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Developmental Psych Core Questions Essay

Core Chapter Learning Objectives for PSY 104 Developmental Psychology 1. Explain the role of theories in understanding human development, and describe three basic issues on which major theories take a stand. (pp. 5–7) 2. Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development, noting the contributions of major theorists. (pp. 21–26)

3. Identify the stand that each contemporary theory takes on the three basic issues presented earlier in this chapter. (pp. 26, 27)
4. Describe the research methods commonly used to study human development, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 26–31) 5. Describe three research designs for studying development, and cite the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34–38) 6. Discuss ethical issues related to lifespan research. (pp. 39–40)

Chapter 2
1. Explain the role and function of genes and how they are transmitted from one generation to the next. (p. 46) 2. Describe the genetic events that determine the sex of the new organism. (pp. 46–47) 3. Identify two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (pp. 47–48) 4. Describe various patterns of genetic inheritance. (pp. 48–52) 5. Describe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur. (pp. 52–53) 6. Explain how reproductive procedures can assist prospective parents in having healthy children. (pp. 53–57) 7. Describe the social systems perspective on family functioning, along with aspects of the environment that support family well-being and development. (pp. 59–60) 8. Discuss the impact of socioeconomic status and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 60–63) 9. Summarize the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of children and adults. (pp. 63–65) 10. Explain how cultural values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions affect human development. (pp. 65–70) 11. Explain the various ways heredity and environment can influence complex traits. (p. 70) 12. Describe concepts that indicate “how” heredity and environment work together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 72–74)

Chapter 3
1. List the three phases of prenatal development, and describe the major milestones of each. (pp. 80–85) 2. Define the term teratogen, and summarize the factors that affect the impact of teratogens on prenatal development. (pp. 85–86) 3. List agents known or suspected of being teratogens, and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each.(pp. 86–93) 4. Discuss other maternal factors that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 93–95) 5. Describe the three stages of childbirth. (pp. 96–97) 6. Discuss the baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 97–98) 7. Describe natural childbirth and home delivery, noting the benefits and concerns associated with each. (pp. 99–100) 8. List common medical interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use, and any dangers associated with each. (pp. 100–101) 9. Describe the risks associated with preterm and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who survive a traumatic birth recover. (pp. 101–106) 10. Describe the newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal, including sleep characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby. (pp. 106–111) 11. Describe the newborn baby’s sensory capacities. (pp. 111–113) 12. Explain the usefulness of neonatal behavioral assessment. (pp. 113–114)

Chapter 4
1. Describe major changes in body growth over the first 2 years. (pp. 120–121) 2. Summarize changes in brain development during infancy and toddlerhood. (pp. 121–129) 3. Describe the development of the cerebral cortex, and explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity (pp. 124–125, 126) 4. Describe how both heredity and early experience contribute to brain organization. (pp. 125, 127–128) 5. Discuss changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness over the first 2 years. (pp. 128–129) 6. Discuss the nutritional needs of infants and toddlers, the advantages of breastfeeding, and the extent to which chubby babies are at risk for later overweight and obesity. (pp. 130–131) 7. Summarize the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers, and cite two dietary diseases associated with this condition. (p. 132) 8. Describe the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive, noting symptoms and family circumstances associated with the
disorder. (pp. 132–133) 9. Describe four infant learning capacities, the conditions under which they occur, and the unique value of each. (pp. 133–136) 10. Describe the general course of motor development during the first 2 years, along with factors that influence it. (pp. 137–138) 11. Explain dynamic systems theory of motor development (pp. 138–140) 12. Discuss changes in hearing, depth and pattern perception, and intermodal perception that occur during infancy. (pp. 140–147) 13. Explain differentiation theory of perceptual development. (pp. 147–148)

