Learning Team A was tasked to create a 15-20 slide presentation of a major health issue prevalent in the United States. The group chose the disease diabetes. Diabetes is a disease that affects how your body uses blood glucose. The glucose in your body is important because it is an important source of energy for the cells that make up our muscles and tissues. It is the main source of fuel for our brain.
Mellitus- Also known as Type 1 Diabetes,
TD1; formerly insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. Is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the
autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose.
Polydipsia (Increased Thirst)
Smell of acetone on the breath
Mellitus- Also known as Type 2;formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM),or adult-onset diabetes.
Mellitus-Is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar disorder where it is insulin resistance and relative to the lack of insulin.
Gestational diabetes starts when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Without enough insulin, glucose cannot leave the blood and be changed to energy. Glucose builds up in the blood to high levels. This is called hyperglycemia.
Gestational diabetes affects the mother in late pregnancy, after the baby’s body has been formed, but while the baby is busy growing. untreated or poorly controlled gestational diabetes can hurt your baby. When you have gestational diabetes, your pancreas works overtime to produce insulin, but the insulin does not lower your blood glucose levels.
levels. Although insulin does not cross the placenta, glucose and other nutrients do. So extra blood glucose goes through the placenta, giving the baby high blood glucose levels. This causes the baby’s pancreas to make extra insulin to get rid of the blood glucose. Since the baby is getting more energy than it needs to grow and develop, the extra energy is stored as fat.
This can lead to macrosomia, or a “fat” baby. Babies with macrosomia face health problems of their own, including damage to their shoulders during birth. Because of the extra insulin made by the baby’s pancreas, newborns may have very low blood glucose levels at birth and are also at higher risk for breathing problems. Babies with excess insulin become children who are at risk for obesity and adults who are at risk for type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes doesn’t cause noticeable signs or symptoms. Rarely, gestational diabetes may cause excessive thirst or increased urination.
According to the National Diabetes Education
Program these are the risk factors for diabetes:
45 years old or older.
Overweight – BMI > 23 for Asian American, 26 for
Pacific Islander, or 25 for anyone else. Have a parent, brother, or sister with the disease.
Family background is African American,
Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American,
or Pacific Islander.
I have had diabetes while pregnant (gestational diabetes) or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more.
Have been told that blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are higher than normal.
Have high blood pressure.
Cholesterol levels are not normal – HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels less than 35 or triglyceride level higher than 250.
Fairly inactive, physically active less than 3 times a week.
Have polycystic ovary syndrome (a set of symptoms related to a hormonal imbalance that occurs in females of reproductive age).
The skin around the neck or in armpits appears dirty no matter how much it is scrubbed. The skin appears dark, thick, and velvety. This is called acanthosis nigricans.
Have been told that have blood vessel problems affecting the heart, brain, or legs.
Set a weight loss goal – The key to preventing diabetes is to lose weight by eating healthy foods that are lower in fat and calories and being physically active. Set a goal that you can achieve, they recommend 5 to 10 percent of your current weight.
Make healthy food choices – There are many weight loss plans to choose from, but the DPP (Diabetes Prevention Plan) showed that you can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes by losing weight through a low-fat, reduced calorie eating plan.
Move more – Try to get at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five days a week. If you have not been active, start off slowly, building up to your goal. Any physical activity that gets your heart rate up will do; walking, dancing, swimming, biking, etc. You don’t have to do all 30 minutes at once, doing 10 minute sessions throughout the day is fine.
Diabetes is a endocrine systems disorder but affects
all systems of the body:
Eyes- Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in your eyes. This damage can lead to glaucoma, cataracts, structural changes to your retina, even blindness. When blood vessels are damaged, nerve signals can’t reach your eyes. In addition, having diabetes can lead to a buildup of pressure from fluid, which can compress nerves and other structures in your eye.
Having a high level of blood sugar makes your kidneys work harder to filter your blood, and they can become overworked. This can lead to chronic kidney disease and complete failure.
Having diabetes can also cause damage to your liver and cause a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This means your liver is having difficulty processing fats. You may develop scar tissue on your liver and a condition called cirrhosis.
Too much glucose circulating in the blood can damage any of the nerves in your body. This can lead to numbness, tingling and pain, especially in the legs and feet. If you develop cuts or sores you may not feel them, and they may heal very slowly. You may lose sensation in these areas, and if the damage is severe enough, amputations may be necessary.
In conclusion, diabetes can be potentially deadly disease, effecting the whole body if left untreated. It can however be easily managed through diet and exercise, perhaps even avoided entirely by practicing healthy eating habits and maintaining regular exercise throughout life.
Courtney from Study Moose
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