Course Essentials

Principles of Statistics (STA-201-GS) is designed to meet the needs of students in many disciplines and professions. The sciences, social sciences, and business are increasingly using quantitative methods. This course provides the tools and techniques needed to design studies that provide representative data for mathematical analysis and statistical interpretation. Topics include types of statistics, data representations (tables, graphs, and charts), measures of location and variation, probability concepts, continuous and discrete distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, and regression and correlation analysis. The emphasis of the course is on the application of statistical methods to real-world problems. In solving these problems, you are required to use the appropriate notation and formulas. Problems may be viewed as statistical studies, and as such you should be able to interpret results and justify conclusions. This course is also designed to measure your competency in quantitative reasoning/literacy, one of the nine institutional learning outcomes.

Course Objectives

The overall objective of Principles of Statistics is to provide you with the skills needed to perform statistical computations and analyze data. These

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skills have practical applications in many disciplines, including the sciences, technology, and the social sciences. Upon completing the course successfully, you should be able to:

CO1 Recognize basic principles of statistical design. CO2 Organize and summarize data into tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs. CO3 Calculate and interpret measures of central tendency and variation. CO4 Evaluate the likelihood a statistical inference is correct. CO5 Apply concepts of the normal distribution. CO6 Apply the appropriate procedures to test hypotheses. CO7 Examine associations between variables.

CO refers to Course Objective.

Required Textbooks

In addition to the Course Syllabus, you will need the following textbook and solutions manual to do the work of the course. These texts are available from the textbook supplier, MBS direct. Introductory Statistics, 9th ed., by Neil A. Weiss (San Francisco: Pearson/AddisonWesley, 2012). ISBN-13: 9780321691224 Student’s Solutions Manual to Accompany “Introductory Statistics,” 9th ed, by Neil A. Weiss (San Francisco: Pearson/Addison-Wesley, 2012). ISBN-13: 9780321691316

Course Structure

Principles of Statistics is a three-credit, twelve-week course consisting of six modules. The modules and their respective topics, textbook sections, and time frame are as follows:

MODULE

TOPICS

TEXTBOOK SECTIONS

WEEK(S)

1

The Nature of Statistics Descriptive Statistics

1.1–1.4 2.1–2.5 3.1–3.4

1 2-3

2

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

3

Probability

4.1–4.6 and 4.8 5.1–5.3 6.1–6.4 7.1–7.3 8.1–8.4 9.1–9.3, 9.5, and 9.6 10.1–10.3 and 10.5 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 13.1–13.4 14.1–14.4 15.1–15.4

4-5

4

Normal Distributions

6-7

5

Inferential Statistics

8-9

6

Measures of Association

10-12

Each module in the syllabus includes a brief description of the topics covered, a list of learning outcomes, study materials, and written assignments. In addition to twelve written assignments, the course requires you to take four modular quizzes and one final examination, and complete a final project. For details on the assignment schedule, see the “Course Calendar” and the individual modules. Adhering to the schedule outlined in the “Course Calendar” should ensure adequate preparation time for the exams and timely completion of the course.

Written Assignments

You are required to complete twelve (12) written assignments. Many of the written assignments draw on case study discussion exercises at the end of chapters with focus on application and data analysis. Click to view Written Assignment Grading Rubric. Assignments should be prepared electronically with a word processor, preferably using whatever equation editor comes with your word processing software. However, you may check with your mentor to determine if handwritten and scanned assignments are acceptable. (Important: Use the equation editor to insert equations into your word-processed document, not to create the document itself.) When preparing your answers, please identify each exercise clearly by textbook section and exercise number. Be sure to include your name at the top of the paper, as well as the course name and code and the semester and

Course Essentials

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year in which you are enrolled. To receive full credit for your answers, you must show all work and include complete solutions.

Quizzes

There will be four modular quizzes for this course. The quizzes should be taken after you complete the reading assignment, online discussion, and written assignments for each module. There will be various number of multiple-choice questions in each quiz, each worth one point. The quizzes will be worth 100 points each. You have 30 to 90 minutes to complete the quiz and may take it only once. The quiz is an unproctored online quiz. It is open book, but not open notes. In this regard you are permitted to use only a scientific (nongraphing) calculator and the authorized textbook.

