The field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan is called lifespan development. Lifespan development takes a scientific approach in its study of growth, change, and stability. This development emphases on human development. Developmentalists study the course of development in nonhuman species, the most popular examine growth and change in people. In contrast I will focus on the ways people and myself change and grow during our lives, with the consideration of stability in our live span. Together, these findings suggest that we will go through different developments and stages from Infancy, through childhood and adolescence, and to marriage and parenthood.
11% of infants are born earlier than normal. Infants who are born prior to 38 weeks after conception is called preterm infants. When coming into this world I was born as a premature infant, I was born at 6 months due to my mother suffering from an illness called pneumonia. I was hospitalized for 4 months with tubes and monitors hooked up to me to help me eat, breathe and regain enough strength to go home to be with my family. Rupert (2006) discusses the prevention of premature birth, what you can do to prevent from having a premature baby. It is said that tension and stress can play a part and having a premature baby the less stress and tension on the body will prevent having a premature baby. Seeing a doctor regularly, taking prenatal pills, vitamins, eating healthy and making sure you have a good amount of rest can prevent premature birth as well. Being pregnant is a wonderful time for any women but it also require for you to be healthy as possible being pregnant can cause for you to go through a lot changing carrying a baby for nine months.
Also, depending on your body you can go through more than other women when becoming pregnant, if you didn’t go through anything with your first child sometimes you can have some minor problems with your second child that’s why it is important for you to take care of yourself when being pregnant. In my case I was my mother’s third child and coming down with an illness serious enough as pneumonia can be caused by stress and or from not taking care of yourself enough to remain healthy when pregnant. There are many factors on why prematurity will occur in women, rates of preterm births differ between racial groups, not because of race per se, but because members of racial minorities have disproportionately lower incomes and higher stress as a result Feldman (2014, p.95). Growing into the life cycles of infancy I stayed with my grandmother something I didn’t not find out until I was an adult. My mother expressed to me that she wasn’t able to care for me at the time because I was too small for her to feel comfortable caring for me at the time.
When hearing this it did take me by surprise and hurt me a little only because I felt like she could have said something sooner than when it came out to me. I felt like there was a little detachment there because my mother wasn’t caring for me the first couple months I was born and/or when I was released from the hospital. Hotelling (2004) states not all parenting styles are alike. What individuals do as parents depends somewhat on how they were raised as a child, what they observed in other families, and what they have been taught. Two very different styles have emerged: Attachment Parenting and Baby wise. Parenting One’s own developed style of parenting will probably fall somewhere between the two. Attachment Parenting is a highly respected approach that promotes securely attached children. The problems with Baby wise Parenting, however, have been known to include detachment, behavioral disorders, dehydration, failure to thrive, irritability, infant anorexia, and even infant death (Hotelling, 2004).Parenting is never easy.
Perspective parents are encouraged to seek out resources for support and information, starting now, to help ease the way. One thing is for sure: No recipe for parenting will guarantee a good night’s sleep every night or perfect children (Hotelling, 2004). As stated in the article Bowlby (1982) defined attachment as a child being “strongly disposed to seek proximity to and contact with a specific figure and to do so in certain situation, notably when he is frightened, tired or ill”. Typically, preferred attachment emerges clearly in the latter part of the 1st year of life, as evidenced by the appearance of separation protest and stranger wariness. Under usual conditions, preferred attachment unfolds gradually over the 1st year of life (Zeanah and Fox, 2004). Preferred attachments to caregivers may develop at any time after infants reach a cognitive age of 7 to 9 months, provided that the new caregivers have sufficient involvement with the child. Thus, young children adopted out of foster care or institutions readily form attachments to their new caregivers (Zeanah and Fox, 2004).
Zeanah and Fox (2004) states there are four patterns of attachment, secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganized have described individual differences in the organization of an infant’s attachment behaviors with respect to an attachment figure in this procedure. RAD was first introduced into the diagnostic nosologies just over 20 years ago, with the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. [DSM-III], American Psychiatric Association, 1980).The criteria were substantially revised in DSM-I. The disorder is defined by aberrant social behavior that appears in early childhood and is evident cross-contextually. Two patterns have been described, an emotionally withdrawn –inhibited pattern and an indiscriminately social –disinhibited pattern, each of which have been observed in children raised in institutions and in maltreated children (Zeanah and Fox, 2004).
