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Development of personality Essay

When studying human behavior, specifically focusing on the development of personality and crucial to how a person or individual conducts him/herself, psychology offers a variety of dimensions. The concept of personality is central to the attempt to understand oneself and others and is part of the way in which it accounts for the differences that contribute to people’s individuality. Psychologists have been particularly concerned with shaping of the personality in relation to genetic and environmental influences. People have been fortunate that the study of human personality has been thriving and fruitful.

Individuals can choose from as many models they can to help them see themselves better and maintain good relationships. Personality is more than poise, charm, or physical appearance. It includes habits, attitudes, and all the physical, emotional, social, religious and moral aspects that a person possesses. However, to be more precise, the explicit behavioral styles covered in the course, perhaps, best captivate an individual’s personality and how he/she is understood. With the different behavioral styles, an overall pattern of various characteristics is seen.

Like a “psychograph,” a person’s profile is pulled together and at a glance, the individual can be compared with other people in terms of relative strengths and weaknesses (Corey 2005). Personality is defined as integrated general characteristics of the individual’s total behavior and his or her unique adjustment in the environment. Personality theory is a set of assumptions concerning human behavior together with rules for relating these assumptions and definitions to permit their interaction with empirical or observable events.

Personality psychology is a scientific study of mental functioning concerning internal drives, inner motive, repressed feelings, thoughts, and conflicts as the nature of personality (Feist and Feist, 2006). Behavior is described and analyzed. On this basis, an attempt to predict behavior is possible, and although this may not thoroughly and completely be accomplished in some endeavors, the basic understanding then is that there are certain expectations concerning how any person would act or decide upon things that are within his conscious awareness.

Psychology is of great importance to man since psychological problems are common to group relations, in whatever framework a person or group of individuals come from. The goals of treatment for instance, using the psychodynamic model, include alleviating patient of the symptoms which specifically works to uncover and work through unconscious conflict. The task of psychodynamic therapy is “to make the unconscious conscious to the patient” (“Models of abnormality”, National Extension College Trust, Ltd).

Employing the psychodynamic viewpoint, the therapist or social scientist believes that emotional conflicts, or neurosis, and/or disturbances in the mind are caused by unresolved conflicts which originated during childhood years. The treatment modality frequently used includes dreams and free association, at times hypnosis (as preferred by either the therapist or by the client). In the integrated or eclectic approach the goal of the therapy is not just relief to the patient or client.

Although an immediate relief is very helpful, this may not always be the case in most illnesses. The goal as mentioned is to provide long-term reduction of the symptoms and the occurrence of the disease altogether if possible. The management then is not impossible but neither is this easy. Specifically, the counselee or patient must want to heal or believe that there is going to be curative effects in the process. It presupposes that he/she must learn to trust the therapist in his/her capabilities as well in leading or facilitating the changes or modifications.

It is very much essential that (in the perspective of a cognitive-behaviorist) that the client understands ownership to the deeds and choices in thought patterns he/she made are crucial to the recurring or occurring condition that s/he experiences (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). Moreover, the identification of specific treatments or interventions according to the diagnosed issue will be accommodated and implemented based on the chosen treatment modalities fit with the therapeutic approach utilized.

It may be a single modality based on a single approach (e. g. learning principles and desensitization for a patient with specific phobias) or it maybe a combination of many modalities (CBT, Rogerian, Phenomenological, or Family systems) (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). ~Promoting therapy Psychotherapists believe that therapy contributes a lot to the improvement of the psychological condition of the client (Snyder, 1994). Therapy can come in many varied forms and the use of these or any of these has been proven to be of vital significance to clients from various walks of life and with myriads of problems or mental and emotional challenges.

Therapy may be long-termed analytical experiences or encounters or brief problem-oriented treatment/intervention. Whatever the case, these consultations and in-depth interactions and activities between a practitioner therapist and the client in most cases, are beneficial (Mutha, 2002). It is therefore wrong to argue that with or without treatment patients recover or improve because subtle issues are overlooked with this statement or findings. Firstly, studies were done with findings that were more correlational rather than experimental (Mutha, 2002).