Final Examination

Principles of Statistics requires you to take a proctored online final examination. The final exam is three hours long and covers modules 5 and 6 of the course (textbook chapters 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 15). It consists of twenty multiple-choice questions. The exam is open book, but not open notes. In this regard you are permitted to use only a scientific (nongraphing) calculator and the authorized textbook. But you are not allowed to consult a solutions manual, notes of any kind (including graded or ungraded activities), or any other reference sources or sources of information. The use of blank scratch paper for doing math calculations is permitted during online test administrations. For the final, you are required to use the College’s Online Proctor Service (OPS). Please refer to the “Examinations and Proctors” section of the Online Student Handbook (see General Information area of the course Web site) for further information about scheduling and taking online exams and for all exam policies and procedures. You are strongly advised to schedule your exam within the first week of the semester. Online exams are administered through the course Web site. Consult the course Calendar for the official dates of exam weeks.

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

Final Project

You are also required to complete a final project. This project will address a real world problem by designing a study, collecting data, analyzing the data, and writing up the results. See the Final Project section at the end of this syllabus for further details.

Grading

Your final grade in the course will be determined as follows: Written assignments (6 odd numbered) Written assignments (6 even numbered) Quizzes (4) Final examination Final project 18 percent 30 percent 12 percent 20 percent 20 percent

To receive credit for the course, you must earn a letter grade of D or higher on the weighted average of all assigned course work (e.g., exams, assignments, projects, papers, etc.). You will receive a score of 0 for any work not submitted. Letter grades for assignments and exams equate to numerical grades as follows: 93–100 90–92 88–89 83–87 80–82 A A– B+ B B– 78–79 73–77 70–72 60–69 Below 60 (fail) C+ C C– D F

Strategies for Success

To succeed in this course, consider following the preliminary steps and study tips outlined below.

Course Essentials

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Preliminary Steps 1. Read the entire “Course Essentials” section of the syllabus, making sure that all aspects of the course are clear to you and that you have all the materials required for the course. 2. Take the time to read the entire Student Handbook section of the course manual. The handbook answers many questions about how to proceed through the course, how to schedule examinations and arrange for proctors, and how to get the most from your educational experience at Thomas Edison State College. 3. Each week consult the “Course Calendar” in the syllabus to determine the sections in the textbook you are to study. The calendar also indicates the due dates for

submitting written assignments and when you should schedule your examinations. It is essential that you follow the calendar each week to ensure that you stay on track throughout the course. 4. Begin your study of statistics by reading the preface to the textbook. This will give you background on the subject matter, as well as an understanding of how the text is organized and a description of other materials available to you. Study Tips—Completing Assignment Modules To complete the assignment modules efficiently and effectively, consider following these steps: 1. Study the assigned sections in the textbook. Note: Studying the material in the text requires that you not only read but also work through the illustrative examples. As you study the assigned material in the text, note the highlighted definitions, key facts, formulas, and procedures. 2. Do the self-check practice exercises recommended in each module, and check your answers with the solutions in the Student’s Solutions Manual. These self-check exercises and solutions provide practice and models for modular quizzes and the final exam. 3. Refer to the Written Assignment(s) at the end of each module and complete the exercises therein. Prepare assignments in an organized way, leaving space on your paper for your mentor’s comments and corrections. Draw graphs accurately using electronic software whenever possible or graph paper (which you can then scan and insert into your assignment. Show all work, and use statistical notation and formulas appropriately (see “Study Tips—The Language of Statistics,” below). Submit the assignment to your mentor by the due date.

Study Tips—Preparing for Examinations To prepare for the examinations, consider following these steps:

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

1. Review the Learning Outcomes for each assignment module. 2. Review the key terms listed in the “Chapter Review” sections of the textbook. 3. Review your assignments and the corrections and comments provided by your mentor. Examination questions will be similar to assigned exercises.

Study Tips—The Language of Statistics As you begin to read the textbook, you will quickly discover that learning statistics involves learning a new language. As in all mathematics, the language of statistics consists of symbols and formulas that provide a shorthand for words, phrases, and sentences. Uppercase letters (X), for example, refer to data in a population (a population parameter), whereas lowercase letters (x) refer to data in a sample (a sample statistic). Other symbols serve as shorthand expressions for various measures. And Greek letters (e.g., , , and ) are also part of the notation. In statistics we use symbols to communicate results, and we combine these symbols into formulas (mathematical sentences) that define how to use the data to obtain the desired results. These are the conventions of statistics, and you will be expected to use the appropriate symbols and formulas when presenting solutions to exercises. As you study each section in the textbook and encounter new symbols and formulas, you may want to write them down in a list, along with their meaning (in the case of a symbol) or description (in the case of a formula). To illustrate: Symbol/Formula X x Meaning/Description Observation in a population Observation in a sample Population mean Sample mean Population standard deviation Summation Number of items in a population Number of items in a sample

