerned with three tasks: * BRIEFLY DEFINING THE PROBLEM-It means to examine whatever current information system is in use. Determining what information is needed by whom, when, and why is accomplished by interviews, emails and making observations. If the information system is large the survey is done by the system analyst. But if it is small, then it is carried out by an end user.
* SUGGESTING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS-This step is simply to suggest some plans as alternatives to the present arrangement
* PREPARING A SHORT REPORT-For large projects the system analyst would write a short report summarizing the results of the preliminary investigation and suggesting alternatives systems. The report may also include schedules for further development of the project. This document is presented to higher management along with a recommendation to continue or discontinue the project. Management then decides to finance the second phase
Problems and solutions
Misuse of money takes place at the current stage where the public are using money to pay their fare, this enables bus drivers to sometimes charge more than the normal fare rate to passengers thus drivers gain illegal profits.
It is time consuming whereby at the time passengers are picked up along the route, time is wasted on paying the fare and returning of change. At the time this process happens few minutes of both the passenger and driver is consumed. Solutions
1.) Employ a driver assistance who looks into the transaction that happens in the bus, this assists in having proper accountability in the organization also monitors fare rate in bus
2.) Install the bus E-Ticketing system. it’s a automated system where the passenger has an electronic card which they swipe into the bus company’s machine, automated deductions are done and a receipt is issued, this helps in accountability of money coming to the organization, this removes obstacles from the driver having to give correct change to each passenger and thus reduces time spent on carrying out a particular transaction
23rd April 2013
Fiji Bus Company
Re: Phase 1 Preliminary Investigation
I Kunal Singh as the system analyst for Fiji Bus Company have thoroughly investigated the operations at your company and have come up with the following problems. The following problems are: * Misuse of money takes place at the current stage where the public are using money to pay their fare, this enables bus drivers to sometimes charge more than the normal fare rate to passengers thus drivers gain illegal profits. * It is time consuming whereby at the time passengers are picked up along the route, time is wasted on paying the fare and returning of change. At the time this process happens few minutes of both the passenger and driver is consumed. There are solutions to the problems stated above.
They are: * Employ a driver assistance who looks into the transaction that happens in the bus, this assists in having proper accountability in the organization also monitors fare rate in bus * Install the bus E-Ticketing system. it’s a automated system where the passenger has an electronic card which they swipe into the bus company’s machine, automated deductions are done and a receipt is issued, this helps in accountability of money coming to the organization, this removes obstacles from the driver having to give correct change to each passenger and thus reduces time spent on carrying out a particular transaction The best alternative suggestion is installing the E-Ticketing System this would eliminate unnecessary delays and prevent corruption in the bus industry therefore it is recommended that the E-ticketing project to take place so that future dilemma is avoided. I seek your permission to move to Phase 2 analysis. Yours Faithfully
Kunal Singh (System Analyst).
Phase 2: ANALYSIS
In the systems analysis, the present system is studied in depth and new requirements are specified. Data is collected about the present system, the data is then analyzed and new requirements are determined. This is accomplished through: GATHERING DATA- data is collected about the current system that is manual recording of information. 1. Firstly data was collected through observations and interviews with the higher management and drivers. Some of the data was that through observation it was noticed that misuse of money takes place at the current stage where the public are using money to pay their fare this enables bus drivers to sometimes charge more than the normal fare rate to passengers thus drivers gain illegal profits. 2. Secondly data was collected through the means of questionnaires which was given to passengers, drivers and the management. The data from questionnaires was used for analysis. 3. Thirdly, data was obtained from studying documents that describes the formal lines of authority and standard operating procedures of the organization. An organization chart was used to show the level of management of the recording of records.
ANALYZING DATA- In this step, the workability of the current system is analyzed and the weak areas are pinpointed. It was found out that the manual system of recording was time consuming thus causing more workloads to the management. There are many tools available to assist in analyzing the data gathered. These of which are: * CHECKLIST-A checklist is a list of questions. It is helpful in guiding the system analyst through key issues for the present system. * TOP-DOWN METHODOLOGY-Is used to identify the top level components of a complex system. Each component is then broken down into smaller and smaller components. This kind of tool makes each component easier to analyze and deal with. * DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS-Show the data or information flow within an information system. The data is traced from its origination through processing storage and output. * AUTOMATED DESIGN TOOLS-Software package that evaluates hardware and software alternatives according to requirements given by the system analyst. It is also called computer-aided software engineering tools (CASE TOOLS). They enable several systems analyst to automate and to co-ordinate their efforts on a project. * GRID CHARTS-Shows the relationship between input and output documents. * DECISION TABLES-Shows the decision rules that apply when certain conditions occur. It also shows what actions should take place as a result. * SYSTEMS FLOWCHARTS-Show the flow of data, processing and output or distribution of information.
System Flow Chart
DOCUMENTING THE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS STAGE-The system analysis stage is typically documented in a report for higher management. The systems analysis report describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system and possible development schedule. Management studies the report and decides whether to continue with the project.
23rd April 2013
Fiji Bus Company
Re: Phase 2 Analysis
I, Kunal Singh, as the system analyst for Fiji Bus Company, have studied the present system in depth. Firstly I have gathered data using an organization chart. I have showed formal lines of authority in the Fiji Bus Company. After gathering data, I have analyzed the data to show how information currently flows within Fiji Bus Company. The tool I have used for this is a
system flowchart that shows the flow of data within the Fiji Bus Company from the tickets issued to revenue for number of passengers. I look forward for a favorable reply to continue with Phase 3 design. Yours Faithfully
Kunal Singh(System Analyst)
Phase 3-System Design
In the systems design phase, a new or alternative information system is designed. It consists of three tasks: * Designing alternative systems
* Selecting the best system
* Writing a systems design report
Designing Alternative Systems-In almost all instances, more than one design can be developed to meet the information needs. Systems analyst evaluates each alternative system for feasibility. The purpose of feasibility study is to evaluate the cost and benefits of the proposed system. By feasibility we mean three things: * Economic feasibility
Q: will the costs of the new system be justified by the benefits it promises?
