Everybody envisions a safer place and a peaceful state. However, recent events in the 21st century have extremely instilled fear and doubt to the people of the world. At present, it seems that the world has turned back to the dark ages of barbarian’s gambit of annihilation and it is challenged by mad men of chaotic beliefs and distorted ideals. Thus, it is no wonder that our everyday lives are confronted with the paranoia of deceit. Basically, the aging society is currently manifesting its senile nature which is represented by men who wander in its fragile state.
These men who make the society senile and fragile are characterized by greed and dogmatic ideologies that have resulted in human carnage, famine, and plagues of war. One wonders, what does it would take for the government to sanctify the protection of its people? Do the people desire to be protected or are they the ones who protect? These questions are profoundly manifested in the long debates of legislations specifically on counter-terrorism. Fortunately, there are still a few good men in pursuit of a better and safer place and a peaceful state.
In this regard, this paper will focus on America’s public policies that addresses the trauma and torments of terrorism that shocked America in the 9/11 tragedy. In addition, the paper will also discuss how the governments of the world interact with the foreign policy on counter-terrorism and how the implementation of such a policy would affect the way of life. The overall discussion of this paper will use a two-prong approach by discussing selective literatures and apply the ethical parameters of Clark Cochran, Lawrence Mayer, T. Carr and N.
Joseph Cayer in their book, ‘American Public Policy: An Introduction’. Literature Review The post 9/11 tragedy is a continuing challenge to American people that seeks justice and determination of further knowing the treacherous powers that be. It is not only America that suffers the trauma of the human carnage of the 9/11 tragedy but all of the allied governments and United Nations’ members as well. The political experts, policy makers, and various intelligence agencies perceive terrorism as a social ill and more than just a phenomenon.
It is also evident that the ultimate target of terrorists is the United States, being the world’s most powerful country, and this was proven during the 9/11 attacks. Moreover, the threats of terrorism beset the US’ homeland defense and crosses international borders to implement defense strategies with allied countries that are also potential targets of terrorist attacks. In short, terrorism can truly be considered a serious global threat. According to the report of the US National Counterterrorism Center (USNCC), approximately 14,000 terrorist attacks occurred in various countries during 2006 and resulted in over 20,000 deaths.
As compared to 2005, attacks in 2006 rose by 3,000 (a 25% increase) while the death toll rose by 5,800 (a 40% increase), which was also the case last year and was by far the largest number of terrorist incidents that occurred in the near East and South Asia. In addition, the USNCC (2007) disclosed that the two regions of East and South Asia were the locations of 90% of the nearly 300 high-casualty attacks in 2006 that killed ten or more people while only a total of five high-casualty attacks occurred in Europe-Eurasia, East Asia-Pacific and the Western Hemisphere (USNCC, 2007).
The research paper of Rohan Gunaratna of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR) in 2006 has reported expanded terrorists’ bailiwicks across the world. Based on his report, al-Qaeda and Taliban camps in Afghanistan trained between 70,000 and 120,000 Muslim youths to fight in the Philippines (Mindanao province), Indonesia (Maluku and Poso provinces), Myanmar, China (Xinjiang province), Kashmir, Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya, Dagestan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen and other countries.
It is clear that the expansive mode of the terrorists pose risk and threats to Southeast Asian countries. In addition, the carnage of terrorism would plunge the poor countries into insurmountable human casualties and ultimately result in the devastation of their economies. It may be then perceived that al-Qaeda is being condoned by its Islamic cohorts that could greatly influence the vast Muslim communities around the world. These perceptions attribute to the alarming concern of imminent danger that al-Qaeda which could continuously conduct its terrorist assaults basedon its political-Islamist-religious platform of Jihad (holy war).
Stages of Policy Analysis: The Framing of a National Policy Turning our grief into courage is a credo that basically calls for national recovery amidst terrorist threats that has enabled the Americans to overcome their grief and become courageous to surpass the inimical challenge. Indeed, America turned its grief into courage as manifested in condemning the ultimate cohort of terrorism in the US war in Iraq. The Iraq war has highlighted the US’s capabilities to disarm Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction and liberate the people from the tyrannical regime and set a new Iraqi government.