Growing into an adult after finding out that I wasn’t raised by my mother the first few months I felt some emotional distress, I felt from looking back on my childhood that there were some favoritism between me and my other brother and sisters. Feldman (2014) states developmentalists believe a true emotion has three components: a biological arousal component (such as increased breathing rate or heartbroken), a cognitive component (awareness of feeling anger or fear), and a behavioral component (displaying that one feels unhappy by crying, for example). Growing up my father was in my life after I came home from my grandmothers, but only for short amount of time. My father was abusive to my mother which caused for him to break up and get a divorce. After the divorce we didn’t really see our father that because of how abusive he could be and once he moved out he moved back to his hometown of New York, NY. We spoke occasionally on the phone and he even visited from time to time but as time went on the calling and the visiting stopped.
It was very difficult to adjust to him not being there and not hearing from him the older me and my brother and sisters got. Meyer (2010) discuss the influence of children on women’s decisions to seek help when experiencing intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental effect on the wellbeing of victims and their children. Meyer (2010) states the role (unborn) children has been examined together with other demographic and situational factors to reveal their influence on victims’ help-seeking decision. The two items were used to measure the role of children, including victims’ pregnancy at the time of the abuse and children residing with the victim and witnessing the abuse. While the presence of unborn children (i.e., pregnancy) had no effect on victims’ help-seeking decisions, children witnessing the abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of general and more formalized help – seeking decisions. In conclusion, while the involvement of unborn children had no effect on victims help-seeking decisions, children who resided with the victim and directly witnessed the abuse had the largest effect on all examined help-seeking decisions.
Seeing my mother abused at a child does take a piece of you and the reality if you will be yourself in the same situation when you get older to experience being an relationship yourself, also the fact of dealing with the fact that your father has been in and out of your life does cause emotional and physical damage. You can grow up with bitterness in your heart not willing to love or open yourself to feelings and emotions that will help you bond with others or make it hard for you to fall in love. As a child you learn how too really love from your parents but how to love another of the opposite sex you feel that emotion from your father as far relationships with other men. Wilcox (2012) argues is parent abuse a form of domestic violence, in this situation I would say there are many similarities between domestic violence and parent abuse since both entail a constellation of abusive behaviors embedded in the family relationship. In both cases, the majority of victims/survivors are females /mothers. Both involve a continuing process of social harm requiring day to day management. As with domestic violence, parent abuse involves everyday stresses which shape a parent’s ability to ‘parent effectively ‘.
There are similarities but I would go as far to say same it’s a form of domestic violence because on the other hand had stated in the article, the parent has an ongoing responsibility to parent, versus making the option of ending or leaving the relationship inappropriate. If you have ever experienced love from your father how do you know how to love another man if your own father didn’t show you how a man is to love you? The role of the father in child development; parents don’t think having the father around while pregnant can affect the unborn child. As stated in this article studies investigating the role of the father in child development have focused on a range of different aspects of fathers and the father – child relationship, such as paternal emotional well- being, father – child attachment, and the quality of father – child interactive. The study have shown that fathers’ active and regular engagement with their children has a positive effect on children’s social, behavioral, psychological, and cognitive development later in life. In conclusion this study was meant as an exploratory and preliminary investigation of fathers; experience during pregnancy Vreeswijk,M.J.M.,C., Maas,B.M.A.,J., Rijk,H.A.M.,C., Bakel ,V.J.A. H., (2013).
Over the years as growing into an adult it has really been a struggle for me to maintain a healthy relationship with the opposite sex, because I am always questioning is this person who they say they are? Will they give up and leave and be abusive as my father was? Will I ever feel real love that I am wanting so badly to experience? As a young adult it was difficult to maintain a healthy longevity relationship or friendship, I would put more into the relationships and friendships and they would still end with my feeling being hurt because I was being so nice to gain and keep friends not knowing that it goes both ways it cannot be no one way street, when being in a relationship or friendship. I think this took me until I was almost 30 years of age to know that not everyone will treat you how you treat them. I was so naïve to think that everyone will treat you the way you treat them but a lot of people didn’t grow up that way. Every house hold is different and everyone is born into different lifestyles and parenting styles which causes them to react or act on what they seen as children growing up.
