Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Semantic Translation: Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system. Literal Translation: Literal translation, or directed translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) with or without conveying the sense of the original.
Functional Translation: Functional approach to translation values the context and desist from treating language merely as a code. Official translation: A complete and accurate translation into English from the issuing language. DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE: Dynamic equivalence (or functional equivalence) conveys the essential thoughts expressed in a source text. In this, translator focuses more on the culture and linguistics expression. FORMAL EQUIVALENCE: Formal equivalence focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content.
While the translator is trying to find formal equivalence, he or she is closely following the form, content and structure. LEGAL TRANSLATION Legal translation is the translation of texts within the field of law. As law is a culture-dependent subject field, the work of legal translation and its products are not necessarily linguistically transparent. It is important to note almost all the original drafts at the centre and states level are usually prepared in English and then got translated into Hindi. But the original’ text (i. e. the English version) is called the ‘translated text’, whereas the translated text (i.
e. the Hindi version) is known as the ‘original one. Points to be taken care at time of translation Only professional translators specializing in legal translation should translate legal documents The translator should be aware of the legal system of the source text (ST) as it is structured in a way that suits that culture Similarly, the target text (TT) is to be read by someone who is familiar with the other legal system and its language. It should not have any defect which would result in misinterpretation, misunderstanding and misconstruction.
It should convey the same meaning as the original text gives. The translator should neither add nor subtract anything from his side. He should not give a word for word translations but grasp the original meaning. The intention of the legislator should also be kept in mind while translating the enactment. REGULATION NO. 1 OF 1803 The rule of translation from English into Hindi, provided under section 18 of the Regulation No 1of 1803, “The translator shall translate the regulations into plain and easy language and in all possible cases, shall reject words not in common use.
So far as may be consistent with the preservation of the true meaning and spirit of regulations, he shall adopt the idiom of the native languages, instead of giving a close verbal translation of the English drafts which must necessarily render the translation obscure and often unintelligible to natives. ” The Gazette of India (: ???? ?? ??????? Bharat kaa Rajpatra) is a public journal and an authorized legal document of the Government of India published weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Urban Development.
(1) (2) (3) Common PROBLEMS FACED DURING TRANSLATION The translator sometimes brings in his own beliefs and experiences in interpreting a document. This could potentially harm the document’s accuracy, intent and effect. The translator could have a problem in comprehending the language too. There are some rare words whose meanings escape, not only the general public but also the dictionaries. Reading the original language poses a problem to inexperienced or unskilled translators. Language can be misused unintentionally.