A: yes, because having records computerized will make work easier and faster and the results generated will be accurate. * Technical feasibility
Q: Is the hardware, software and trained people available to make the system work?
A: yes, reason being is that, after the drivers are trained/taught on how the E-ticketing system works, it is obviously possible for them to interact with the hardware and software thus making it productive. * Operational feasibility
Q: can the system actually be made to operate in the Fiji Bus Limited’s system or will the staff resist it?
A: yes, the system will be made possible to operate in the Fiji Bus Ltd and no, the staff will be unable to resist it because according to analysis phase the staff desperately acquired for a new system.
Selecting best system- this can be done by considering four questions. These are whether the system fits in with the organization, is it flexible and modifiable, is it secured against unauthorized use and are the benefits worth the cost.
Writing Systems Design Report- prepared for higher management and describes the alternative designs. It presents the costs versus benefits and usually concludes by recommending one of the alternatives.
Designing Alternative System
Previous System- Manual WayManila Folder: Cost40 Manila Files$0.70 x 40 = $28Paper Cost – 2 boxes5rim – 1 box 1 rim – $12(12 x 5) x 2 = $ 120Pen Cost$0.80 x 300 = $ 240Storage Cabinet CostCost = $ 900Cost of Labour4 people managing the system and are paid $250 fortnightlyYearly Salary($250 x 4) x 26 = $26000 Total Cost$28 + $120 + $240 + $900 + $26000 = $27,288| New SystemCost of the New System= $2076Cost of LabourMaximum of 3 people are requiredYearly salary = ($250 x 3)x 26 = $19500 Total Cost = $ 1300 + $19500 = $20800 | PROFIT= Previous cost – New system =$27,288-$20800| $6,488|
The E-Ticketing Machine
Previous SystemBus company has 50 busesEach bus makes two routes per dayTotal Revenue· 5 buses seat 90 passengers and charge $0.30 each passenger for one route $27x 5= $135· 10 buses seat 90 passengers and charge $0.20$18 x 10=$180· 20 buses seat 90 passengers and charge $0.50 $45 x 20=$900· 15 buses seat 90 passengers and charge $0.70 $63 x 15 = $945 $135 + $180 + $900 + $945 = $2160$2160 x 2 = $4320 per day$4320 x 7 = $30240 ($30240 x 52) / 12 = $131040Total Revenue : $131040 per month Total ExpensesFuel ( MONTHLY) = $11000 Maintenance = $2600 Wages = $35000 Accountability Errors = $7000Total Expenses = $55600 Net Revenue= $131040 – $55600 = $75440 | Current SystemTotal Revenue = $131040 Total ExpensesFuel = $ 11000Maintenance = $1000Wages= $
35000E-Ticketing Machine = $400IBM Think Centre = $329Total Expenses = $47129Total Revenue = $131040 – $47729 = $83311 |
23rd April 2013
Fiji Bus Company
Re: Phase 3 System Design
To begin with, in this phase two alternative systems were designed. The first alternative was hiring of bus checkers to help in the “paying and receiving” of fares and to monitor the fare rate charged. Three feasibility studies were done. The first study was to determine if the alternative was economically fit for the company. Though the idea was reasonable, the costs were too much given the financial status the Fiji Bus Ltd Company wasin. The second study was to find out if any new hardware, software or new training was needed, for this first alternative the answer was no. On the other hand, the second alternative was the implementation of the E-ticketing system in all buses. which will have a total expense of $55600 (approx) and a net revenue $75440 . The third study was to find out if the normal operation for all buses would be altered if the new system was put in place. Furthermore, it was decided normal operation will be altered as some bus companies decided to use normal operation as they did before.
Phase 4 System Development
In the System Development phase, the system analyst has to gather proper hardware and software to create the system. The three steps for this phase are:
* Develop software.
* Acquire the hardware
* Test the system.
In order for the Fiji Bus Companies Ltd to begin with this software that is E-ticketing needs to be purchased as off the shelf packaged software and possibly modified it,
Requirements to develop the new Software are as follows:
* Windows XP/Sp3 or a newer version of an Operating System * Microsoft Office 2007 or a latest version of MS
* Internet access to make a communication link/bridge between the E-Ticketing Machine and the Computer * Firewall
* Antivirus Software
* A Modified or a custom design Software to make communication possible between the E-ticketing machine and the computer
Since there will be an E-ticketing system in place of the manual system, there will be new * 15”/17” Monitor
* An I5 processor
* 2 GB Ram or higher
* 320 GB hard drive or higher
* CD/DVD Writer
* E-Ticketing Machines
Testing the new system
After the E-ticketing software has been installed, sample data is fed into the system. The processed information is then evaluated to see whether the results are correct. In this system cards are used by the public as the money they use to spend as their bus fare. The E-ticketing cards are easy to use as it simply requires the user/public to scan the card onto the machine. This of which was proven first hand by the Prime Minister of Fiji when he boarded the bus from Suva to Nausori. At each step, the new system will be closely looked at and if necessary changes would be made if any problem arises