Being an adult it is very challenging you see how your parents held the family together and what surfaces one has to take in order to take care of an family there are so many ups and downs you will go through when coming into adult hood. For me I was so excited being able to do things on my own without my parents but then reality really hit when I couldn’t lean on my parents anymore for things because they too was adjusting to being on their own again without caring for their children anymore. Today, at 32 it is still a struggle as I am still growing into the women I was set out to be no one is perfect and it takes years for one to become fully mature and I know I will reach my potential success with growth, time, patience and having a healthy relationship with God. Some of the beliefs and I developed while growing up were in the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church is the Church that Jesus Christ established. Thus the Church subsists in the Catholic Church. However, members of other Christian churches and denominations are also in communion with the Catholic Church by virtue of their sacraments.
The accepted Churches possess fully valid sacraments, and are true particular Churches, whereas Christians are in communion with the Catholic Church on account of their baptism; still, this communion is impaired. The Church in one, because it is unified in Christ across regions. The Church is Holy on account of the grace of Christ given to it and the holy sacraments it provides. The Catholic Church contains the fullness of the Deposit of Faith, thus is it truly “according to the whole” and “universal?” Finally, the Church is Apostolic because its Teachings and power come from the Apostles themselves. Some of the beliefs I developed in the terms of right and wrong behavior were divorce, pre-marital sex, and same-sex relationships having a relationship with Christ always putting Christ and family first. The new Christian is capable of being a doer of the Word, enabled by the Spirit; then change in the problem areas can occur.
I gather information to understand the problem and the underlying issues. We build a Christ-centered relationship of care and trust. 2 Timothy 3:16-17 (NIV) states encouragement from God’s Word, outlining the certainty of being able to be equipped and strengthened to change with God’s help. “Spiritual development is likely a wellspring for the best of human life (e.g., generosity, unit, sacrifice, altruism, social justice) as well as for our darkest side (e.g., genocide, terrorism, slavery).
Using social science to examine this potent force in society and individual lives of young people has been neglected for too long” (p. 210). The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence seeks to ensure that this oversight does not persist. Spiritual development may be at a “tipping point” for becoming a major theme in child and adolescent development. A growing number of scholars in various disciplines have invested themselves in this field. The public imagination appears to be ready in numerous cultures, traditions, and contexts, all of which are struggling with social changes that threaten to undermine the spiritual lives of young people. Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., King, P.E., &Wagener, L.M (2005).
Meyer, S., (2010) Seeking Help to protect the Children? : The Influence of Children on Women’s Decisions to Seek Help When Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence. J Fam Viol 25:713-725, Springer Science +Business Media, LLC.
Michelle, R.A., (2013) The effects of maternal nutrition on fetal psychological development. International Journal of Childbirth Education.28.3:p90.
Effects on Children’s Health and Development. Psychological Medicine, Cambridge University, 40,335-334.
Rupert, L. (2006) How women can carry their unborn babies to term – The Prevention of Premature Birth Through Psychosomatic Methods. Journal of Prenatal & Psychology & Health; 20, 4; ProQuest Central pg.293.
Hotelling, A. B. (2004). Styles of Parenting, J Perinat Educ. 2004 Winter; 13(1): 42–44. Feldman, R. (2011). Development across the life span (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Zeanah, H., C, Fox, A., N (2004). Temperament and Attachment Disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Vol.33, No.1, 32-41. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss; Vol. Attachment. New York: Basic Book.
Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., King, P.E., &Wagener, L.M (2005). Spiritual development in childhood and adolescence: Moving the Scientific Mainstream.
Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., King, P.E., &Wagener, L.M (2005). The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescences.
Vreeswijk,M.J.M.,C., Maas,B.M.A.,J., Rijk,H.A.M.,C., Bakel ,V.J.A. H., (2013) Fathers’ Experiences During Pregnancy: Paternal Prenatal Attachment and Representations of the Fetus. Psychology of Men & Masculinity.