The question of development of students in their childhood is extremely vital that has to be tackled carefully, if not various problems will arise not only at the individual level but also at the national level.
To improve the condition, the sanction of fund by the government alone is not sufficient to solve the problems but question remains at the top for its use in right direction at the right time in right amount with consideration of grant, method of constructing the children in the limitation of time and space of adults, the capacity of the children for their success, the implementation of art in their education life with the question of implementation of their education in the development of the community with the help of after school program.
If the problem is solved tactfully and effectively, the manifold benefit can be had for the development of the students. The proper implementation of the after school program will bring out the goodness in the students to the society in proper manner. The creativity, which is present in every student by birth, will come out to the society to give strength not only to the students themselves but also to the nation.
The article ‘Children “At Risk”: Constructions of Childhood in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Federal After-School Program’ by Sharon Verner Chappell is not only an informative one but also a fine creation of work of literature. This article may be termed as a vital literature, though it an article, in the contemporary situation due its wide range of data and analysis of the situation of the students of any country. The effectiveness of the article is without the any boundary of the community, language and the nations.
The sanction of $4. 5 billion by U. S. government for after school programs through the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (Chappell, S. V. 2006) is an independent variable if we consider the fact about the budget allocation. The amount is decided at the time of budget and at the time of budget preparation other needs are not taken into accounts. Though the actual amount spent will become dependent variable when the number of school and students are taken into consideration.
Another example of dependant variable can be seen as the number of good performing students that is directly proportional to increased skill in study and inversely proportional to decreased number of adverse behavior like teen pregnancy. Sanctioning money is very much essential for any project to be completed, considering this assumption the US government has sanctioned the money amount. This may be considered as an important hypothesis. A hypothesis that “children are active and academically successful (i. e. productive) when they attend a state regulated educational program, whereas those children who do not attend such programs are passive, unproductive, unsuccessful, and by extension, perhaps, not good people” is cited in the article by Chappell (2006). This Operational Research Question is universally acclaimed and it is studied here in the context appropriately. “The students and the parents both are needed high attention of care and support when they are from high poverty family”. This thought is also implemented in the article.
When students are in low-performing school their self-performance is also decreased. In addition to this hypothesis another one like “when art is introduced in the curriculum, the performance of the students are better many fold from previous”. Another citation by Chappell (2006) from Vadeboncoeur (2005,123), is as ‘notions of time and space can be used “to map institutional and narrative landscapes of students. “‘ This is also an important operational research. The definition of term by the article writer is provided in between the sentence by proper explanation in next step in the advancement of the description.
After stating some policy, additional information is provided to describe the policy, which act as invisible definition of the term in the article. Some time the definition is given in bracket as in “reduce the number of children in self-care (“latchkey children” who take care of themselves)”. The meaning of implemented sentence “reduce the number of children in self-care” in given in the bracket in later part. Population and sampling procedure is informative and given in between sentence without any tabular form.
This keeps the flow of the article readable and enjoyable. One example of this in article is “ Since 2003, 6,800 rural and urban public schools have been served around the country…”. Another sampling in the article is given at proper time and places with proper citation method to avoid the ambiguity due to copyright with gives the article a good ornamental decorating. Data source are very huge and the data are collected from the scholarly and valuable articles all related to the subject matter of the article.
The tireless, extensive and enthusiastic efforts are given to collect the data from various books, magazines and the websites. The proper care has been taken to collect the data after exhaustive study of the collected materials to produce the article. The data are collected with proper estimation and measurement and the authenticity cannot be suspected as the whole matter is taken from the scholarly articles, authentic magazines and popular books. The psychological and mental estimation of the children are provided with the article with various hypothesis and theory.
The data are not provided in any tabular form but are scattered throughout the articles in the manner of information with full lucrative and informative sentence. In the beginning of the article “amount of $4. 5 million” is mentioned as the sanctioned amount for 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC). Another data is “6800 rural and public school” but in no any data table. Presentation and interpretation of findings are in very intelligent and economical manner.
The various divisions have been done with different sub-heading the article to provide the information in proper and chorological manner. The required data and information can be easily had due to the excellent presentation of the article. Findings have proper interpretation and placed at appropriate place. In this article main theme is the construction of childhood with the help of the ‘after school programs’ to be implemented with the help of various funds allocations by concerned institutions. The methods are described to obtained good results by good students.
The need for improvement of economically improvised school along with the economically downtrodden family is emphasized. The need of arts is very much essential for the student to become a good student. Though the article is exhaustive in information and description in the problems mentioned in the titles, the need for further Research cannot be denied. There is a need to study the personal behavior of the students at the time of after school program. Many students may not be interested in such program.
So they cannot be forced to do the implemented programs but s/he should be given proper attention to find out the actual need and interest of the students. There is need to conduct the research in the area of students behavior and their interests in the study at the very early age. Strength of the study remains in the area of research. The extensive and exhaustive research is done in proper subject matter. The method of citation is proper and the information put at proper places with the good structure of the paragraph with the flow of the information in one proper direction is always advancing.
Weakness of the study is in the method of representation of the data in tabular forms without any comparison method. The compared data would have given better understanding of the situation of the students. The poverty level of the parents of the students and the economically degraded school with opposite situation could have been compared in tabular form for better understanding. The various opinions of the parents and the students could have given better improvement in the study.