Chapter 5
1. Describe how schemes change over the course of development. (p. 152) 2. Identify Piaget’s six sensorimotor substages, and describe the major cognitive achievements of the sensorimotor stage. (pp. 153–155) 3. Discuss recent research on sensorimotor development, noting its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. (pp. 155–160) 4. Describe the information-processing view of cognitive development and the general structure of the information-processing system. (pp. 160–162) 5. Cite changes in attention, memory, and categorization during the first 2 years. (pp. 162–165) 6. Describe contributions and limitations of the information-processing approach, and explain how it contributes to our understanding of early cognitive development. (p. 165) 7. Explain how Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of early cognitive development. (pp. 165–166, 167) 8. Describe the mental testing approach and the extent to which infant tests predict later performance. (pp. 166, 168–169) 9. Discuss environmental influences on early mental development, including home, child care, and early intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers. (pp. 169–172) 10. Describe theories of language development, and indicate how much emphasis each places on innate abilities and environmental influences. (pp. 172–174) 11. Describe major milestones of language development in the first 2 years, noting individual differences, and discuss ways in which adults can support infants’ and toddlers’ emerging capacities. (pp. 174–179)

Chapter 6
1. Discuss personality changes in the first two stages of Erikson’s
psychosocial theory—basic trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt. (pp. 184–185) 2. Describe changes in the expression of happiness, anger and sadness, and fear over the first year, noting the adaptive function of each. (pp. 185–188) 3. Summarize changes during the first two years in understanding others’ emotions and expression of self-conscious emotions. (pp. 188–189) 4. Trace the development of emotional self-regulation during the first 2 years. (pp. 189–190) 5. Describe temperament, and identify the three temperamental styles elaborated by Thomas and Chess. (pp. 190–191) 6. Compare Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament with that of Rothbart. (p. 191) 7. Explain how temperament is assessed, and distinguish inhibited, or shy, children from uninhibited, or sociable, children. (pp. 191–193) 8. Discuss the stability of temperament and the role of heredity and environment in the development of temperament. (pp. 193–194) 9. Summarize the goodness-of-fit model. (pp. 194–195)

10. Describe Bowlby’s ethological theory of attachment, and trace the development of attachment during the first two years. (pp. 196–198) 11. Describe the Strange Situation and Attachment Q-Sort procedures for measuring attachment, along with the four patterns of attachment that have been identified using the Strange Situation. (pp. 198–199) 12. Discuss the factors that affect attachment security, including opportunity for attachment, quality of caregiving, infant characteristics, family circumstances, and parents’ internal working models. (pp. 200–202, 203) 13. Discuss fathers’ attachment relationships with their infants, and explain the role of early attachment quality in later development. (pp. 202, 204–205) 14. Describe and interpret the relationship between secure attachment in infancy and later development. (pp. 205–206) 15. Trace the emergence of self-awareness, and explain how it influences early emotional and social development, categorization of the self, and development of self-control. (pp. 206–209)

Chapter 7
1. Describe major trends in body growth during early childhood. (pp. 216–217) 2. Discuss brain development in early childhood, including handedness and changes in the cerebellum, reticular formation, and the
corpus callosum. (pp. 217–219) 3. Explain how heredity influences physical growth by controlling the production of hormones. (p. 219) 4. Describe the effects of emotional well-being, nutrition, and infectious disease on physical development. (pp. 219–222) 5. Summarize factors that increase the risk of unintentional injuries, and cite ways childhood injuries can be prevented. (pp. 222–223) 6. Cite major milestones of gross- and fine-motor development in early childhood, including individual and sex differences. (pp. 224–227) 7. Describe advances in mental representation during the preschool years. (pp. 227–229) 8. Describe limitations of preoperational thought, and summarize the implications of recent research for the accuracy of the preoperational stage. (pp. 229–233) 9. Describe educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory. (pp. 233–234) 10. Describe Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on the development and significance of children’s private speech, along with related evidence. (pp. 234–235) 11. Discuss applications of Vygotsky’s theory to education, and summarize challenges to his ideas. (pp. 235–237) 12. Describe changes in attention and memory during early childhood. (pp. 237–239) 13. Describe the young child’s theory of mind. (pp. 239–241) 14. Summarize children’s literacy and mathematical knowledge during early childhood. (pp. 241–243) 15. Describe early childhood intelligence tests and the impact of home, educational programs, child care, and media on mental development in early childhood. (pp. 243–248) 16. Trace the development of vocabulary, grammar, and conversational skills in early childhood. (pp. 248–251)