(lowercase Greek mu)

x

(lowercase Greek sigma)

(uppercase Greek sigma) N n

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x

x n

Formula for sample mean

In the sample list given above, note the use of uppercase and lowercase letters in the notation of population (parameter) and sample (statistic), respectively. Be sensitive to population versus sample data and results, and do not confuse the notation. A list like the one illustrated above may provide a handy reference as you proceed through the course and perhaps help you focus on essential points when you prepare for the exams. Including a cross reference to pages in the text may also be helpful.

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

Course Calendar

Using the table of week-by-week dates in the General Course Instructions section of the course manual, write the dates for the current semester in the second column. In the last column, fill in the actual date for submitting each assignment and taking examinations.

MODULE

DATES

TEXTBOOK SECTIONS

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT/ Quiz/EXAMINATION

DUE DATE/ EXAM DATE

Module 1—The Nature of Statistics 1 1.1–1.4 WA1 and WA2 and Quiz 1 Submit by Sunday of Week 1 Module 2—Descriptive Statistics 2 3 2.1–2.5 3.1–3.4 4.1–4.6 and 4.8 WA3 Submit by Sunday of Week 2 WA4 and Quiz 2 Submit by Sunday of Week 3 Module 3—Probability 4 5 4.1–4.6 and 4.8 5.1–5.3 WA5 Submit by Sunday

of Week 4 WA6 and Quiz 3 Submit by Sunday of Week 5

Module 4— Normal Distributions 6 7 6.1–6.4 7.1–7.3 WA7 Submit by Sunday of Week 6 WA8 and Quiz 4 Submit by Sunday of Week 7 Module 5—Inferential Statistics 8 9 8.1–8.4 9.1–9.3, 9.5, and 9.6 10.1–10.3 and 10.5 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 WA9 Submit by Sunday of Week 8 WA10 Submit by Sunday of Week 9

Module 6—Measures of Association 10 11 12 13.1–13.4 14.1–14.4 15.1–15.4 Review WA11 Submit by Sunday of Week 10 WA12 Submit by Sunday of Week 11 Final Project

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MODULE

DATES

TEXTBOOK SECTIONS

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT/ Quiz/EXAMINATION

DUE DATE/ EXAM DATE

Submit by Saturday of Week 12 Final Examination (Modules 5–6, chapters 8, 9, 10, and 12–15; bring your textbook and a scientific calculator, but not your solutions manual or any other notes) Please remember to submit your DIAL Course Evaluation

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

module

The Nature of Statistics

TOPICS

Module 1 covers the following topics:

statistics basics sample vs. population random sampling experimental design

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 1, you should be able to: MO1.1 Recognize the difference between sample and population. (CO1) MO1.2 Explain the concept of sampling. (CO1) MO1.3 Recognize the components of experimental design. (CO1) Note: MO refers to Module Objective.

STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings

Study sections 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 in the textbook.

ACTIVITIES

Module 1 has two written assignments and one modular quiz. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 1

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Write a short introduction of yourself and your interest in statistics and provide an example you use statistics in everyday life.

Written Assignment 2

This written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of chapter. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number.

Case Study: Greatest American Screen Legends (p.31): Answer questions a, b, c.

Quiz 1 and Self-Check Practice Exercises

At the end of this module, you are required to take an unproctored online quiz. Quiz 1 contains five (5) multiple-choice questions based on related chapter(s) of Module 1. You can take it only once. To better prepare for this quiz, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor.

Self-Check Practice Exercises: 1.1 a,b; (sample vs. population) 1.34 a,b,c; (random sampling) 1.62 a,b,c; (experimental units)

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

module

Organizing and Describing Data

TOPICS

Module 2 covers the following topics: frequency table, stem and leaf plot histogram sample mean and median sample standard deviation distribution shape measures of central tendency measures of dispersion Five-number summary population parameters standard scores

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 2, you should be able to: MO2.1 Recognize types of data. (CO2) MO2.2 Group data into tables. (CO2) MO2.3 Use visualizations of data to improve communication. (CO2) MO2.4 Describe a set of sample data using measures of central tendency. (CO3) MO2.5 Calculate measures of variation a set of sample data. (CO3) MO2.6 Recognize the difference between a statistic and parameter. (CO3) MO2.7 Convert data to standardized score. (CO3)

STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings

Study sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 in the textbook.

