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Developmental Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is a field that studies the different stages of development of human psychology. There are many different models of development – theory of cognitive development by Jean Piaget, psychosexual stages of Sigmund Freud, stages of ego development by Jane Loevinger, model of hierarchical complexity by Michael Commons, stages of faith development by James W. Fowler, stages of psychosocial development by Erik Erikson, stages of moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg, hierarchy of needs by Abraham Maslow, etc. Erik Erikson formulated the stages of psychosocial development as an extension of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. Erikson proposed eight stages of normal human development: Infancy Toddler Pre-school School Adolescence Young adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood The primary conflict in infancy or…

Developmental homology between man and animal

According to Owen R (1848) as cited in one of the lecture notes, homology can be defined as the structural similarities found in species. According to him the organisms had a common ancestor hence a common plan was used to create them. For instance, proteins have a universal genetic code in all species. It is believed that the common ancestor had a similar genetic code hence the premise that species such as man and animal had a common ancestor. This has been used in the explanation of why animal and man have some similar physiological processes such as respiration and reproduction. Man and animal have been found to have similar plasma membrane. The plasma membrane has a phospholipids layer that…

Ptlls 008 Roles, Responsibilities

Important to define the terms prior to listing the entities which may impact on my work: Legislative requirement: A duty to act according to the law as defined in an Act of Parliament and usually enforceable through the courts. Code of Practice: A set of rules outlining how a person in a particular profession or situation is expected to behave. Statutory Code of Practice: A Code of Practice approved by Parliament and admissible as evidence in any legal action. The Children Act (2004) – Every Child Matters underpinned the Change For Children agenda. The Act came into being following the death of Victoria Climbie. The Act is applicable to children and vulnerable adults up to the age of 25. Focused…

Bolwbys theory of attachment

Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. (12mark) Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to the survival to allow the passing on of genes. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment….

Toilet Training

Many parents have questions about when the right time is, and what the best approaches are in order to toilet train their little ones. The truth however, is that every child is different. All the answers to the many questions just depend on what methods work best for the child at hand, however there are a few things for parents to keep in mind. When parents toilet train their children it is important for them to know if their child is ready, maintain patience, provide positive reinforcement/incentives. It is very important for parents to know if their child is really ready for toilet training. There is no specific age limit that a child has to start with; in fact many…

Developmental Psychology

The influences of childhood development have long been a debated issue, including the common argument of nature versus nurture. Developmental psychologists have continued to research the underlining influences of an individual’s development, whether it’s suggesting development predominantly arises from a biological process or an environmental process. While studying developmental psychology a clear understanding of developmental theorist is required, however it can be beneficial to apply two developmental theories to aspects of a real adult life. The aim of this essay is to apply two developmental theories to a developmental event in an interviewee’s life through a questionnaire. The aim of this essay will be achieved by providing clear identification of the developmental event in the interviewee’s life that will be…

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are two of psychology’s developmental forerunners, each one having his own theory behind personality and the elements of advancing through the stages of life. Erikson’s theories came after Freud’s and build on Freud’s original work. Both of these psychologists have some common similarities and some differences as well in life, their careers and how we use their work and theories still. Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg. Austria on May 6, 1856. When he was four his family moved to Vienna, where he would live and work for most of the remainder of his life. He received his medical degree in 1881 and married the following year. He had six children—the youngest of whom, Anna,…

TDA 2.1 Child and young person development

A child or young person’s development is holistic with each area being interconnected. When trying to understand a particular aspect of development you have to look at all the areas of development. You will need to consider a child’s social, physical, intellectual, communication and emotional levels and always remember to bring all these areas together to look at the child or young person as a whole or holistically. For example a trip to the local library can be broken down as below; A trip to the library can have differing results depending on the age of the child or young person. A child of 4 or 5 would choose a book appropriate to their age and would be expected to…