Chapter 8
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt, noting major personality changes of early childhood. (p. 256) 2. Discuss preschoolers’ self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concepts and the emergence of self-esteem. (pp. 256–258) 3. Cite changes in the understanding and expression of emotion during early childhood, along with factors that influence those changes. (pp. 258–259) 4. Explain how language and temperament contribute to the development of emotional self-regulation during the preschool years. (p. 259) 5. Discuss the development of self-conscious emotions, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial
behavior during early childhood, noting the influence of parenting. (pp. 259–261) 6. Describe advances in peer sociability and in friendship in early childhood, along with cultural and parental influences on early peer relations. (pp. 261–264) 7. Compare psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive-developmental approaches to moral development, and cite child-rearing practices that support or undermine moral understanding. (pp. 264–269) 8. Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, noting the influences of family and television, and cite strategies for controlling aggressive behavior. (pp. 269–272) 9. Discuss genetic and environmental influences on preschoolers’ gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior. (pp. 273–276) 10. Describe and evaluate the accuracy of major theories of gender identity, including ways to reduce gender stereotyping in young children. (pp. 276–278) 11. Describe the impact of child-rearing styles on child development, explain why authoritative parenting is effective, and note cultural variations in child-rearing beliefs and practices. (pp. 278–281) 12. Discuss the multiple origins of child maltreatment, its consequences for development, and effective prevention. (pp. 281–283)

Chapter 9
1. Describe major trends in body growth during middle childhood. (p. 290) 2. Identify common vision and hearing problems in middle childhood. (p. 291) 3. Describe the causes and consequences of serious nutritional problems in middle childhood, giving special attention to obesity. (pp. 291–293) 4. Identify factors that contribute to illness during the school years, and describe ways to reduce these health problems. (pp. 293–294)

5. Describe changes in unintentional injuries in middle childhood. (p. 294) 6. Cite major changes in motor development and play during middle childhood, including sex differences and the importance of physical education. (pp. 294–299) 7. Describe major characteristics of concrete operational thought. (pp. 299–301) 8. Discuss follow-up research on concrete operational thought, noting the importance of culture and schooling.(pp. 301–302) 9. Cite basic changes in information processing and describe the development of attention and memory in middle childhood.
(pp. 303–305) 10. Describe the school-age child’s theory of mind, noting the importance of mental inferences and understanding of false belief and capacity to engage in self-regulation. (pp. 306–307) 11. Discuss applications of information processing to academic learning, including current controversies in teaching reading and mathematics to elementary school children. (pp. 307–309) 12. Describe major approaches to defining and measuring intelligence. (pp. 309–310) 13. Summarize Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, noting how these theories explain the limitations of current intelligence tests in assessing the diversity of human intelligence. (pp. 310–312) 14. Describe evidence indicating that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence. (pp. 312–317) 15. Summarize findings on emotional intelligence, including implications for the classroom. (p. 313) 16. Describe changes in school-age children’s vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics, and cite advantages of bilingualism. (pp. 316–319) 17. Explain the impact of class size and educational philosophies on children’s motivation and academic achievement. (pp. 319–321)

18. Discuss the role of teacher-student interaction and grouping practices in academic achievement. (pp. 321–322) 19. Explain the conditions that contribute to successful placement of children with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities in regular classrooms. (p. 322) 20. Describe the characteristics of gifted children, including creativity and talent, and current efforts to meet their educational needs. (pp. 323–324) 21. Compare the academic achievement of North American children with children in other industrialized nations. (pp. 324–325)

Chapter 10
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority, noting major personality changes in middle childhood. (p. 330) 2. Describe school-age children’s self-concept and self-esteem, and discuss factors that affect their achievement-related attributions. (pp. 330–334) 3. Cite changes in understanding and expression of emotion in middle childhood, including the importance of problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping for managing emotion. (pp. 335–336) 4. Trace the development of perspective
taking in middle childhood, and discuss the relationship between perspective taking and social skills. (pp. 336–337) 5. Describe changes in moral understanding during middle childhood, and note the extent to which children hold racial and ethnic biases. (pp. 337–339) 6. Summarize changes in peer sociability during middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and friendships. (pp. 339–341) 7. Describe four categories of peer acceptance, noting how each is related to social behavior, and discuss ways to help rejected children. (pp. 341–342, 343) 8. Describe changes in gender-stereotyped beliefs and gender identity during middle childhood, including sex differences and cultural influences. (pp. 342–345) 9. Discuss changes in parent–child communication and sibling relationships in middle childhood, and describe the adjustment of only children. (pp. 345–346) 10. Discuss factors that influence children’s adjustment to divorce and blended families, highlighting the importance of parent and child characteristics, as well as social supports within the family and surrounding community. (pp. 347–350) 11. Explain how maternal employment and life in dual-earner families affect school-age children, noting the influence of social supports within the family and surrounding community, including child care for school-age children. (pp. 350–351)

