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Down syndrome Essay Topics & Paper Examples

History of Special Education

Special education only began when parent-organized groups started advocating for disabled children’s rights. Prior to this, disabled children were considered crippled, dump, mentally defective or feeble-minded, (J. E. Wallace Wallin, 1924). They were therefore excluded from education in public institutions. By 1975, more than half of disabled children were denied an opportunity to education. (William N. Myhill, 2004) However, during the 1950s and 1960s several parent-organized groups of advocacy emerged. Such groups included the American Association on Mental Deficiency, Muscular Dystrophy Association, and Mental Retardation Panel by John F. Kennedy among others. These groups’ advocacy necessitated establishment of schools for children with disabilities, both at the local and state levels. The advocacy also led to state’s concern for special education….

Meanings of Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior

The learning of new information and the mental ability for an individual to apply reasoning or calculation and perception of relationships defines one’s intelligence. Retrieving and storing information in the general mental capacity, as well as adjusting to language fluency is also perceived as intelligence. So, intelligence is not only the learning and understanding of new information but it is the adaptation to that information being presented. The intellectual disability of a student is determined by the limitations the individual has in their intellectual functioning. Mental retardation is a below average intellectual functioning that exists due to the limitations with adaptive skills. These adaptive skills include social skills, academic skills, communication, and daily living skills, among others. There are different…