The Piagetain’s Model: Four Stages of Development

Children begin to develop language as early as infancy. By the time they begin school their language vocabulary has grown tremendously. There are several developmental stages that a child goes through from birth to adulthood. The Piagetian model includes the sensori motor period, preoperational period, concrete operational period and then the formal operational period. Children begin to learn at a very early age. The first stage of cognitive development is sensorimotor period. This stage begins at birth and lasts until about 2 years old (Otto, 2012). It involves the use of motor activity without the use of symbols (Wood, 2012). Piaget believes that in this stage children tend to systematically repeat inadvertent behavior (Seigler, Alibali, 2005). This stage is based…

Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages

To summarize this article is basically showing the identity development from a lifespan perspective. This article discusses the different developmental stages from childhood stages until the adulthood stages. In order to better investigate or research these stages they make use of Erik Erikson’s psychological theory to do so. After researchers did the studies they found different patterns of psychosocial balance which were found for each identity style with largely consistent findings. Included in this article are the research findings from empirical studies. It seemed for many individuals identity development is a lifelong process that ranges well past the years of adolescence. Summary of the Theory The person identified with this theory is Erik Erikson. Erikson’s psychosocial theory is composed of…

Children and young peoples work force

Understand what is required for competence in own work role. 1.1 describe the duties and responsibilities of own work.W hats in the contract hours Lines of reporting specific roles and responsibilities (behavioural support, supporting children and young people with special educational needs, supporting be;inhgual children and young people0 compliance with policies and procedures of the setting (behaviour, children and young people protection, health and safety, keeping up to date with changing procedures, keeping up to date with changes to practice). 1.2 explain expectations about own work role as expressed in relevant standards. standards relevant to own work role, eg national occupational standards for childrena care, learning and development ( NOS CCLD), national occupational standars for learning, development aqnd support services ( NOS LDSS) -in relation to own…

SHC34 2.1 Describe potential conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s right

There are many conflicts or dilemmas that could arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights. A conflict is disharmony between two incompatible positions, ideas, people or interests. A dilemma is a difficult situation arising because of a clash between two opposite positions where no one answer will satisfy both parties. Conflicts and dilemmas that can arise include bad behaviour displayed by children attending the day care, parents and carers disagreeing about certain ideas about the children, phones and other forms of communication devices may cause concern, particularly when carers breach the boundaries as to where and how they are allowed to use these devices, children taking risks, confidentiality, child rearing practices, family beliefs and cultural and/or religious…

Psychosexual stages vs. psychosocial stages

In psychology when the word development is mention to two theorists, stand out. These theorists are Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud being the father of psychology changed the technique of studying the development of individuals. Erikson was influenced by Freud but he felt that be underestimated other significant dimension that shape our development. They both agreed that personality develop is mostly an unconscious process and when it does happen, it is over time and has universal stages. They believe that personality is developing through a sequence of predestined stages. In each stage, there is crisis that needs to be conquered in order to advance to the next stage in life. However, Freud believed the libido, person’s biology and basic…

Engage in personal development in health, social care or children’s and young people’s setting.

1.1 Describe the duties and responsibilities of your own work role. The day to day care and supervision of children aged 3months to a 1year. Planning and implementing with the staff team activities and resources to provide a rich learning environment. To be a key person I am responsible for a small group of around 6-8 children, observing and recording their learning and development. This involves taking pictures for their learning journals and commenting on their day to day activities. We also observe their current development to ensure they are at the right stage for their age in terms of speech & language. It also involves building a positive and supportive partnership with their parents/carers and families, respecting and valuing…

Piaget vs Vygotsky

Initially the study of lifespan development rose due to Darwin’s desire to understand human evaluation (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Developmental psychology is concerned with the changes of people during their life span including motor skill changes, problem solving changes, moral understanding changes, but it is originally concerned with these changes during infancy and childhood (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Without any doubts, Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), are two major contributors who have affected developmental psychology with their theories on human development. According to Lerman (1996), Piaget and Vygotsky belong to two different traditions; Piaget belongs to the constructivism perspective that sees learning as construction and Vygotsky to the activity theory perspective that sees learning as an appropriation. According…

Abducted by a UFO: prevalence information affects young children’s false memories for an implausible event