ACTIVITIES

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Module 2 has two written assignments and one modular quiz. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 3

Write your response to the following question. We often hear you can lie with statistics. This is one way of saying statistics can be easily miscommunicated. Find one example of how statistics are miscommunicated and explain why there was a miscommunication and what you would do to correct this problem.

Written Assignment 4

The written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of chapter. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number. In your own words, interpret the data and note the shape of the distribution of the data provided from Case Study: Highest Paid Women (Chapter 2, p. 35). To help guide your interpretation, include the following:

frequency table, stem and leaf plot histogram sample mean and median sample standard deviation.

You must calculate results by hand (though you may use any technology of your choice to verify your answers).

Quiz 2 and Self-Check Practice Exercises

At the end of this module, you are required to take an unproctored online

quiz. Quiz 2 contains eighteen (18) multiple-choice questions based on related chapters of Module 2. You can take it only once. To better prepare for this quiz, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor.

Self-Check Practice Exercises: 2.7 a,b,c; (number types) 2.27 a,b,c; (frequency tables) 2.71 a,b; (stem and leaf plot) 2.75 a,b,c; (histograms) 2.101 a,b; (distribution shape) 3.15 a,b,c; (sample statistics; measures of central tendency)

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

3.73 (sample statistics; measures of dispersion) 3.125 a,b,c,d,e; (Five number summary) 3.163 a,b,c; (population parameters) 3.165 a,b; (standard scores)

Module 2

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module

Probability

TOPICS

Module 3 covers the following topics:

probability outcomes basic probabilities events rules of probability conditional probability multiplication rule/independent events permutations combinations basic counting rule probability distributions discrete random

variables factorials Bernoulli trials binomial distribution

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 3, you should be able to: MO3.1 Apply principles of probability. (CO4) MO3.2 Recognize rules of probability. (CO4) MO3.3 Apply counting rules to probability. (CO4) MO3.4 Calculate the mean and standard deviation for discrete random variables. (CO4) MO3.5 Calculate Bernoulli trials. (CO4) MO3.6 Apply principles of binomial distribution. (CO4)

STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings

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Study sections 4.1–4.6, 4.8, 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 in the textbook.

ACTIVITIES

Module 3 has two written assignments and one modular quiz. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 5 Write your response to the following topic. Using probability: How can you use probability to improve your chances of winning at a casino. Provide specific examples using concepts learned in this module.

Written Assignment 6

The written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of chapter. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number.

Case Study: Texas Hold’em (p.209): Answer a,b,c,d,e,f,g. You must calculate results by hand (though you may use any technology of your choice to verify your answers).

Quiz 3 and Self-Check Practice Exercises

At the end of this module, you are required to take an unproctored online quiz. Quiz 3 contains ten (10) multiple-choice questions based on related chapters of Module 3. You can take it only once. To better prepare for this quiz, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor.

Self-Check Practice Exercises: 4.9 a,b,c; (probability outcomes) 4.15 a,b,c,d,e; (basic probabilities) 4.51 a,b,c,d; (events) 4.69 a,b,c,d; (rules of probability) 4.112 a,b,c,d,e; (conditional probability) 4.135 a,b,c,d,e (multiplication rule/independent events) 4.181 a,b,c,d (permutations) 4.189 a,b,c,d (combinations) 4.195 a,b,c (basic counting rule) 5.7 a,b,c,d,e; (probability distributions) 5.21 a,b,c; (discrete random variables) 5.45 a,b,c,d; (factorials) 5.51 a,b; (Bernoulli trials) 5.61 a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,I,j; (binomial distribution)

Module 3

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module

Normal Distributions

TOPICS

Module 4 covers the following topics: shape of the normal curve properties of the normal curve area under curve z-score normal probability plots sampling distribution theory sampling mean standard error of mean sampling distribution of the sample mean

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 4, you should be able to: MO4.1 Recognize the principles of the normal curve. (CO5) MO4.2 Calculate area under the curve. (CO5) MO4.3 Develop and interpret a normal probability

plot. (CO5) MO4.4 Apply concepts of the sampling distribution. (CO5)

STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings

Study sections 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 in the textbook.