12. Cite common fears and anxieties in middle childhood, with particular attention to school phobia. (pp. 352, 353) 13. Discuss factors related to child sexual abuse and its consequences for children’s development. (pp. 352–354, 355) 14. Cite factors that foster resilience in middle childhood. (p. 354)

Chapter 11
1. Discuss changing conceptions of adolescence over the past century. (pp. 362–363) 2. Describe pubertal changes in body size, proportions, sleep patterns, motor performance, and sexual maturity. (pp. 363–366) 3. Cite factors that influence the timing of puberty. (pp. 366–367) 4. Describe brain development in adolescence. (pp. 367–368) 5. Discuss adolescents’ reactions to the physical changes of puberty, including sex differences, and describe the influence of family and culture. (pp. 368–370) 6. Discuss the impact of pubertal timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex
differences. (pp. 370–371) 7. Describe the nutritional needs of adolescents, and cite factors that contribute to serious eating disorders. (pp. 371–373) 8. Discuss social and cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. (pp. 373–376) 9. Describe factors involved in the development of gay, lesbian, and bisexual orientations, and discuss the unique adjustment problems of these youths. (pp. 376, 377) 10. Discuss factors related to sexually transmitted diseases and to teenage pregnancy and parenthood, including interventions for adolescent parents. (pp. 376, 378–380) 11. Cite personal and social factors that contribute to adolescent substance use and abuse, and describe prevention and treatment programs. (pp. 380–382) 12. Describe the major characteristics of formal operational thought. (pp. 382–384) 13. Discuss recent research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s formal operational stage. (pp. 384–385) 14. Explain how information-processing researchers account for cognitive change in adolescence, emphasizing the development of scientific reasoning. (pp. 385–386) 15. Summarize cognitive and behavioral consequences of adolescents’ newfound capacity for advanced thinking. (pp. 386–388)

16. Note sex differences in mental abilities at adolescence, along with biological and environmental factors that influence them. (pp. 389–390, 391) 17. Discuss the impact of school transitions on adolescent adjustment, and cite ways to ease the strain of these changes. (pp. 390, 392–393) 18. Discuss family, peer, school, and employment influences on academic achievement during adolescence. (pp. 393–395) 19. Describe personal, family, and school factors related to dropping out, and cite ways to prevent early school leaving. (pp. 396–397)

Chapter 12
1. Discuss Erikson’s theory of identity development. (p. 402) 2. Describe changes in self-concept and self-esteem during adolescence. (pp. 402–403) 3. Describe the four identity statuses, the adjustment outcomes of each status, and factors that promote identity development. (pp. 403–406) 4. Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and evaluate its accuracy. (pp. 407–409) 5. Summarize research on Gilligan’s claim that
Kohlberg’s theory underestimated the moral maturity of females. (pp. 409–410)

6. Describe influences on moral reasoning and its relationship to moral behavior. (pp. 410–414) 7. Explain why early adolescence is a period of gender intensification, and cite factors that promote the development of an androgynous gender identity. (pp. 414–415) 8. Discuss changes in parent–child and sibling relationships during adolescence. (pp. 415–417) 9. Describe adolescent friendships, peer groups, and dating relationships and their consequences for development. (pp. 417–421) 10. Discuss conformity to peer pressure in adolescence, noting the importance of authoritative child rearing. (p. 421) 11. Discuss factors related to adolescent depression and suicide, along with approaches for prevention and treatment. (pp. 421–423) 12. Summarize factors related to delinquency, and describe strategies for prevention and treatment. (pp. 423–426)

