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Development from conception to age 16 years Essay

E1.

0-3 – Social and Emotional.

Babies around the age of 0-3 will learn how to make eye contact, smile and laugh at others, this will get adults attention and start to form good bonds between the baby and mother. Within social development children learn to make friends and understand the importance of social development skills which will help them success in their personal and professional lives. Babies start to socialise and from bond attachments with people who they normally see the most such as their parents and other family members. Children start to understand all different kinds of social skills. For example, babies and young toddlers will learn to share and take turns during activities and normal everyday routines. Babies need a lot of stimulation in order for their brain to develop and to make opportunities to physically use their body. As babies gradually get older and get to the age of 2, you will realise that they start to change and feel a lot more emotions in themselves, such as temper tantrums.

0-3 – Language and Communication.

Babies around the age of 0-3 will experience how to communicate well and understand how communication works. They will start to recognise people’s voices such as their parents and other family members. By being able to recognise their voices will help babies realise who they are and who they should turn to. As babies start growing up they can understand different words and sounds that come from their parents in order to start saying things themselves, such as ‘mama’ or ‘dada’. You will find that babies often talk to themselves but as a parent it may be difficult to try understand what they are saying or trying to say.

E2.
3-7 – Social and Emotional.

Children at the age of 3-7 will have much more of an understanding of their social and emotional development than when they were a baby. Children react differently and will have gained a lot more understanding of what social development is all about. For example children at this age will know a lot more about sharing and taking turns during activities. For example they will realise that sharing and taking turns is important as they will begin school and there will be many more children in which they will be involved in. Most children at this age enjoy playing and working with others but the very few may like to work and play on their own. Socialising is how children learn to relate to other people and follow what is normal in their society. E.g. Manners and toilet training. Children at this age range can have many mixtures of emotions. This aspect helps children how to learn to express their feelings and how to control and manage them.

3-7 – Language and Communication.

During the age of 3-4 children are able to use language well and fairly grammatically although there will be some speech immaturity. Children at this age are able to form good sentences and start to ask question such as ‘why?’ and are able to understand what kind of answers adults feedback to them. At the age of 5-7 children are more likely to understand how to do things on their own. For example they can say their own name, how old they are and be able to recognise different information about themselves. At this age children will also have a good interest in reading and writing. This is important for children as it helps them benefit a lot with their language and communication. They are able to recognise and understand bigger words which they won’t have heard before. (Meggitt C (2006) Page what…

E3.

Explain two theoretical perspectives relevant to the areas of development. Lev Vygotsky. – Vygotsky believed that children understand language and communication by having good interaction skills between themselves and other people. Vygotsky thought that by the age of 2-3 children should use language to control their behaviour and thoughts. This would explain their feelings by talking out loud. Vygotsky also believed that children develop different communication, expressions and explanation by children playing and interacting with other children either at home or in school. Therefore in schools he said that play was significant for learning and children should help each other through play, this will help children understand the importance of socialising.

Children use facial expressions and body language in order to understand what has been said to them. Vygotsky suggested that thought and language began as two different activities. When a baby babbles the baby is not using babbling as a way of thinking, therefore the baby is learning to talk. Jerome Bruner. – Bruner believed that all children learn by having to make their own choices and having the change to have different opportunities in able for them to learn.

Independence comes into this theory as independence is a massive impact on children as they should learn to do things for themselves instead of asking an adult. Bruner believed that children learn through different activities such as reading, writing and drawing. He felt that adults should guide and support children during activities like these so he or she could reach their potential. Adults guiding and supporting children is called “scaffolding”, which helps children to develop their knowledge and understanding.

E4.

Include three observations as appendices.

E5.

Written Narrative Observation – Narrative Observations is a lot of detailed information about what the child is doing and what you see.

Time Sampling Observation – Observing what happens in a short period of time.

Tick List Observation – A list of things an observer looks at when observing children.

E6/C1.

When you work in childcare settings you are always working with young children, their families and other professionals. You should know that confidentiality is a massive impact when working in childcare settings. Confidential information concerning children or their families should never be discussed with anyone, or written down anywhere as confidentiality is the right of every child and parent whether the information is spoken, written down or on a computer. When working on observations it is also important that you maintain confidentiality.

When observing children it is important that you write down all correct information about the child and not write anything that is unnecessary. After observing children you should make sure that all information on observations should be stored away properly which means in a safe and secure place. This is so nobody is able to see what has been written down about the particular child except the person who is responsible for the child, for example the child’s name. It is also important that the name of the setting should stay confidentiality as it could be passed on to people who it may not concern.

D1/D2.

The observations I carried out showed that child A was confident as she showed she could play alongside her friends, by sharing and taking turns within playing with the babies. Child A was acting out different roles such as mum, dad, brothers and sisters and dressing up. Child A showed that she was being independent by different equipment herself which she needed. For example, she decided she wanted to feed her baby therefore she got out the feeding equipment herself and fed her baby independently.

Child A showed that she was particularly interested in playing in the home corner as she stuck to this for a long period of time and didn’t change to a different activity. She showed love and affection to the baby treating it as a real human and looked after her. As child A was playing in the home corner she made sure she was including each of her friends by letting them join in with her and playing nicely. By playing in the home corner it supports children’s needs by helping them with their gross and fine motor skills, such as children will try out new thing containing gross and fine motor skills.

B1.

When you are working on observations it is important that you plan everything before you start the observation in order for you to look back on the planning and know what you are able to do, and follow everything when it comes to doing them. Talk about working alongside with other parents and professionals… Make sure you are doing the correct observations…

Knowing if the observation has gone good or bad? Evaluate and reflect on them…

A.

There are 4 key components of attachment which are Safe Haven, Secure Base, Proximity Maintenance and Separation Distress. John Bowlby used the word attachment so children could experience bonding with more than one person. He was one of the first people to recognise the needs of babies and young children and a strong relationship with their careers. Attachment is about parents being available to meet their child’s needs and being aware of security within their children.

He said that bonds which are formed at a young age have a huge impact on children throughout their lives. Babies and young children who do not have bonds or find it difficult creating bond with other people may find it hard to form relationships in their later life, but he suggested that is was important for babies and young children to have some form of attachment or bond with their mother Mary Ainsworth also looked at attachment working alongside with John Bowlby. She is also a theorist who also looks at attachment in young children. Mary Ainsworth looked at how babies reacted when they were left with a complete stranger then being back with their parents again. This links in with behaviour attachment.


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