Secondly, the element of catharsis is a powerful ingredient or element of the healing process and many of those without seeking professional help happened to be with a support group whose experiences were years of gaining knowledge and skills from the experts and experienced counselors (Mutha, 2002). It is true that there have been substantial evidences as well that improvement with cases have occurred; these are usually attributed the aforementioned reasons. Specifically, psychotherapy enables a client or patient to help ease his anxiety, managing his fears from the mundane or petty to the horrific.

Quality of life, wellness and recovery are primary goals aside from the usual notion that psychotherapy is just a crutch for someone who may not actually have a real psychological problem (Snyder et al, 2000). This last phrase is true for some people who needed more than the advice or the listening ear; precisely, they needed a human ace who is intent on knowing and understanding them. Personality cognitive theories are concerned with constructive alternativism with which the alternative scientific constructs may provide a useful view of the world.

George Kelly’s the Psychology or Personal Construct Social cognitive theories explain personality as a reciprocal interaction among behavior involving observation, cognition including self-efficacy, and environment making a chance encounter and fortuitous events (Feist and Feist, 2006). Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory Cognitive social learning theories describe behavior as a function of the expectation of reinforcements and strength of needs satisfied by those reinforcements.

Behavior is shaped by the interactions of person variables such as competencies, encoding, strategies, expectancies, values and goals, and the self-regulatory system with situation variables (Feist and Feist, 2006). Behavioral Model The Behavioral model utilizes what is termed as the learning theory posited by Skinner and Watson and the rest of the Behaviorism school. It assumes that the principles in learning i. e. , conditioning (Associative and Operant) are effective means to effect change in an individual. Generally, the thrust of this theoretical perspective is focused on the symptoms that a person is experiencing.

Just as many of the errors of the patterns of behavior come from learning from the environment, it is also assumed that an individual will be able to unlearn some if not all these by using the techniques as applied based on the learning principles. To a certain extent this still works: reinforcements are effective to some extent and in some or many people this stance can be separate or distinct from the Cognitive-Behavioral approach. In behavior therapy therefore, thoughts, feelings and all those “malfunctioning” and unwanted manifestations revealed in one’s activities can be unlearned and the work of a behavior therapist.

The basic concepts include “extinguishing” – utilized when maladaptive patterns are then weakened and removed and in their place habits that are healthy are established (developed and strengthened) in a series or progressive approach called “successive approximations. When these (factors) are reinforced such as through rewards in intrinsic and extrinsic means, the potential of a more secure and steady change in behavior is developed and firmly established (Corey, 2005).

Although few psychologists today would regard themselves as strict behaviorists, behaviorism has been very influential in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. There are different emphases within this discipline though. Some behaviorists contend plainly that the observation of behavior is the best or most expedient method of exploring psychological and cognitive processes. Others consider that it is in reality the only way of examining such processes, while still others argue that behavior itself is the only appropriate subject of psychology, and that familiar psychological terms such as belief only refer to behavior.

Albert Bandura’s social cognitive approach grew out of this movement. Bandura’s method emphasizes cognitive processes over and above observable behavior, concentrating on not only the influence of the person’s upbringing for example, but also “observation, imitation, and thought processes” (Corey, 2005). Cognitive-Behavioral Model Beck’s Cognitive Therapy The Beck’s Cognitive therapy is one of the most popular and widely studied therapies in the market today and countless times proven the effectiveness of the treatment style or the kind of interventions that had been favored by the doctors.

Its stance boils down to appreciating the effects of biology, emotions and environment on the individual and pursues changes in those levels (Padesky and Mooney, 1990). There are various adaptations or revisions of the strategy today and remains to be top of the list in mental institutions all over the world. In the cognitive approach alone, it understands that an individual at varying times in his life has error-filled thinking patterns. These patterns may include wishful thinking, unrealistic expectations, constant reliving and living in the past or even beyond the present and into the future, and overgeneralizing.