Chapter 13
1. Describe current theories of biological aging, including those at the level of DNA and body cells, and those at the level of organs and tissues. (pp. 432–434) 2. Describe the physical changes of aging, paying special attention to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, motor performance, the immune system, and reproductive capacity. (pp. 434–438) 3. Describe the impact of SES, nutrition, obesity, and exercise on health in adulthood. (pp. 438–444) 4. Describe trends in substance abuse in early adulthood, and discuss the health risks of each. (pp. 444–445) 5. Summarize sexual attitudes and behaviors in young adults, including sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual coercion, and premenstrual syndrome. (pp. 445–449) 6. Explain how psychological stress affects health. (pp. 449–451) 7. Summarize prominent theories on the restructuring of thought in adulthood, including those of Perry and Labouvie-Vief. (pp. 451–453) 8. Discuss the development of expertise and creativity in adulthood. (pp. 453–454) 9. Describe the impact of a college education on young people’s lives, and discuss the problem of dropping out.(pp. 454–455) 10. Trace the development of vocational choice, and note factors that influence it. (pp. 455–458) 11. Discuss vocational preparation of non-college-bound
young adults, including the challenges these individuals face.(pp. 458–459)

Chapter 14
1. Define emerging adulthood, and explain how cultural change has contributed to the emergence of this period. (pp. 464–466) 2. Describe Erikson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation, noting personality changes that take place during early adulthood. (pp. 468–469) 3. Summarize Levinson’s and Vaillant’s psychosocial theories of adult personality development, including how they apply to both men’s and women’s lives and their limitations. (pp. 469–471) 4. Describe the social clock and how it relates to adjustment in adulthood. (p. 471) 5. Discuss factors that affect mate selection, and explain the role of romantic love in young adults’ quest for intimacy. (pp. 472, 474) 6. Explain how culture influences the experience of love. (p. 475) 7. Cite characteristics of adult friendships and sibling relationships, including differences between same-sex, other-sex, and sibling friendships. (pp. 475–476) 8. Cite factors that influence loneliness, and explain the role of loneliness in adult development. (pp. 476–477) 9. Trace phases of the family life cycle that are prominent in early adulthood, noting factors that influence these phases. (pp. 478–485) 10. Discuss the diversity of adult lifestyles, focusing on singlehood, cohabitation, and childlessness. (pp. 486–488) 11. Discuss trends in divorce and remarriage, along with factors that contribute to them. (pp. 488–489) 12. Summarize challenges associated with variant styles of parenthood, including stepparents, never-married single parents, and gay and lesbian parents. (pp. 489–491) 13. Describe patterns of career development, and cite difficulties faced by women, ethnic minorities, and couples seeking to combine work and family. (pp. 491–495)

Chapter 15
1. Describe the physical changes of middle adulthood, paying special attention to vision, hearing, the skin, muscle–fat makeup, and the skeleton. (pp. 502–504, 505) 2. Summarize reproductive changes experienced by middle-aged men and women, and discuss the symptoms of menopause, the benefits and risks of hormone therapy, and women’s psychological reactions
to menopause. (pp. 504, 506–509) 3. Discuss sexuality in middle adulthood. (p. 509)

4. Discuss cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis, noting sex differences, risk factors, and interventions. (pp. 509–513) 5. Explain how hostility and anger affect health. (pp. 513–514) 6. Discuss the benefits of stress management, exercise, and an optimistic outlook in adapting to the physical challenges of midlife. (pp. 514–517) 7. Explain the double standard of aging. (p. 517)

8. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid intelligence during middle adulthood, and discuss individual and group differences in intellectual development. (pp. 518–520) 9. Describe changes in information processing in midlife, paying special attention to speed of processing, attention, and memory. (pp. 520–523) 10. Discuss the development of practical problem solving, expertise, and creativity in middle adulthood. (pp. 523–525) 11. Describe the relationship between vocational life and cognitive development. (pp. 525–526) 12. Discuss the challenges of adult learners, ways to support returning students, and benefits of earning a degree in midlife. (pp. 526–527)

Chapter 16
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation, noting major personality changes of middle adulthood and related research findings. (pp. 532–535) 2. Discuss Levinson’s and Vaillant’s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp. 535–536) 3. Summarize research examining the question of whether most middle-aged adults experience a midlife crisis.(pp. 536–537) 4. Describe stability and change in self-concept and personality in middle adulthood. (pp. 538–539) 5. Describe changes in gender identity in midlife. (pp. 540–542) 6. Discuss stability and change in the “big five” personality traits in adulthood. (pp. 542–543) 7. Describe the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle, and discuss midlife marital relationships and relationships with adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents. (pp. 543–551) 8. Describe midlife sibling relationships
and friendships. (pp. 551–553) 9. Discuss job satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, paying special attention to gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp. 553–555) 10. Describe career change and unemployment in middle adulthood. (p. 556) 11. Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp. 556–557)