SUMMARY This study examined whether prevalence information promotes children’s false memories for an implausible event. Forty-four 7–8 and forty-seven 11–12 year old children heard a true narrative about their first school day and a false narrative about either an implausible event (abducted by a UFO) or a plausible event (almost choking on a candy). Moreover, half of the children in each condition received prevalence information in the form of a false newspaper article while listening to the narratives. Across two interviews, children were asked to report everything they remembered about the events. In both age groups, plausible and implausible events were equally likely to give rise to false memories. Prevalence information increased the number of false memories in 7–8 year…

Supporting teaching and learning in schools

Children are expected to meet milestones in their development which are given as a broad average, as all children are different. For instance, one child may have a different upbringing to another, which could affect their learning ability. They learn with different areas of development that include physical, emotional, behavioural, communication, intellectual and social development. At different ages children learn to do new things. These have been separated below into age ranges 0-3 years, 3-7 years, 7-12 years, 12-16 years and 16-19 years Physical Development Physical development helps babies and children to improve their skills and co-ordination. It also helps with control and movement. Children learn from a young age, how important doing physical activity is and it helps them…

Promote young children physical activity and mivement skills

1.1 Explain why physical activity is important to the short and long term health and well being of children. Physical activity is an integral part of health and well being in children.Our bodies also require physical activity in order to be healthy.Understanding and supporting physical activity, will help children have the right foundation for a healthy and happy life.Positive experiences with physical activity at a young age promotes the growth if strong bones and muscles, help to develop good posture and balance, obesity risk and chronic disease risk infection are reduced. A long-term health benefit will be that children will have a stronger immune system.Children are less likely to become overweight and will have better control of their body, children…

Evaluation of Maladaptive Behavior

Maladaptive behavior is commonly observed in children who have troubled family lives or low self esteem (Maladaptive Behavior, 2003). In this case, there could be several reasons that the child is exhibiting and engaging in maladaptive behavior related to his environment at home. Using a variety of theories of moral development as well as a question-answer evaluation of the parenting styles of the child’s parents, the maladaptive behavior seen in the child as well as a solution will try to be understood. Different types of maladaptive behavior are attributed to different problems. While most parents simply believe that their child is misbehaving, maladaptive behavior is usually classified in groupings such as attention-seeking or revengeful, behavior inappropriateness (Maladaptive Behavior, 2003). The…

Graded unit development stage

Abstract The purpose of this project was to create a house corner, so the child-minder and her assistants are able to assess the children in their care more easily. As well as having somewhere for the children to be able to go and role/pretend play. The aim of the project was too: To lead the development of creating the house corner, within the child-minding setting • To resource a house corner facility in my childminding setting The methods were completed by interviewing child-minder’s and giving parents questionnaires to get their opinions on role play and the house corner. It was found that there are mixed views regarding role play, role play areas and role play to assist assessments. My assistants…

Te Whariki and Concepts of Play

How important is play to children’s life? Is it just for fun, or is it actually a passage for children to learn? According to a research conducted in French and Canadian schools, children who spent one-third of school time engaging in physical activity were “increased in fitness, improved attitudes, and slight improvements in test scores.” And the outcomes correspond with nearly 200 other studies suggesting that “physical activity supports learning.” (Olga S, 2003.) In this essay, I am going to discuss the influence of play on children’s development and learning, by referring to Vygotsky and Parten’s theories and Te Whariki. What is play? Play is a significant part of children’s development, and it is also a part of their nature….