ACTIVITIES

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Module 4 has two written assignments and one modular quiz. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 7

Write your responses to the following topic. Outliers: We know many types of data fall into a normal distribution with most of the observations falling toward the middle. However, sometimes data are outliers or data that are very different – larger or smaller – from the rest of the members of the sample. Think of an example in the real world of an outlier and discuss its effect.

Written Assignment 8

The written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of chapter. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number.

Case Study: Chest Sizes of Scottish Militiamen (p.295): Answer a,b,c,d. You must calculate results by hand (though you may use any technology of your choice to verify your answers).

Quiz 4 and Self-Check Practice Exercises At the end of this module, you are required to take an unproctored online quiz. Quiz 4 contains ten (10) multiple-choice questions based on related chapters of Module 4. You can

take it only once. To better prepare for this quiz, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor.

Self-Check Practice Exercises: 6.23 a,b,c; (shape of the normal curve) 6.48 (properties of the normal curve) 6.54 (properties of the normal curve) 6.55, a,b,c,d; (area under curve) 6.59 a,b,c,d; (area under curve) 6.71 (z-score associated with an area) 6.75 a,b; (z-score associated with an area) 6.98 a,b (calculate z-score and find area) 6.123 a,b,c (normal probability plots) 7.2 (sampling distribution theory) 7.17 a,b,c d, e; (sampling mean) 7.49 a,b; (standard error of mean)

7.71 a,b,c,d,e; (sampling distribution of the sample mean)

Module 4

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module

Inferential Statistics

TOPICS

Module 5 covers the following topics: point estimate confidence intervals, population one mean margin of error t-distribution confidence intervals, sample one mean null, alternative hypotheses type I,II errors p-values critical values – one tail critical values – two tails pooled hypothesis variables pooled samples t-test confidence intervals – pooled samples non-pooled samples t-test confidence intervals – non-pooled samples paired t-test confidence intervals – paired t-test one proportion z interval margin of error for p one proportion z test two proportions z test confidence internal two proportions

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 5, you should be able to: MO5.1

Construct confidence intervals to make decisions. (CO6) MO5.2 Recognize errors in hypothesis testing probability plot. (CO6) MO5.3 Interpret p-values with hypotheses tests. (CO6) MO5.4 Determine if there is a difference between means. (CO6)

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STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings Study sections 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.5, 12.1, 12.2, and 12.3 in the textbook.

ACTIVITIES

Module 5 has three activities. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 9

Write your responses to the following topic. Errors in testing: Think of one example of a Type I and Type II error in everyday life and comment on the ramifications of those errors.

Written Assignment 10

This written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of Chapter 8. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number. Case Study: The “Chip Ahoy! 1,000 Chips Challenge (p.357): Answer a,b,c,e (NOT d). You must calculate results by hand (though you may use any technology of your choice to verify your answers).

Module 5 Self-Check Practice Exercises At the end of module 5 and 6, you are required to take a proctored online final exam. To better prepare for the final exam, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor. Self-Check Practice Exercises: 8.4 a,b; (point estimate) 8.32 a,b; (confidence intervals, population one mean) 8.62 (margin of

error) 8.81 a,b,c; (t-distribution) 8.93 a,b; (confidence intervals, sample one mean) 9.6 a,b,c; (null, alternative hypotheses) 9.22 a,b,c,d,e (type I,II errors) 9.50 a,b,c (p-values) 9.33 a,b,c,d,e,f; (critical values – one tail) 9.34 a,b,c,d,e,f; (ciritcal values – two tails) 10.9 a,b,c,d (pooled hypothesis variables)

Module 5

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10.39 (pooled samples t-test) 10.45 (confidence intervals – pooled samples) 10.71 (non-pooled samples t-test) 10.77 (confidence intervals – non-pooled samples) 10.142 a,b,c,d,e,f; (paired t-test) 10.148 a,b; (confidence intervals – paired t-test) 12.26 one proportion z interval 12.34 a, b, c, d, e, f (margin of error for p) 12.66 a, b (one proportion z test) 12.93 a, b, c (two proportions z test) 12.99 a, b (confidence internal two proportions)

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

module

Measures of Association

TOPICS

Module 6 covers the following topics: chi-square distribution goodness of fit test contingency tables chi-square assumptions chi-square test of independence linear equation definition graphing linear equations least squares criterion regression calculation and estimation sum of squares and r2 correlation definition correlation coefficient residual plot regression t-test

OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing Module 6, you should be able to: MO6.1

Recognize the characteristics of the chi-square distribution. (CO7) MO6.2 Determine if there is an association within a contingency table. (CO7) MO6.3 Represent the relationship between two variables as a linear equation. (CO7) MO6.4 Apply the regression equation to make predictions and extrapolate data. (CO7) MO6.5 Recognize the characteristics of the the correlation coefficient. (CO7) MO6.6 Determine the strength of correlation between two variables. (CO7) MO6.7 Make inferences from the results of a linear regression. (CO7)

STUDY MATERIALS

Textbook Readings Study sections 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 15.1, and 15.2 in the textbook.