These habits lead to confusion, frustration and eventual constant disappointment. This therapeutic approach stresses or accentuates the rational or logical and positive worldview: a viewpoint that takes into consideration that we are problem-solvers, have options in life and not that we are always left with no choice as many people think. It also looks into the fact that because we do have options then there are many things that await someone who have had bad choices in the past, and therefore can look positively into the future.

Cognitive-Behavioral approach “facilitates a collaborative relationship between the patient and therapist” (Ellis & Beck in Corey, 2004). For the Cognitive Behaviorist viewpoint, issues are dealt directly in a practical way. Here the client is enlightened as to the patterns of his thinking and the errors of these thoughts which bore fruit in his attitudes and behavior. His/her thoughts and beliefs have connections on his/her behavior and must therefore be “reorganized. ” For instance, the ways that a client looks at an issue of his/her life will direct the path of his reactivity to the issue.

When corrected at this level, the behavior follows automatically (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). The systems theory portion of the therapy indicates that whatever is occurring or happening is not isolated but is a working part of a bigger context. In the family systems approach then, no individual person can be understood when removed from his relationships whether in the present or past, and this is specially focused on the family he belongs to (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy postulated primarily by Ellis and Beck “facilitates a collaborative relationship between the patient and therapist.

With the idea that the counselor and patient together cooperate to attain a trusting relationship and agree which problems or issues need to come first in the course of the therapy. For the Cognitive Behaviorist Therapist, the immediate and presenting problem that the client is suffering and complaining from takes precedence and must be addressed and focused in the treatment. There is instantaneous relief from the symptoms, and may be encouraged or spurred on to pursue in-depth treatment and reduction of the ailments where possible.

The relief from the symptoms from the primary problem or issue will inspire the client to imagine or think that change is not impossible after all. In this model, issues are dealt directly in a practical way. In the cognitive approach alone, the therapist understands that a client or patient comes into the healing relationship and the former’s role is to change or modify the latter’s maladjusted or error-filled thinking patterns. These patterns may include wishful thinking, unrealistic expectations, constant reliving and living in the past or even beyond the present and into the future, and overgeneralizing.

These habits lead to confusion, frustration and eventual constant disappointment. This therapeutic approach stresses or accentuates the rational or logical and positive worldview: a viewpoint that takes into consideration that we are problem-solvers, have options in life and not that we are always left with no choice as many people think. It also looks into the fact that because we do have options then there are many things that await someone who have had bad choices in the past, and therefore can look positively into the future.

Just as the cognitive-behavioral model also recognizes the concept of insight as well, this is only a matter of emphasis or focus. In behavioral/cognitive-behavioral therapies the focus is on the modification or control of behavior and insight usually becomes a tangential advantage. Techniques include CBT through such strategy as cognitive restructuring and the current frequently used REBT for Rational Emotive-Behavior Therapy where irrational beliefs are eliminated by examining them in a rational manner (Corey, 2004; Davison and Neale, 2001).

Whereas in insight therapies the focus or emphasis is on the patient’s ability in understanding his/her issues basing on his inner conflicts, motives and fears. In the cognitive approach alone, the therapist understands that a client or patient comes into the healing relationship and the former’s role is to change or modify the latter’s maladjusted or error-filled thinking patterns. These patterns may include wishful thinking, unrealistic expectations, constant reliving and living in the past or even beyond the present and into the future, and overgeneralizing.

These habits lead to confusion, frustration and eventual constant disappointment. This therapeutic approach stresses or accentuates the rational or logical and positive worldview: a viewpoint that takes into consideration that we are problem-solvers, have options in life and not that we are always left with no choice as many people think. It also looks into the fact that because we do have options then there are many things that await someone who have had bad choices in the past, and therefore can look positively into the future (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004).

Coaching the patient on the step by step procedure of CBT is a basic and fundamental ingredient. Here the client is enlightened as to the patterns of his thinking and the errors of these thoughts which bore fruit in his attitudes and behavior. His/her thoughts and beliefs have connections on his/her behavior and must therefore be “reorganized. ” For instance, the ways that a client looks at an issue of his/her life will direct the path of his reactivity to the issue. When corrected at this level, the behavior follows automatically (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004).


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