Sequence involves patterns

Beginning to realise others are separate beings from themselves, imitates others and tries out ways of behaving in play.  Babbling sounds begin,laugh and chuckle to show enjoyment.  Recognise familiar people at 6 metres, drops toys deliberately and pick them up.  Sort object s by size and type,understand two or three simple things to do at once.  Developing ability to think abstractly, can question sources of information. Fluent speaker, increasing use of peer influenced. Adolescence from 13 – 19 years discuss the following terms and complete a defination for each of them. Sequence of development. Sequence means the definite pattern to a child developing example toddler being able to walk before they can run. Some aspects of developments follow a definite…

Understanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment

1. Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development The function of assessment in learning and development is primarily to provide a measure of the students progress. Assessment is carried out through formative (checks throughout the course), passive (to test against previous marks), and/ or summative (at end of course) activities to help the learner see their development whilst allowing the Assessor to give valuable feedback when appropriate. Its purpose is to measure the learners understanding of the subject against the anticipated outcomes set by the criteria. For example, assessment provides clear measurement and recording of achievement during a course that provides identification of individual achievement or learners’ needs. This captures evidence of learners understanding of a task prior…

Play work principles

The drive for children to play is inbuilt in our genetic makeup, almost an instinct or an impulse. Children learn through play their world around them. As the Play work principle No1 states: ‘’ All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and well-being of individuals and communities.’’ A child will choose over anything else to ‘play’ weather they are out shopping, eating a meal, and learning at school. Children have the ability to turn anything or object into a fun and exciting adventure. Play is a necessary if not vital part of a child’s development. Children naturally learn…

Erik Erikson’s Eight Developmental Stages

Development theories are psychological stages of life. Erik Erikson is best known for his stages of psychosocial development and coining the term ‘identity crisis’. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best known theories of personality. Though similar to Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of 8 stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosocial stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experiences across the whole lifespan. Erik Erikson’s Eight Developmental Stages Erik Erikson is one of the best known neo-Freudians in psychological history. He Grew up in Europe and spent most of his young adult life under the direction of Sigmund Freud. Erikson’s psychosocial development model was heavily influenced by Freud, and shares a number…

Developmental Delays

1 in every 6 U.S. children are diagnosed with a developmental disability, according to a new Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention study published online in the journal Pediatrics Monday. The represents an increase of 17% between 1997 and 2008 alone. Child development refers to the process in which children go through changes in skill development during predictable time periods, called developmental milestones. Developmental delay occurs when children have no reached these milestones by the expected time period. For example, if the normal range for learning to walk is between 9 and 15 months, and a 20-month-old child has still not begun walking, this would be considered a developmental delay. Developmental delays can occur in all five areas of…

Prosocial Behaviour

Prosocial behaviors are voluntary behaviors made with the intention of benefiting others (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998). This definition carefully circumvents the potential benefits to the person performing the prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is often accompanied with psychological and social rewards for its performer. In the long run, individuals can benefit from living in a society where prosociality is common (which, in evolutionary terms, increases reproductive potential). It has therefore been difficult for researchers to identify purely altruistic behaviors, benefiting only the recipient and not the performer. Nevertheless, behaviors benefiting others, but whose main goal is self-advantageous (e.g. cooperative behaviors intended to obtain a common resource), typically are not considered prosocial. Typical examples include: volunteering; sharing toys, treats, or food with…

Child Developmental Theorists

Introduction Over many years, development theories have been made about the development of children and the stages they move through in order to grow and mature. There are five stages of childhood development; cognitive, physical, social & emotional and moral & spiritual. In this report, there will be a focus on three types of development theories. The three development theories that will be researched in this report are Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Erik Erikson (1902-1994) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970). Developmental Theory One- Jean Piaget 4.1Jean Piaget was born on the 9th August 1896 in Neuchatel which is in the Francophone region of Switzerland. As a young boy he was always interested in biology and the natural world. He attended the University…

Life Span Development and Personality

Today the topic of discussion will focus on the famous Sigmund Freud and his viewpoints on developmental psychology. This discussion seeks to answer four questions about Sigmund Freud’s life. The first topic is Sigmund Fraud’s influences and environment in psychological development. Second the discussion seeks to reveal Sigmund Freud’s view of family issues or support systems that influenced Freud’s developmental growth and adjustment. Third the discussion seeks to explain two different theories of personality. The discussion seeks to explain how each theory differs in terms of the explanation of Freud’s unique pattern and traits. The fourth and final topic of discussion seeks to explain the theatrical approach that explains both Freud’s behaviors and achievements. The reason this paper chose to…