1. Describe the structure of DNA.
DNA made up of units called nucleotides, nucleotides are made up of three molecules components, a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010). The nucleotides are joined together by bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next producing a long chain of nucleotides resulting in a sugar-phosphate backbone (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010) the base containing nitrogen is the only part that is variable represented by, A Adenine, C cytosine, G guanine, and T Thymine. The sugars and phosphates form the backbone of the molecule and are on the outside. The bases point inwards horizontally. The antipoarallel strands run in opposite directions and are held together by hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, these two long strands twisted and wrap around each other to form a double helix. Hydrogen bonds between bases hold the strands together; each base pairs with a complementary partner: A with T, and G with C (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010).
2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?
The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual, Where as a Phenotype is the composite of an organism’s characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phrenology, behavior, and products of behavior (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010 an organism’s phenotype is a physical description of a certain trait that organism carries. An organism’s genotype depends on which genes that organism inherits from its parents whether it is homozygous dominant gene (AA), homozygous recessive gene (aa), or heterozygous gene (Aa).
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait.
DNA and RNA are long linear polymers that carry information in a form that can be passed from one generation to the next. In order to carry on a trait to the next generation the RNA polymerase has to bind with the promoter of the gene, which then opens the DNA double helix, from there a catalyzes the synthesis of the RNA molecule using one DNA strand as a template(Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010). The RNA transcript is spliced to produce mRNA as the tRNA molecules picks up an amino acid, the first tRNA then combines with the mRNA and ribosomal start the polypeptide synthesis (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010). From there the polypeptide elongates as the amino acids are added and a stop codon signal release the completed polypeptide and separation of the ribosomal unit (Simon, Reece, Dickey, 2010).