The US government has realigned its governmental functions to respond to its vulnerability to the continuing threat of terrorism and shared its burdens with allied governments. The framing of the national policy for an efficient homeland defense system has paved the way for the enactment of the Intelligence Reform and terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA ), which an act to reform the intelligence operational framework for efficient capability.
According to Terri Everret’s paper, “Procuring the Future: 21st Century IC Acquisition,” in January 8th 2008, IRTPA yielded a strategic defense program through the Office of the Director of the National Intelligence (ODNI). The main purpose of the ODNI program, according to Everret, is to avert conflict and preserve peace while specifically focusing on: (1) military, (2) proliferation, (3) foreign policy, (4) economics, (5) terrorism, narcotics, international organized crimes, (6) technology, and (7) regional conflict.
Furthermore, the ODNI program empowers the IRTPA to support the enactment of US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 2007 which modernized the National economic programs for Fiscal Year 2008. The overall representation of this development supports the US Counterintelligence Strategy of 2007 basically empowers the homeland defense system. Defining of a Policy From the previous discussions of issues as presented with a brief review of literatures and statistical data, it has been cited that the need of the US government and its people is to materialize and put into national perspective the country’s security.
In this aspect, the effectiveness, applicability, and efficiency to enact the US security and defense policy will be examined through the concept and ethical parameters based on the book, American Public Policy: An Introduction. i) According to the American Public Policy: An Introduction, the analysis of a policy requires the interpretation and examination of the fundamental conditions and rationale to enact a policy. Based on the book, “policy analysis is not value neutral but wants to discover the significance and importance to public values”.
In short, public policy is characterized by objectivity of reasoning and intention for a public interest. Furthermore, according to Cochran, et. al, a public policy must be dealt with classifications of purposes, types, and goods. In other words, the objectivity and rationality are combined factors that exemplify the importance, adequacy, applicability, and affectivity of the public policy to the life of the people and well-being of the state.
This analysis also coincides and adheres to the moral and social values. In this regard, one example is the threat on terrorism to American people which does not only address the enactment of IRTPA and other programs on State security but also embraces all forms of terrorism-related violence occurring within a domestic domain that may be inflicted by a common crime or street crime, which is commonly called community crimes.
ii) The classification of the policy is mainly to deter crime and enact on crime through imposing the punishment or penalty as provided by the rules of court and the due process of law. Another example of terrorism-related violence is the magnitude or scope of implication or damage by size and by number of casualties within household or community, especially when children and women are the victims of crimes.
These also include multiple murders with mutilation of the bodies, rape, burglary and arson, which are also considered as heinous crimes. It may be interpreted from the point of view of securing the state that the subsequent enactment of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2007, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 2007, and the Counterintelligence Strategy of 2007, focuses on counter-terrorism.
On the other hand, the enactment of the National Strategy for Homeland Security of 2007 embodies and embraces all of the provisions from previous policy enactments, which could be interpreted as reinvented applications and coherent enforcements within the domestic system of governance and national policy environment. In short, the scope of the applicability the National Strategy for Homeland Security of 2007 addresses the framework policy. Defining the Ethical Parameters Classification and Purpose for a Safer and Peaceful State
i) Classifying a public policy in a category of securing the public is being defined by the magnitude of application to preserving peace and order. Based on the book, American Public Policy: An Introduction, the enactment of a security policy would secure the interstate (domestic) and intrastate (foreign community) domains from the common crimes committed by the citizens of the state and the vulnerability of the state from external attacks being specifically characterized by terrorists.
Moreover, according to the book, the underlying claim on which classification of a public policy is relevant for the serious deficiencies in the ability of federal law enforcement authorities to recognize and respond to terrorist threats which is primarily due to the fact that individuals are often labeled suspicious on the basis of ideological, rather than behavioral grounds. It is evident that the classification of a policy to protect and secure the public would likewise define where and whom the policy should cover.
ii) The purpose is the deliberate intention of a policy to objectively address the circumstance or phenomenon affecting the well-being of the state in order to preserve the interest of the people. In this case, the interest of the people to live in a better, safer, and peaceful world is being threatened by terrorism. The purpose to live in a better, safer and peaceful state has deliberately and intentionally emanated from the rationale of the government to enact a policy that defines the purpose to protect, preserve, and uphold the sovereignty of people against forces of destruction.