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ACTIVITIES

Module 6 has three activities. Please consult the course Calendar for the due dates.

Written Assignment 11

Write your responses to the following topic. Association: We know association does not imply causation, but what does this mean in your own words. Provide and discuss an example of two variables that are associated but not by a cause and effect relationship.

Written Assignment 12

This written assignment draws on case study discussion exercises at the end of Chapter 14. When preparing your assignment, please identify each answer clearly by question and its number.

Focusing on Data Analysis: Using the data from Chapter 1: UWEC Undergraduates (pp. 3031), and answer questions a,b,c,d,e,f,g (UWEC Undergraduates, p. 666). You must calculate results by hand (though you may use any technology of your choice to verify your answers).

Module 6 Self-Check Practice Exercises At the end of module 5 and 6, you are required to take a proctored online final exam. To better prepare for the final exam, work through the following self-check practice exercises from the textbook first. Then check your solutions with those in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Do not submit your solutions to self-assessment items to your mentor. Self-Check Practice Exercises: 13.1 (chi-square distribution) 13.7 a,b; (chi-square distribution tables) 13.27 a,b,c; (goodness of fit test) 13.45 a,b,c,d; (contingency tables) 13.73 a,b (chi square assumptions) 13.76 (chi square test of independence) 14.1 a,b,c; (linear equation definition) 14.5 a,b,c,d,e; (graphing linear equations) 14.40 a,b,; (least squares criterion) 14.52 a,b,c,d,e,f,g; (regression calculation and estimation) 14.90 a,b,c,d; (sum of squares and r2) 14.110 a,b,c (correlation definition) 14.124 a,b,c,d; (correlation coefficient) 15.24 a,b,c,d (residual plot) 15.52 (regression t-test)

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SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS

Final Project

You are required to complete a final project. Please consult the Course Calendar for the due date.

Project Description

Statistics is about more than calculations. It is about turning data into information and using this information to understand the population. A statistician will be asked to help solve real world problems by designing a study, collecting data, analyzing the data, and writing up the results. As a final project, you will be asked to do something similar. Though the design and data collection will be done for you, you will be asked to analyze the data using the appropriate tests (ensuring the data are distributed normally) and write up the results, using statistical evidence to support your findings. Lastly, you will be asked to include recommendations, that is, apply the results to solve the real world problem. In your paper, explain why you chose each statistical test, figure, or procedure.

The problem:

Due to financial hardship, the Nyke shoe company feels they only need to make one size of shoes, regardless of gender or height. They have collected data on gender, shoe size, and height and have asked you to tell them if they can change their business model to include only one of shoes – regardless of height or gender of the wearer. In no more 5-10 pages (including figures), explain your recommendations, using statistical evidence to support your findings. The data found are below: Show Size 5.00 7.50 9.00 7.00 11.00 12.00 14.00 7.00 7.50 8.00 10.50 Height 63.00 70.00 70.00 64.00 72.00 72.00 76.00 66.00 71.00 68.00 71.00 Gender Female Female Female Male Male Male Male Female Female Female Male

Module 5

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11.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 10.00 12.00 6.50 10.50 12.00 6.00 6.50 10.00 9.50 11.50 14.00 6.50 13.50 7.00 9.50 13.00 11.00 6.00 7.00 7.50

71.00 65.00 67.00 70.00 69.00 69.00 65.00 72.00 73.00 60.00 64.00 72.00 69.00 70.00 75.00 63.00 77.00 68.00 68.00 72.00 73.00 62.00 66.00 70.00

Male Female Female Female Male Male Female Male Male Female Female Female Male Male Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Female Female Female

Only use results in the paper. You may show your work in an appendix, if you would like. Click to view Final Project Grading Rubric.

S-28

SYLLABUS for STA-201-GS