Chapter 17
1. Distinguish between chronological age and functional age, and discuss changes in life expectancy over the past century. (pp. 564–566, 568–569) 2. Explain age-related changes in the nervous system during late adulthood. (pp. 566–567) 3. Summarize changes in sensory functioning during late adulthood, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. (pp. 567–570) 4. Describe cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune system changes in late adulthood. (pp. 570–571) 5. Discuss sleep difficulties in late adulthood. (pp. 571–572) 6. Summarize changes in physical health and mobility in late adulthood, including elders’ adaptation to the physical changes, and reactions to stereotypes of aging. (pp. 572–575, 576) 7. Discuss health and fitness in late life, paying special attention to nutrition, exercise, and sexuality. (pp. 575–579) 8. Discuss common physical disabilities in late adulthood, with special attention to arthritis, adult-onset diabetes, and unintentional injuries. (pp. 580–582) 9. Describe mental disabilities common in late adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dementia, and misdiagnosed and reversible dementia. (pp. 582–588) 10. Discuss health-care issues that affect senior citizens. (pp. 589–590) 11. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid abilities in late adulthood, and explain how older adults can make the most of their cognitive resources. (pp. 590–591) 12. Summarize memory changes in late life, including implicit, associative, remote, and prospective memories. (pp. 591–594) 13. Discuss changes in language processing in late adulthood. (pp. 594–595) 14. Explain how problem solving changes in late life. (p. 595) 15. Discuss the capacities that contribute to wisdom, noting how it is affected by age and life experience. (pp. 595–596) 16. Discuss factors related to cognitive change in late adulthood. (pp. 596–597)

Chapter 18
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of ego integrity versus despair. (p. 604) 2. Discuss Peck’s tasks of ego integrity, Joan Erikson’s gerotranscendence, and Labouvie-Vief’s emotional expertise.(pp. 604–605) 3. Describe the functions of reminiscence and life review in older adults’ lives. (pp. 606, 607) 4. Summarize stability and change in self-concept and personality in late adulthood. (pp. 606–608) 5. Discuss spirituality and religiosity in late adulthood. (pp. 608–609) 6. Discuss contextual influences on psychological well-being as older adults respond to increased dependency, declining health, and negative life changes. (pp. 609–611, 612) 7. Summarize the role of social support and social interaction in promoting physical health and psychological well-being in late adulthood. (p. 611) 8. Describe social theories of aging, including disengagement theory, activity theory, continuity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. (pp. 612–615, 616) 9. Describe changes in social relationships in late adulthood, including marriage, gay and lesbian partnerships, divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, and widowhood, and discuss never-married, childless older adults. (pp. 619–623) 10. Explain how sibling relationships and friendships change in late life. (pp. 624–625) 11. Describe older adults’ relationships with adult children, adult grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. (pp. 625–626) 12. Summarize elder maltreatment, including risk factors and strategies for prevention. (pp. 627–628) 13. Discuss the decision to retire, adjustment to retirement, and involvement in leisure and volunteer activities. (pp. 628–632)

14. Discuss the meaning of optimal aging. (pp. 632–633)

Chapter 19
1. Describe the physical changes of dying, along with their implications for defining death and the meaning of death with dignity. (pp. 640–642) 2. Discuss age-related changes in conception of and attitudes toward death, including ways to enhance child and adolescent understanding. (pp. 642–644) 3. Cite factors that influence death anxiety, including personal and cultural variables that contribute to the fear of death. (p. 643) 4.
Describe and evaluate Kübler-Ross’s theory of typical responses to dying, citing factors that influence dying patients’ responses. (pp. 647–648) 5. Evaluate the extent to which homes, hospitals, and the hospice approach meet the needs of dying people and their families. (pp. 650–653) 6. Discuss controversies surrounding euthanasia and assisted suicide. (pp. 654–659) 7. Describe bereavement and the phases of grieving, indicating factors that underlie individual variations in grief responses. (pp. 659–660) 8. Explain the concept of bereavement overload, and describe bereavement interventions. (pp. 663, 665) 9. Explain how death education can help people cope with death more effectively. (p. 665)

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