According to US President George Bush, the purpose of enacting the US Homeland defense system is aligned with the interstate and intrastate security strategies and is a shared responsibility across the entire nation that has been developed for national culture preparedness [of the local tribal state and federal governments] and crosses international borders for collaborating secured international communities. Perspectives of A Safer and Peaceful State i) Based on Cochran, et.
al’s book, “enacting a public policy must be determined by the type of application and the goods it would impart to people and society”. The community represented by families must enjoy a safer and peaceful life to manifest a better living condition categorized by abundance and prosperity. From this statement, the book promotes a liberating concept of a safer and peaceful state reflective of a crime-free community and is being protected by a public policy that promulgates crime sanctions and the imposition of punishments upon committing a crime.
The implementation of the US Homeland defense system, through various policies or State Acts previously discussed in this paper, point out the perspective of a safer and peaceful state, and wholly emphasize a call for national recovery in socio-economic-political aspect. This is also linked to the efforts of the state to secure the lives of the people as well as to preserve the economic resources which could make the world a safer and better place to live in. ii) Cochran’s, et. al.
concept and ethical parameters applies in the overall perspectives of the US policy and State Acts for a safer place and peaceful state. In addition, perspectives in the point of view of interstate (domestic) domain protection on combating vulnerability and preempting terrorist aggression from intrastate (foreign) domain can be applied. The US Homeland defense system could be a fortress that shields the American community from terrorism, and while having that shield, the US manages to enforce its strategies in its counter-terrorism efforts across borders.
Furthermore Based on Cochran et. al’s book, a policy flows from analysis which is not value neutral but wants to discover the significance and importance to public values. Therefore, the US Homeland defense system has enabled an interstate (domestic) and intrastate (foreign) policy that defines the importance of the public values, which affirms and represents the various concept and ethical parameters stated in the book, American Public Policy: An Introduction. Conclusion
It is safe to say that the US government made a safer place for the American people, as manifested by its empowerment of Homeland defense and attainment of security measures. However, the militarism aspect in countering terrorism has somehow inflicted a wound on the flesh of sovereign people. In this connection, it can be perceived that it is also important to rectify the human errors committed in enforcing counter-terrorism measures that add the cost of human toll. The US security policy from its interstate and intrastate scope has its dimensional perspective in achieving a better place.
In addition, the “sharing of responsibility and burdens” amongst nations could be the pursuance of a world order. The creation and execution of the security and defense policies basically represents conceptual frameworks and ethics presented in the book, American Public Policy: An Introduction. However, it is not clear how the realities of implementation could be measured based on the lives of people in international communities. Furthermore, a safer place is perceived as a continuing perseverance in enacting state policies. It is also the moral basis of the existing policies.
In short, public policy that can promote a peaceful State is a policy that may genuinely harness the defense and security of people and the State itself. Works Cited Cochran, Mayer, Carr and Cayer. “American Public Policy: An Introduction”. 2006. Thompson/Wadsworth Publishing, 8th Edition. ISBN: 0-534-60163-4. Rohan Gunaratna. “Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Threat and Response”. 2006. Center for Eurasian Policy Occassional Research Paper, Series II (Islamism in Southeast Asia), No. 1. , Hudson Institute. 17 March 2008 from http://www. hudson.
org/files/pdf_upload/terrorismPDF. pdf. Terri Everett. “Procuring the Future 21st Century IC Acquisition”. (2008). DNI Senior Procurement Executive, Office of the Director of National Intelligence. 17 March 2008 from http://www. fas. org/irp/dni/everett. ppt. US Department of State. “National Strategy for Homeland Security”. 2007. Retrieved 17 ` March 2008 from http://www. state. gov/journals/. US National Counterterrorism Center. “Report on Terrorist Incidents-2006”. (2007). Retrieved 17 March 2008 from http://www. wits. nctc. gov/reports/crot2006nctcannexfinal. pdf.